Jet hydraulic turbine
(57) Abstract:The turbine is designed to convert the flow energy into mechanical energy of rotation of the shaft. The turbine blades have a special configuration, contributing not only to the reduction of hydraulic resistance, but also the concentration of energy flow. The inner surface of each blade has a semicircular curved section, and its outer surface has streamlined the plot, smoothly included in the water and out of her, almost without hydraulic resistance. In the lower part of the turbine energy flow effectively concentrated on the curved inner surface of each blade, which improves efficiency. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The technical field to which the invention relates
The present invention mainly relates to a jet-powered turbines used to convert flow energy into mechanical energy of rotation of the shaft and in particular to improve the form of the blades of these turbines to effectively reduce the hydraulic resistance acting on the turbine blades when they log into the water and out of it, increasing thus the working efficiency of the jet turbines.
the s almost never use the gravitational pressure of the water, and convert energy flow, such as tidal or river, into mechanical energy of rotation of the shaft. Reaction turbines are mounted so that the lower part of the impeller submerged in water so that the impeller rotates in the direction of flow using the energy flow.The efficiency of model turbines can be increased by increasing torque shaft power or increase the flow of water coming on the blade. In this case, the torque shaft power can be increased by increasing the radial distance between the edge of the impeller and its shaft, and the amount of water entering the blades can be increased by increasing the area of the vertical crossing each blade or by increasing the width of the impeller. In a typical jet turbines blades radially attached to the wheel rim. Therefore, river or tidal flow in the lower part in the water impeller intersects with blades at the right angle, so that the energy flow can efficiently act on the blade. However, the energy flow has no effect on the blades of the impeller where it enters the water or out of it. When the blades are in the water or out of it, he is and hydraulic resistance, acting on the blades that are in the above position, leaving part of the effective hydraulic energy received by the blades located in the lower part of the impeller. Thus, a typical reaction turbines have reduced work efficiencyThe invention
Thus, the aim of the present invention is to provide such a hydraulic jet turbine, in which the mentioned disadvantages are overcome and in which construction the blades are improved, so that the blades are made with the ability to effectively reduce the hydraulic resistance acting on them when they log in the water or out of it, increasing thus the working efficiency of the jet turbines.To achieve this goal, jet turbine made in accordance with the preferred implementation of the present invention, contains a lengthy sealed cylinder, which has on opposite sides of the side panels has a circular shape, which is provided with an additional panel has a circular shape, installed transversely in the middle part of the cylinder, and the ratio of the radius to the radius of each side panel is 4:5, and the blades of the direction and each of which has a curved inner surface in the form of a semicircle, the specified diameter, equal to the difference of the radii of each side panel and cylinder, and the outer curved surface of a streamlined shape, extends from the end of each blade on the circumcircle of each side panel to the inscribed circle of the cylinder within a distance equal to the pitch of the blades.Brief description of drawings
This and other objectives, features and advantages of the present invention made it clear from the following detailed description with reference to the accompanying drawings, where
in Fig. 1 shows a view in axonometric projection, reaction turbines, made in accordance with a preferred variant of the invention;
in Fig. 2 shows a cross-section of the jet turbine shown in Fig. 1; and
in Fig. 3 shows a cross-section illustrating the use of a jet turbine, shown in Fig. 1.Description of the preferred embodiment of the invention
In Fig. 1-3 shows the proposed jet turbine in the preferred embodiment. As described known turbine, the proposed jet turbine is also used to convert the energy of the current thread, for example prili drocarbon 1 contains lengthy sealed cylinder 1A, with the sides of the circular side panels 1'. In the middle part of the cylinder 1a transversely mounted circular panel 1 so that all three panels 1' and 1" are parallel to each other. The ratio of the radius of the CP of the cylinder 1a of the specified turbine 1 and radius CA each side panel 1' is preferably 4:5 to 4:6. To the outer surface of the cylinder 1a is attached in the axial direction of the blade 2 is placed with the correct intervals. The cross-section of interacting with water or the inner surface 3 of each blade 2 has the shape of a circle, given the diameter of the PA, is equal to the difference of the radii CA each side panel 1' and CP of the cylinder 1a. The outer surface 3' of each blade 2 has a streamlined and runs along the curve from the end of blade 2 located on the circumcircle A sidebar 1', to the inscribed circle B of the cylinder 1a in the distance PP' equal step of the blades 2.The drawings show the shaft 4 of the turbine, the bearing shaft 5, the support strut 6, the balance weight 7, the wire 7' is held out from the load to the bearing, post guide 8 for guiding cargo, floating base 9, the anchor 10, the anchor wire 11.The result achieved with the above mentioned reaction turbines, described below.Kiprich 5, held by the supporting rack 6. The depth of the turbine 1 in water can be adjusted depending on the water level. In other words, the turbine 1 with bearings 5 mounted with the possibility of vertical movement relative to the posts 6 base 9 when changing weight 7. Base 9 is retained by the anchor 10 on cables 11, dropped into the water from the base 9 and thereby preventing movement of the base 9. In the described position of the turbine 1 rotates under the influence of water flow stream, converting the energy of the flow into mechanical energy of rotation of the shaft 4. As described above, the inner surface 3 of each blade 2 has the shape of a semicircle, while its outer surface 3' is made curved and streamlined. Due to the described implementation of the surfaces 3 and 3' each blade 2 in the last place RW gradually sinking lower part of the outer surface 3', which enters the water before the upper part of this surface. Therefore, when the immersion of the blades 2 in water in place of RW hydraulic resistance acting on their external surface 3' is negligible. On the other hand, when the blades 2 of the water in the place LW inner surface 3 is directed downward, and the lower part of the external poligraficheskoe resistance, acting on them, is also negligible.In addition to the above, the cylinder 1a of the turbine 1 is airtight, so the water does not come into it when the rotation of the turbine 1 under the influence of a stream. Thus, the turbine 1 is not effective hydraulic resistance caused by the ingress of water into the internal cavity of the cylinder 1A. In the lower part of the turbine 1, in the water, the inner surface 3 of each blade 2 intersects with the stream at right angles, so that the energy flow is effectively concentrated on the curved inner surface 3, resulting in torque power turbine 1 increases.As described above, the present invention provides reactive turbine advanced design, is preferably used to convert the energy flow, for example, tidal or river, into mechanical energy of rotation of the shaft. The specified blade turbines have a special configuration that is conducive not only to reduce the hydraulic resistance acting on the blade, but the concentration of energy flow on the blades. More specifically, the inner surface of each blade has a plot in the form of a semicircle, facing upward when Potok, which slides down into the water or out of it, almost feeling the effects of hydraulic resistance at the entrance of the blades in the water or out of it. Meanwhile, in the lower part of the turbine in the water, the incident energy of the jet is effectively concentrated on the curved inner surface of each blade. Negligible flow resistance acting on the blade, does not affect the energy received by the blades high working efficiency and preferably used as an efficient energy source. Another advantage of this turbine is that its structural strength of the blades above the known strength of the blades, so that the design life of the turbine is greatly extended.Preferred embodiments of the present invention described above, for example, but for professionals it is obvious that various modifications, additions and substitutions within the scope of the invention as described in the accompanying claims. 1. Jet hydraulic turbine, containing extended along the length of the cylinder, is airtight and has a radius, a middle portion, two ends and outer and inner surfaces, each of which is bigger than the radius of the cylinder, and the blades are placed at regular intervals and attached to the outer surface of the cylinder, each blade has an inner curved surface in the form of a semicylinder, the specified diameter, equal to the difference between the radius of the side panels and radius of the cylinder, the outer curved surface of a streamlined shape, passing from the inner surface of the blade to the inner surface of the next blade.2. Jet hydraulic turbine under item 1, in which the ratio of the radius of the cylinder to the radius of the sidebar is 4:5 to 4:6.3. Jet hydraulic turbine under item 1, in which the cylinder includes an additional panel has a circular shape, mounted transversely in the middle part of the cylinder.
FIELD: hydropower engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in lower power hydroelectric power stations. Proposed hydraulic turbine contains housing with end face covers, intake and exhaust branch pipes. Housing accommodates two rotors and streamlined guide. Rotors are made of made tubes provided with longitudinal cut and installed so that part of tube plays part of plate and other part plays part of rotor housing. Hydraulic turbine is furnished with system including pump, distributing device and pipelines providing pressure of water in tandem spaces between plates and housing.
EFFECT: reduced labor input in manufacture of hydraulic turbine.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant is designed for generating electric energy and pumping of water. Proposed device contains floating base in form of catamaran with channel between housing of catamaran in which water wheel with blades on its outer surface is mounted, and electric generator mechanically coupled with shaft of water wheel. Diameter of water wheel is less than its length. End faces of water wheel are covered, and front profile of water wheel blades is made to logarithmic spiral. Moreover, plant is furnished with water pump, and drive of electric generator is made in form of step-up harmonic gearing whose flexible gear is coupled with end face of water pump. Output shaft of step-up gearing is aligned with shafts of water wheel and electric generator, being coupled with water pump by step-up belt drive. Drive sheave of step-up belt drive is installed on shaft of electric generator. Controllable clutches are installed on shafts of belt drive.
EFFECT: improved reliability and enlarged operating capabilities of plant.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic turbine generators are designed for creating stationary and portable hydraulic plants of modular type. Generators have rotor with central shaft non-rotating around horizontal axis or vertical axis (as version) on which chain drive gears are rigidly fitted, each being coupled through independent chain drive with planet pinion members arranged radially and uniformly around central shaft. Each member has blade reduction gear consisting of gear of chain drive and of large and small cylindrical gears, the latter being coaxial and rigidly coupled with gear of chain drive of blade reduction gear, and large cylindrical gear is rigidly secured on axle of blade installed horizontally for generator (or vertically, as version). Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation on brackets secured on hubs by bases. Hubs are installed on both ends of shaft for rotation and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims being drive wheels connected with energy converters by flexible drive.
EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable operation.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for converting kinetic energy of water flow of small rivers and tides. Proposed hydraulic turbine has housing and wheel with helical blade provided with flange in form of cylindrical spiral secured on blade for changing outreach of flange.
EFFECT: increased transmission of flow to wheel, reduced losses for friction against stationary housing, increased efficiency of turbine.
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for creating stationary and transportable modular hydraulic plants and setting up unit hydraulic power stations. Proposed water-wheel generator has body, shaft with central bevel gear, planet pinion members, each containing blade and shaft with bevel gears on ends, one end of shaft being coupled with central gear. Central bevel gear is rigidly secured on one of ends of central shaft non-rotating around its axis and arranged vertically. Planet pinion members are arranged around central radially and uniformly. Shaft of each planet pinion member with bevel gears on its ends is made single-section, and bevel gear belonging to said shaft and pointed to side of blade of said planet pinion member engages with bevel secured rigidly and coaxially to smaller spur gear of blade reduction gear. Larger spur gear engages with smaller one, and it is secured on axle of blade installed vertically. Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation of brackets mounted by bases on cylindrical housing installed for rotation coaxially relative to central shaft, and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims. Upper rim, being drive wheel, is coupled with energy converters. Central shaft rests by both ends with locking on framework provided with pontoon devices. Invention makes it possible to use river current energy with maximum efficiency at no adverse effect on environment caused by submersion of river flood lands caused by building of dams, energy of ocean currents, energy of tides and ebbs owing to use of blades with two points of support. Versions of design of water-wheel generators are provided in description.
EFFECT: simple design, high adaptability to manufacture and servicing of water-wheel generator.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for converting energy of small water flows with low flow rates and heads into electric energy. Proposed device contains water wheel made up of rigidly connected drum, side walls, blades and hub rigidly connected by spokes with drum, connected by mechanical transmission through reduction gear with electric generator, bearing units, supports, water supply and water outlet systems. It is provided with water holding member installed at a distance of 5-10 mm from lower, in vertical axis, pointed of side walls from side of working part of water wheel and made radially curved with angle of enclosure equal to 150-165° and width equal to width of water wheel. Each blade of water wheel is made in form of plates consisting of two parts, with angle in between equal to 120-140° and ratio of length of one part of plate to length of other part secured on drum being 1/1.5 - 1/2.0, with angle to tangential line in place of contact of plate and drum equal to 25-45°. Number of blades is chosen to provide blade-to-blade distance over outer perimeter of side walls equal to 0.25-0.35 m. Water is installed on axle secured on supports by means of hub and bearing units. Used as electric generator is induction motor connected with automatic control system including switching and measuring equipment unit to which units of field capacitors, thyristor converter and useful load are connected and regulating, protection and control unit connected with thyristor converter unit to which ballast load and field capacitor units are connected. Mechanical transmission is made in form of chain train whose driving sprocket is secured on spokes of water wheel.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, improved reliability and convenience in operation, simplified design of device.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to hydraulic power development. A support arm with a hinge, enabling rotation and fixing the water pipeline in the direction of flow of water, allows for using the power installation as a flow power installation or as a wave power installation. Functional capabilities of the power installation are widened due to use of water pipelines with orthogonal turbines and an electric power generator under water on the support arm. The amount of electrical power generated can also be increased due to that, the blades are oriented in opposite directions for rotation of orthogonal turbines in opposite, unchanged directions, independent of the direction of flow through the orthogonal turbines. The inductor coil of the electric power generator is immoveable, has two-directional operation and is between neighbouring short-circuited rotors, each connected to its axle of the orthogonal turbine. The short-circuited rotors rotate in opposite directions, are fitted with small clearances from the inductor coil and are fixed using lining made from material with low sliding friction. As a result, there is increased efficiency of using energy of water passing through the flow part of the convergent-divergent water pipeline.
EFFECT: wider functional capabilities of a power installation with orthogonal turbines.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric power production devices. The proposed unit comprises a vertical support tower and rotation mechanism, the said tower having lower and upper platforms to form upper and lower water tanks. The upper platform tank bottom has a water discharge opening. The inner space between aforesaid platforms forms at least one vertical chamber arranged between aforesaid water tanks. The tower features also at least one horizontal partition located in the said inner space to make the bottom of every chamber. Every partition forms a discharge opening. Rotation mechanism is located inside each chamber and incorporates multiple buckets and rotary shaft. The said buckets. Feature open parts arranged at different angles. Aforesaid shaft is linked up with the buckets and, in operation, with one of the power generator shafts. The upper water tank is filled with water to be discharged downward via appropriate openings into the chambers below to produce electric power.
EFFECT: unit operating cyclically with external power supply and generating continuously electric power.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: motors and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: motor for fluid energy utilisation consists of a frame with an orifice. There are drums in the cylindrical chambers of the frame. They are installed on vertical shafts, which are cinematically coupled with electrical generators. Blades are attached to the external cylindrical surfaces of the drums along helical line so that front edge of each blade is shifted on one end of the drum in the rotation direction relative to the blade end on the second drum end by 1 or 2 intervals of blades arrangement on the drum. The width of orifice inlet is no less than the doubled blade width and no more than the drum diametre. The exit cone along flow axis is less than the inlet cone no less than in two times.
EFFECT: simple structure, improved reliability, increased efficiency factor and wide range of application.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to designs of plants for transformation of sea current energy into electric energy. Generator that operates at sea current comprises cylindrical jacket 19 with inlet and outlet nozzles 20 and 21, two power generators 1 installed parallel to each other with cylindrical body 3 and external rotor 4, installed outside body 3, and hydrodynamic drive 2, made in the form of blades 9, which are radially installed on external surface of external rotors 4 in both power generators 1. Power generators 1 are arranged as birotating and are equipped with internal rotor 5, installed inside body 3. Internal and external rotors 4 and 5 are connected to each other by means of reduction gear 12, cavity of which is filled with lubricating liquid, which provides for opposite rotation of rotors 4 and 5, and blades 9 are arranged as flat.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at higher efficiency factor of plant with reduction of its dimensions and simultaneous increase of power.
2 cl, 2 dwg