The system of drainage and surface runoff treatment
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to environmental protection in the field of construction, namely, systems of drainage and cleaning of roads, slopes, ditches, built-up areas, industrial sites and other drains of rain, snow melt and sprinkling water. The system includes a drainage collector, receiving and settling chamber, separated by a dam with an overflow bottom hole on the two sections of coarse and fine cleaning. There is a separating chamber with power, drainage and conduit channels the purified liquid, the overflow tray. The filter chamber is filled with natural sorbent and together with the discharge manifold with. The system is equipped with a control reservoir and treatment plant in the form of a biological pond, consisting of shallow bio Mesa and deep pools. In the system of the bottom wall and the filter elements of all structures of the system are made of natural permeable materials having a coefficient of porosity not less than 10% and the filtration rate from 0.1 to 1.0 m/s the use of the invention reduces capital costs, reduces operating costs by simplifying system design and updat the but to the environment, in particular for the prevention of pollution of water bodies discharged from the railroad bed, slopes, ditches, with built-up areas and other runoff of rainwater, snow melt and sprinkling water.Watering, melt, rain water withdrawn from canvas roads, slopes, ditches and built-up areas, pollute natural watercourses and groundwater. The composition of the contamination includes material abrasion cloths road deicing components of mixtures and other substances that fall canvas roads in the nearby area, located in the zone of influence of the road and the soil particles and the soil washed off the slopes by erosion processes.The list of pollutants includes: suspended solids, organic matter (mainly petroleum products), inorganic substances (mainly metals: lead, cadmium, zinc, and others), as well as chlorine, magnesium, calcium, sodium.To prevent contamination of the water body and maintain good ecological status of use of the system of drainage and watering and cleaning of rain water before it is discharged into water bodies. A well-known system of drainage and treatment of surface runoff that contains a rain collector is t, treatment facilities and discharge the cleaned surface runoff into water, or industrial water supply system (1).A disadvantage of the known system is that because of the content of specific compounds with toxic properties, you need to increase the size of treatment facilities, the power required, or to provide for the regulation of the discharge.Closest to the technical essence and the achieved result in disqualification and the watering and cleaning rainwater system is the removal and treatment of surface runoff, including rainwater collector, settling chamber, a separating chamber with an input, an output and a lateral exit of the cleaned fluid, filter chamber and exhaust manifold (2).A disadvantage of the known devices is that they are not intended for disposal and treatment of runoff water, in addition, the structural elements of the system of drainage and treatment of surface runoff are concrete or metal, which leads to high capital costs, and the presence of a large number of mechanical components - valves, siphons and floats - increases the probability of failure, complicates the operation of the system and leads to HC is testout aesthetic requirements of the conservation of the landscape along the roads, it is recommended that the regulatory documents.Object of the invention is the creation of a system of drainage and treatment of surface runoff (rainfall, watering and snowmelt) that allows you to reduce capital expenditures, reduce operating costs and comply with the aesthetic requirements of the conservation of the landscape along the road according to the current normative documents.The technical result is achieved by the fact that the system of drainage and treatment of surface runoff, including rainwater collector, settling chamber, a separating chamber with an input, an output and a lateral exit of the cleaned fluid, filter chamber, and a discharge manifold, equipped with a regulating reservoir and treatment plant in the form of a biological pond, consisting of shallow bio Mesa and deep pools, and settling chamber divided by a dam with a bottom bypass into two sections coarse and fine cleaning. The filter chamber is located over the deep pool, separated from it by filtering the dam from the bottom of the bypass filter is a camera purification and filled with natural sorbent, with drain manifold, settling and separating chamber, relector made gidroizolirovat from the surrounding soils and reported in the specified sequence (input, the output side and the output of the separating chamber made in the form of power, drainage and outlet channels, respectively), in the separation chamber placed downstream tray connected upstream to the power channels and downstream to the drainage channels, and the bottom wall and the filter elements of all structures of the system are made of natural permeable materials having a coefficient of porosity not less than 10% and the filtration rate from 0.1 to 1.0 m/sOverflow tray separating chamber is made of filter material and fills the lower part of the chamber to a height not exceeding the bottom podobravshij channels and drainage channels are located at a height below podobravshij channels.Separating chamber and a regulating reservoir connected in one unit and separating chamber placed inside a regulating reservoir. Regulating reservoir is designed as an open water basin.Below located downstream of the regulating wall of the tank is an overflow, the height of the ridge which defines the elevation of the maximum water level in the tank.Biological pond and filter camera doocy and aquatic plants, and segues into a deep pool, the surface is populated by free-floating neocoregames or submerged plants.On the bottom of shallow bio Mesa and deep pools with peat, clay, dolomite or limestone flour and depth bio Mesa is at least 5 cmDeep pool has a water column is not less than 0.8 m Bottom bypass filter dam filter chamber is located at a height of not more than 0.3 m above the bottom and below the water level of the deep pool.In Fig. 1 schematically shows a system of drainage and treatment of surface runoff (longitudinal section). In Fig.2 - section a-a of Fig.1, in Fig.3 - section b-B of Fig.1, in Fig.4 - section b In Fig.1, in Fig.5 - section G-G of Fig.1, in Fig. 6 - section d-D of Fig.1.The system of drainage and surface runoff treatment includes consistently communicated between a drain collector 1, a settling chamber 2, the separating chamber 3 with an input, an output and a lateral outlet, made in the form of power 4, drain 5 and outlet 6 channels, respectively, regulating tank 7 provided with the separation chamber 3, sewage treatment plant 8, the filter chamber 9 and outlet manifold 10. Sewage treatment plant 8 is coroglen dam 13 with the bottom bypass into two sections: 14 rough and thin 15 cleaning accordingly. The filter chamber 9 is located over the deep pool 12, separated from it by filtration dam 16 with the bottom of the overflow hole and filled with natural sorbent. In the separation chamber 3 is placed downstream of the tray 17, which are attached upstream to the power channels 4 and downstream to the discharge channels 5. Rainwater collector 1, sediment 2 and the separator 3 cameras regulating reservoir 7, sewage treatment plant 8 in the form of a biological pond filter chamber 9 and outlet manifold 10 is made gidroizolirovat from the surrounding soil. The bottom wall and the filter elements of all structures of the system are made of gabion structures having a porosity coefficient not less than 10% and the filtration rate from 0.1 to 1.0 m/s, which use natural aggregates of size fractions of 5-50 cm, presents granite, basalt, gneiss.The drainage system and cleaning runoff (rain, watering and runoff water) works as follows.Surface runoff from the blade road with debris and oil flowing in the power collector 1, and fall within the section of coarse 14 settling chamber 2, which released the dam 13 in the fine purification section 15 settling chamber 2. In the fine purification section 15 contaminated water is cleared from the smaller impurities. Purified from small impurities runoff through the crest of the Weir gets into power channels 4 separating chamber 3. Low-intensity runoff is filtered in the overflow tray 17 and through the discharge channels 5 are in the control tank 7. High-intensity runoff through podobravya channels 6 are in the control tank 7. Overflow tray 17 is made of filter material and fills the lower part of the separating chamber 3 to the level not exceeding the bottom podobravshij channels 6. Discharge channels 5 are located at a height below podobravshij channels 6 and overflow tray 17 is connected downstream to vodosmeshivayuschego channels 6. Regulating tank 7 is made in the form OTKRYTOGO pool, and located below the flow regulating wall of the tank 7 is made in the form of a Weir 18, the height of the ridge which defines the elevation of the maximum level in the control tank 7
By passing water through a settling chamber, a separating chamber and a regulating reservoir is additional purification of wastewater in the body of permeable gabion structures.From deep-water basin 12 water on the bottom bypass in the body of the filter dam 16 hits in polebrook in cases when lowered the activity of biological processes due to weather conditions, mechanical or other damage ecosystems biological pond. Vodopropusknye hole bottom bypass water raised from the bottom 0.3 m Bottom water bypass allows you to take only the bottom water, cleaned of sediment and organic matter. Then the cleaned water through the crest of the Weir 19 is discharged through the outlet manifold 10 into the pond.The proposed system of drainage and surface runoff treatment lowers capital expenditures, reduces operating costs by simplifying the design of the system and additional purification of wastewater by filtration through gabion.The implementation of the treatment plant in the form of a biological pond, consisting of shallow bio Mesa and deep pools, provides a relatively high degree of purification that allows you to dump the water into a water body without violating the environmental situation in the past. 1. The system of drainage and treatment of surface runoff, including rainwater collector, settling chamber, a separating chamber with an input, an output and a lateral exit of the cleaned fluid, filter chamber, a as biological pond consisting of shallow bio Mesa and deep pools, and settling chamber divided by a dam with a bottom bypass on two sections of coarse and fine cleaning accordingly, the filter chamber is located over the deep pool, separated from it by filtering the dam from the bottom of the bypass filter is a camera purification and filled with natural sorbent, with drain manifold, settling and separating chamber, a regulating reservoir, treatment plant in the form of a biological pond filter chamber and exhaust manifold made gidroizolirovat from the surrounding soils and reported in the specified sequence, the entry and exit side exit of the separation chamber are made in the form of power, drainage and outlet channels, respectively, in the separation chamber placed downstream tray connected upstream to the power channels and downstream to the drainage channels, and the bottom wall and the filter elements of all structures of the system are made of natural permeable materials having a coefficient of porosity of at least 10% and a filtration rate of 0.1 - 1.0 m/s2. The system under item 1, characterized in that the minimum level to the height, not exceeding the bottom podobravshij channels and drainage channels are located at a height below podobravshij channels.3. System according to any one of paragraphs.1 and 2, characterized in that the separation chamber and a regulating reservoir connected in one unit and separating chamber placed inside a regulating reservoir.4. System according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that the regulating tank is designed as an open water basin.5. System according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that the downstream flow regulating wall of the tank is an overflow, the height of the ridge which defines the elevation of the maximum water level in the tank.6. System according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that the biological pond and filter camera purification form two sections of the treatment plant.7. System according to any one of paragraphs.1 and 6, characterized in that shallow bio Mesa executed planted with aquatic plants, and segues into a deep pool, the surface of which is inhabited by free-floating neocoregames or submerged plants.8. System according to any one of paragraphs.1.6 to 7, characterized in that deep pool is ment dam filter chamber is located at a height of not more than 0.3 m above the bottom and below the water level of the deep basin.
FIELD: sewage system, particularly combination of engineering structures and sanitary procedures for collection and draining-off domestic sewage water concerned with day-to-day people activity in countryside.
SUBSTANCE: sewage system includes bath, lavatory pan, washing stand, collecting vessel and decomposition vessel with orifices for purified water discharge in ground. Gas relief valve and pipeline are arranged in upper part of decomposition vessel. Above vessels are made as metal drums. Located inside decomposition vessel is filter system. Orifices are drilled in lower part of decomposition vessel and arranged along the full vessel bottom perimeter. Fertilizers from decomposition vessel are removed through above valve. System has connection means formed as flexible couplers to link domestic sewage junctions with above system structures.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability, simplified structure, technology and maintenance, reduced cost.
FIELD: methods, systems, or installations for draining-off sewage water into ponds through underground horizons.
SUBSTANCE: method involves prospecting underground horizon with required absorbing capacity extending into pond; arranging gravity water flow into horizon; bringing water flow velocity up to underground horizon seepage velocity and providing dispersed laminar water flow. Device comprises water supply pipeline and receiving filtering well with waterproof side walls filled with coarse filling material and having narrow neck. Arranged inside neck are water flow deflectors installed below water supply pipeline in several rows and filter widening in downward direction. Accumulation chamber is located at upper filter part. Coarse filling material is located under accumulation chamber. Particle size of coarse filling material smoothly reduces in top-down direction and filter bottom is located below upper boundary of underground absorbing horizon.
EFFECT: increased output, increased quality of utilized water.
2 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; vehicle vacuum toilet system.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system contains one toilet 1 placed in heated room 3 and connected through discharge valve 4 with drain pipe 5, container collector 6 connected with drain pipe 5 and device 8 to build vacuum in container-collector 6 and drain pipe 5. Container-collector is made in form of elongated vertically installed container 6 for collecting liquid sewage. Drain pipe is connected to container-collector 6 near center of its cylindrical main part. Container-collector is arranged in tight contact with room so that it is heated in height owing to heating of room. Container-collector can receive at least five toilet water drains.
EFFECT: prevention of freezing of contents in container-collector in period between its emptying without use of separate heating system.
12 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: control of WC flushing valves.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of control of WC flushing valve in vacuum collector system includes opening and closing of flushing valve by means of control unit at rate ensuring opening and closing time of 0.25 and 0.4 s respectively. Device for control of WC flushing valve includes at least three working valves. Device and flushing valve are actuated by vacuum created in collector system. Said working valves may return to initial position by means of common piston-type rod made in form of cam which is actuated in its turn by piston in cylindrical chamber. First valve actuated by starting unit brings cylindrical chamber in communication with vacuum source in second valve actuated by cam which brings vacuum source in collector system in communication with drive unit of flushing valve and third valve brings flushing ring or similar unit with water source through pipes and passages.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
8 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: water protection, particularly for prevention of water basin contamination with surface water received from agricultural lands.
SUBSTANCE: modular device comprises vertical partitions, which divide thereof into receiving, overflow and sediment chambers. Device includes several identical sections provided with partition chamber, clean water chamber, oil and floating rubbish gathering chamber and has filtering dam installed in intake channel bed.
EFFECT: simplified structure, increased cleaning efficiency.
FIELD: sanitary equipment, particularly toilet system.
SUBSTANCE: toilet system comprises lavatory pan, flushing device to supply flushing water, line connected to the lavatory pan and to sewage pipeline, means to convey pumped-out mass from lavatory pan to the line and sewage pipeline. The means comprise two valves and pressure chamber arranged in-between, wherein the valves and pressure chamber are arranged in line. Reduced pressure is created in pressure chamber to force the mass from lavatory pan and pressure inside pressure chamber is increased to convey the mass to sewage pipeline. Pressure chamber is made as piston cylinder and includes piston connected to drive means. The drive means move the piston to reduce or increase pressure inside the pressure chamber. The system also has electric control means to control the drive means and above valves so that when the mass is forced out of the pressure chamber the piston movement is performed along with bringing both valves in closed state to create reduced pressure inside the chamber. After that the first valve is rapidly opened to provide the mass inflow from lavatory pan into pressure chamber.
EFFECT: reduced water consumption, increased operational reliability and service life.
9 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: domestic plumbing installations for fresh water or waste water, particularly to connect sewage pipes and odor seals.
SUBSTANCE: sewage pipe connector comprises inlet tubular part connected to the pipe and arranged upstream from the pipe to create inlet sewage water channel, outlet tubular part connected to the pipe and located downstream from it to create outlet sewage water channel and suppression part defining connection sewage water channel to create sewage water flow from inlet sewage water channel to outlet sewage water passage. The connector also has dividing tubular part, which forms dividing channel extending upwards from suppression section of the suppression part and dividing sewage water channel in upward direction at suppression section. Inlet and outlet tubular parts are located one opposite another and are coaxial one to another. Sewage water channel defined by suppression section is below the lowest part of adjacent sewage water channels. The connector additionally has dividing pipe connected to front end of dividing tubular part to enlarge the dividing channel in upward direction and lid detachably attached to the front end of dividing pipe for dividing channel sealing.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of odor suppression and prevention of outside odor spreading, possibility to regulate dividing channel height to compensate different depth of pipe laying.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: water supply and sewage systems, particularly for residential, public and industrial buildings.
SUBSTANCE: sewage system in accordance with the first embodiment comprises at least one lavatory pan and/or urinal and at least one sewage water receiver provided with discharge pipeline. The system also has accumulation vessel arranged over lavatory pan and/or urinal and communicated with the discharge pipeline of at least one sewage water receiver. Lower part of accumulation vessel has at least one outlet pipeline to communicate accumulation vessel with lavatory pan and/or urinal. If sewage water receiver connected with discharge pipeline and accumulation vessel is in room located on one level with room in which lavatory pan and/or urinal is installed fore accumulation vessel is arranged in discharge line of above sewage water receiver. The fore accumulation vessel interior is communicated with sewage water receiver and provided with exhaust pump having inlet connected with lower part of fore accumulation vessel interior and outlet linked with main accumulation vessel interior. Sewage system in accordance with the second embodiment comprises at least one lavatory pan and/or urinal with flushing tank provided with inlet valve arranged in upper part of flushing tank interior and connected to water supply system. Sewage system has at least one sewage water receiver provided with drainage pipeline and arranged in room, which is in one level with room having lavatory pan and/or urinal. The system is provided with accumulation vessel comprising exhaust pump having interior connected with drainage pipeline of at least one waste water receiver. Jet pump nozzle communicates with outlet part of inlet flushing tank valve. Mixing chamber communicates with lower part of accumulation vessel interior. Outlet part is connected with flushing tank interior.
EFFECT: possibility of household, industrial and atmospheric sewage water recycling and use for flushing lavatory pans and, as a result, reduced water consumption.
24 cl, 20 dwg
FIELD: sewage systems, particularly waste water cleaning systems.
SUBSTANCE: object (independent) sewage systems include mechanical cleaning device (cesspools) and biological cleaning devices (filters, filtration fields). Filtering devices of adjacent zones are hydraulically united in single filtering device to increase discharge volume and smooth discharge irregularity due to possibility to receive peak discharge volume from different objects in different time and due to increased filtration field area at the moment of waste water discharge from one object because of all filtering devices connection in single filtering device. Some zones may contain no filtering devices and waste water therefrom is supplied into adjacent zones.
EFFECT: possibility to smooth discharge irregularity and increased system capacity, decreased sanitary zones of filtering devices and, as a result, increased building density.
12 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: sanitary equipment, particularly toilet systems used in residential buildings and vehicles, namely in railroad cars, airplanes or buses.
SUBSTANCE: vacuum toilet system comprises lavatory pan, water flushing system, control unit and control button, accumulation tank with pressure and temperature sensors, with liquid level indicator and with heater electrically linked to control unit. System also has vacuum pump and conveyance pipelines. Vacuum pump has heater, at least one environment pressure sensor, conveyance pipeline and accumulation tank pressure sensor, environment temperature sensor, rotor blade temperature sensor and oil level indicating device electrically linked with control unit.
EFFECT: increased economical efficiency, reliability and service life.
2 cl, 1 dwg