The way to determine the quality of canned feed

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used to determine the quality of canned feed for dogs and cats. The technical result is the reduction of time on the selection of samples, analysis of their standard methods and the development of a single calibration equations for analysis of canned food, intended for dogs and cats, at the same time on all quality indicators. To do this, take samples of canned feed for dogs and cats of different countries producers, prepared from the total sample average, dry to air-dried, crushed, removed from each sample spectra of diffuse reflection in the IR analyzer and simultaneously analyze their standard chemical methods for nitrogen with subsequent conversion to crude protein content crude fiber, crude fat, crude ash, calcium, phosphorus and hygroscopic moisture. Enter to the spectrum of each sample data on the content of each of these quality indicators, expect a single calibration equation the fractional method of least squares using the second derivative and determine the optimum is e relates to agriculture, in particular for the feeding of non-productive animals, and can be used to determine the quality of canned feed for dogs and cats on canning and feed mills, meat processing plants, nurseries, laboratories, veterinary and agrochemical service, and so on, at any stage of their preparation, storage and feeding.

Currently, the economy of developed countries, widespread normalized feeding unproductive animals, such as dogs and cats. Developed and used various recipes canned feed for dogs and cats of all ages, breeds and assignments. This part of canned feed impose a variety of foods: poultry, cattle, rabbit, by-products of animal origin, ocean and river fish, cereals, vegetables, vitamin and mineral supplements, etc.

All foods are usually high cost.

The quality control of the actual chemical composition and nutritional value of canned feed for dogs and cats is of great importance in the preparation, storage and rational feeding them.

Was it obuslovlen.

There is a method of determining the quality of dry food, particularly animal feed, standard methods involving wet ashing of sample sample acid in the determination of nitrogen, dry ashing at the definition of "crude ash, calcium and phosphorus, the sample extraction samples ether in the definition of "raw" fat, etc. This method is time-consuming to perform, on the analysis of each sample for full zootechnical diagram spend 2 - 3 days, this requires the use of chemical reagents. In addition, this method is not safe for performers (1).

The closest (prototype) is a method of determining the quality of dry feed, for example, feed for farm animals by the method of diffuse reflectance samples in the near infrared spectral region (750 to 2500 nm) using IR-ayliation. The method includes sample preparation, removal of the spectrum and calculate the content of chemical composition on previously developed calibration equation.

At the same time can be defined a number of indicators for which standardized feeding: the content of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, crude ash, calcium, phosphorus, salt, moisture, etc. the analysis of glits the large amount of work on the selection of samples feed preparing them for the analyses of standard chemical methods.

Thus, in the development of calibration equations to determine the quality of animal feed intended for farmed animals such as pigs, were selected and analyzed more than 450 samples from different regions of the country with regard to breeds of pigs, age groups, feeding norms and composition of feed depending on the ratio of ingredients. In this work it was spent around 1 year.

Preparation of control samples to verify the obtained calibration equations took about 3 months.

Theory and practice found that the development of calibration equations in the analysis of feed by method of the near infrared spectroscopy is conducted by each species of farm animals and poultry separately, and this work requires a lot of time on the sampling, preparation and analysis analysis of standard chemical methods (3).

The purpose of the invention is to reduce the time for selection of samples, analysis by standard methods and the development of a single calibration equations for analysis of canned food, intended for dogs and cats,tion, however, the analysis of canned feed for different animal species such as dogs and cats, carried out on a single calibration equations, and the preparation of samples of canned feed to the analysis by the method of IR-spectroscopy is carried out by drying them to air-dried and then crushed and propusknom through a sieve with the hole diameter 1 mm

This goal is achieved by taking samples of canned feed for dogs and cats, take the average sample, dried, ground in a mill and passed through a sieve with cell diameter of 1 mm, placed in a cuvette and take spectra in the IR analyzer. Enter the data of chemical analysis for each indicator and expect a single calibration equation the fractional method of least squares. Then remove the IR spectrum analyzed (control) sample and a single calibration equations analyze it on the main indicators of the quality of the feed, regardless of who is the feed - dogs or cats.

A distinctive feature of the proposed method is that the determination of optical wavelengths when receiving a single calibration equations by the method of svodnik spectrum instead of direct values of optical density, allows high accuracy to analyze canned food for dogs and cats on the content of the basic quality indicators.

The sampling and analysis of canned feed for dogs and cats at a single calibration equations spend time in 5-4 times less than in the development of calibration equations for each animal separately.

The accuracy of the results of the analysis of canned feed for dogs and cats by the method of IR-spectroscopy on single calibration equations is not lower than the calibration equations for each animal separately.

The method is as follows.

Example 1. Select the 56 samples of canned food, including twenty-eight (28) for dogs

1. Miocene, meat slices (Italy),

2. Miocene, cold cuts (Italy),

3. Miocene, meat slices with vegetables (Italy),

4. Miocene, sliced beef (Italy),

5. Pedigri, with beef,

6. Pedigri, for puppies

7. Caesar,

8. Butchers, with beef,

9. Butchers, a mixture of meat,

10. Bob, cold cuts,

11. Master,

12. Bigval,

is Pocci, tripe and heart (Germany),

18. Tollison, heart (Germany),

19. Etc.Alders, cold dish of tripe (Germany),

20. Darling, beef mince (Poland),

21. Darling, veal stuffing (Germany),

22. Darling, liver (Germany),

23. Darling, lamb mince (Germany),

24. Etc. Anders, meat of poultry (Germany),

25. Etc. Anders, juicy pieces of beef (Germany),

26. Etc. Alders, juicy bird (Germany),

27. Pete-Bon, cold cuts (Spain),

28. Egle, meat with rice, (Poland),

and twenty-eight (28) samples for cats:

1. Kitekat with beef (Germany),

2. Kitikat with tuna (Germany),

3. Kitikat with ocean fish (Germany),

4. Kitikat with chicken (Germany),

5. Whiskas tuna (Germany),

6. Whiskas super-meat tuna (Germany),

7. Whiskas with sardines and hakama (Germany),

8. Tinka with meat and vegetables,

9. Tinka with fish,

10. Tinka urgent pieces of chicken (Germany),

11. Tinka assorted fish,

12. Katinka and juicy with a rabbit,

13. Katinka fish,

14. Migotto with fish,

15. Sheba with salmon scramble,

16. Friskis fricassee,

17. Vist,

18. Purina cat Chow,

19. Kiplin,

20. Hocutt,

21. Cossi,STN PR-in),

24. Etc.Anders, juicy venison (Germany),

25. Etc.Alders, juicy pieces of chicken (Germany),

26. Purine meat,

27. Kanin, cold cuts,

28. Tollison, meat with vegetables, (Germany).

Conduct sensory evaluation of food, mix thoroughly, take the average sample weight of about 400 g and put to dry at a temperature of 60-65.

The dried sample is crushed, passed through a sieve with apertures of cells in 1 mm, mixed well, placed in glass jars with ground stoppers and stored in the refrigerator.

From each of the thus prepared specimen weighed to determine total nitrogen (with subsequent conversion to crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, crude ash, calcium, phosphorus and moisture. Simultaneously milled samples are placed in a special cell. Spectra of diffuse reflection of the investigated samples of canned foods in the near-infrared region is removed using a computerized spectrophotometer model 4500 firm NIRSystems(USA). The spectrophotometer provides scanning range 1300-2598 nm. After removal of the spectra to the spectral data of each sample is injected, the results of chemical anyh feed.

The range of the content of raw protein in canned feed for dogs and cats listed above ranged from 22.44 to 4-9.81% of dry matter, crude fiber - 3.20 - 7.23%, raw fat - 13.64 - 41.36%, raw ash - 7,55-14.55%, calcium 0.85 - 2.42%, phosphorus - 0.96-1.67 and moisture (hygroscopic) - 4.50 - 10.34%, respectively.

Calculate the calibration equation for the above mentioned indicators of the quality of the feed and select the optimal wavelengths for each of the indicators.

The task of statistical processing of the spectral information is reduced to the calculation of the coefficients of the equation of multiple linear regression of the following form;

Y = In(0) + (1)X1 + (2)X2 + ... + B(N)Xn

where Y is defined indicator of the quality of dry food;

In(0), b(1), B(2)...B(n) are the coefficients of the equation repression;

X1, X2,...Xn are the explanatory variables at the wavelengths 1, 2...n, respectively.

As independent variables use the values of the second derivative of the spectrum at 1.2...n-th wavelength.

The best calibration equation to determine the crude protein has coefficients and wavelengths are listed in table. 1 at the end of the description.

As independent variables in this equation take the second raw protein in samples of canned feed for dogs and cats, set the standard method varies from 22.44 to 49.81%, averaging 37,88%.

The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of P = 0,99.

The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of the definition of "crude" protein on spectral data (spectrum). In this case, this value amounted to 1.15%, which confirms the possibility of the definition of "crude" protein IR method.

It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the regression line is due not only to errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration are taken the results of mass (mass) analysis of canned food, in these conditions, the standard method allows deviations from the average to 1.9%. In this regard, the results are quite acceptable and indicate the possibility of applying the method of infrared spectroscopy for determination of crude protein in canned feed for dogs and cats.

The best calibration equation to determine the content of "e independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives calculated with an interval of 8 nm.

The content of crude fiber in samples of canned feed according to the results of chemical analyses ranged from 3.20 to 7.23%, and the average of 5.14%.

The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of 0.99.

The value of standard deviation from regression characterizing the accuracy of determination of crude fiber in canned feed by infrared spectroscopy method, is equal to 0.91%. But the scatter of the data from the regression line is not only caused by errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. When determining raw fiber standard method allows deviations from the average to 1.81%. Thus, the obtained results are acceptable and indicate the possibility of using the method of infrared spectroscopy for determination of crude fiber in canned feed for dogs and cats at the same time.

The best calibration equation to determine crude fat has coefficients and wavelengths are listed in table. 3 at the end of the description.

As independent variables in this ur"ptx2">

The content of crude fat in samples of canned dog food and cat set the standard method, ranges from 13.64 to 41.36, averaging 26.28%.

The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of P=0,99.

The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of the definition of "raw" fat on spectral data (spectrum). In this case, this value amounted to 1.26%, which confirms the possibility of the definition of "raw" fat-IR method.

It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the regression line is due not only to errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration are taken the results of mass (mass) analysis of canned food, in these conditions, the standard method allows deviations from the average to 1.80%.

In this regard, the results are quite acceptable and indicate the possibility of applying the method of infrared spectroscopy for determination of crude fat in canned feed the s and wavelengths, are given in table. 4 at the end of the description.

As independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives are calculated according to an interval of 8 nm.

The content of crude ash in samples of canned dog food and cat set the standard method, ranged from 7.55 to 14.55,8%, averaging 10.78%.

The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of P=0,99.

The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of the definition of "raw" ash on spectral data (spectrum). In this case, this value was 0.65%, which confirms the possibility of the definition of "raw" ash IR method.

It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the regression line is due not only to errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration are taken the results of mass (mass) analysis of canned food, in these conditions, the standard method allows for deviations from creda infrared spectroscopy for determination of crude ash in canned feed for dogs and cats.

The best calibration equation to determine the calcium has coefficients and wavelengths are listed in table. 5 at the end of the description.

As independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives are calculated according to an interval of 8 nm.

The calcium content in samples of canned feed for dogs and cats, set the standard method, ranges from 0.85 to 2.42%, averaging 1.75 per cent.

The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level P=0.99.

The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of the determination of calcium by spectral data (spectrum). In this case, this value amounted to 0.14%, which confirms the possibility of determining calcium IR method.

It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the regression line is due not only to errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration are taken the results of mass (mass) analysis conservitive with this, the results are quite acceptable and indicate the possibility of applying the method of infrared spectroscopy for the determination of calcium in canned feed for dogs and cats.

The best calibration equation to determine the phosphorus has coefficients and wavelengths are listed in table. 6 at the end of the description.

As independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives are calculated according to an interval of 8 nm.

The phosphorus content in the studied samples of canned dog food and cat set the standard method, varies from 0.96 to 1.67%, averaging 1.27 per cent.

The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of F=0,99.

The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of determination of phosphorus on spectral data (spectrum). In this case, this value amounted to 0.12%, which confirms the possibility of determination of phosphorus IR method.

It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the line repression caused not only by errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration are taken the results of mass (mass) analysis conservera and with this the results are quite acceptable and indicate the possibility of applying the method of infrared spectroscopy for the determination of phosphorus in canned feed for dogs and cats.

The best calibration equation to determine the moisture absorbent has coefficients and wavelengths are listed in table. 7 at the end of the description.

As independent variables in this equation we take the second derivative at these wavelengths. Derivatives are calculated according to an interval of 8 nm.

The moisture content of hygroscopic in samples of canned dog food and cat set the standard method, ranges from 4.50 to 10.34%, averaging 6.90%.

The data show that all the coefficients of the calibration equation are statistically significant at a confidence level of P=0,99.

The most significant from the point of view of practical applications is the magnitude of the standard errors that characterize the accuracy of determination of hygroscopic moisture on spectral data (spectrum).

In this case, this value amounted to 0.50%, which confirms the possibility of determining the IR method.

It should be noted that the scatter of the data from the regression line is due not only to errors infrared spectroscopy, but also the errors of the chemical method. As for calibration taken R the AET deviations from average to 0.70%.

In this regard, the results are quite acceptable and indicate the possibility of applying the method of infrared spectroscopy for determination of hygroscopic moisture in canned feed for dogs and cats.

Verify the operation of a single calibration equations using the above coefficients and wavelengths for analysis of canned food, intended for dogs and cats, carried out on 10 samples, including 5 samples for dogs and 5 samples for cats.

The results of the analysis of control samples at a single calibration equations for dogs and cats is shown in table. 8 (see the end of the description).

As can be seen from the data table. 8, the difference between the data of IR-analysis and data chemical analyses is well within tolerance.

Thus, the data analysis of canned feed for dogs and cats at a single calibration equations are in good agreement with those obtained by standard methods.

Sources of information

1. Marrow D. I., Shumilin, I. C. Gorshkova, I. and other Manual feed analysis. M.: Kolos, 1982.

2. The state standard. Feed, feed, feed raw materials. The method of determining seasnail area. GOST R 50817 - 95.

3. The state standard. Feed, feed raw materials. The method of determining the content of crude ash, calcium and phosphorus with the use of spectroscopy in the near infrared region. GOST R 50852-96.

4. Grishenko C. P. Near-infrared spectroscopy. M., 1997, S. 333, 336-339.

5. Mullard I. Analysis of feeds in the near infrared region in Proc. of Agricultural use of spectroscopy in the near infrared region, 2nd collection of scientific inst. according to the IRS, M. 1986, S. 37-42.

The way to determine the quality of feed for farm animals, including sampling, preparation of medium fineness, grinding, removal of the spectrum in the near IR region and the results of the analysis on the content of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, crude ash, calcium, phosphorus and moisture using specific wavelengths and ratios, characterized in that the analysis of canned feed for dogs and cats spend on a single calibration equations representing the equation of multiple linear regression

Y = B(0) + In(I)X1 + B(2)X2 + ... + B(n)Xn,

where Y is defined by the index;

Xn is the value of the second derivative spectrum of the optical density of the diffuse reflected in the
for the content of raw protein using wavelengths: 2116,0, 1924,0 and 1556,0 nm and the coefficients In(0) = 42,03, (1) = 6142,60, (2) = 850,42, (3) = 1779,93; crude fiber: 2188,0, 2068,0 nm and the coefficients In(0) = 4,87, (1) = 2520,20, (2) = -563,03; crude fat: 1740,0, 2280,0 2256,0 2312,0 nm and the coefficients In(0) = 11,43(1) = 747,88, (2) = 1083,52, (3) = 527,20, (4) = -50,61; crude ash: 2188,0, 1808,0, 1896, 1824 nm and the coefficients In(0) = 11,93(1) = -2227,10, (2) = -4375,91, (3) =305,66, (4) = 5661,88; calcium: 1380,0, 2284,0 nm and the coefficients In(0) = 2,40, In(1) = -281,66, (2) = -44,17; for phosphorus: 1804,0, 1912,0, 1620,0, 1712,0 nm and the coefficients In(0) = 1,58, (1) = -564,98, (2) = 33,05, (3) = -783,58, (4) = -56,12; for hygroscopic moisture: 2272,0, 1388,0, 1956,0, 2148,0 nm and ratios: (0) = 9,07(1) = 602,07, (2) = 264,47, IN(3) = -819,87, (4) = -526,70.

 

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FIELD: fodder industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing protein-vitamin fodder that involves solid or liquid waste in production and processing the natural raw (grains, milling waste, post-alcoholic distillery grains, beer pellets, fruit pulps or whey). Enzyme lysates are prepared from solid waste and starch waste. Cobalt salt is added to liquid waste or enzyme lysates. Prepared nutrient medium is used in incubation of lactobacillus and propionibacillus microorganisms taken by the following pairs: Lactobacillus acidophilus 1660/02 with Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii 103/12; or Lactobacillus acidophilus 1660/02 with Propionibacterium acnes 1450/28; or Lactobacillus plantarum 578/25 with Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii 103/12; or Lactobacillus plantarum 578/25 with Propionibacterium acnes 1450/28. This method provides preparing fodder enriched with vitamins and proteins and containing live cells of lactobacillus and propionibacillus microorganisms. Method enriches animal intestine microflora after feeding the prepared fodder to animals. Fodder comprises protective substances (organic acids, enzyme systems) and can be stored as crude form for the prolonged time.

EFFECT: improved preparing method, valuable properties of fodder.

13 cl, 1 tbl, 12 ex

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