A method of creating ice crossing
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of hladotehnika and can be used to create ice crossings, the invention is directed to increasing the bearing capacity of the ice crossing. This technical result is achieved due to the installation under the ice and attachment to him dampers, damping ice. The dampers are made in the form of horizontal plates attached to the ice by means of vertical rods. Rod sunk to a depth at which water no waves caused by the movement of goods across frozen. 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of hladotehnika and can be used when creating crossings on natural ice for traffic.The prior art known from the method of ice crossings without superstructure on natural ice, which consists in preparing a route through early clearing of the ice surface along the intended path from snow to accelerate the growth of ice (1. I. S. Peschansky, "Lagoudera and hladotehnika". - L.: Sea transport. - 1963 - 345 S.).The disadvantage of this method is the lack of carrying sposobnie temperature drop across the thickness of the ice cover from 0oC on the bottom edge up to the ambient temperature at the upper edge of the ice, because with increasing temperature the ice strength is reduced (see 2. Bogorodsky Centuries, Gavrilo B. N. "The Ice. The physical properties. Modern methods of glaciology. - L.: Gidrometeoizdat, - 1981. - 384 S.).The task of the invention is to provide a reliable ice crossing.The technical result is achieved when the task is to increase the strength of the ice cover.The essential features characterizing the invention.Restrictive: ice crossing is generated by the preparation of the ice cover to cargo transport.Distinctive: the preparation of the ice cover is carried out by installation under the ice and fastening to it of the dampers in the form of horizontal plates attached to the ice by means of vertical rods and sunk to a depth at which water no waves caused by the movement of goods across frozen.It is known (see J. I. Voitkunskii "the Resistance to movement of ships". Leningrad: Sudostroenie. - 1988 - 287 S.) that with increasing depth H of the wave perturbations fluid damped and when H > 0,3 L (where L is the length of the th plane across the incident flow) to put on such a deep and attach through the vertical rod to ice it will act as a damper, absorbing vertical vibrations of the ice cover. As a consequence, the amplitude of the VVM, excited by the moving load will decrease. In turn, this will reduce the bending stresses in the ice and a corresponding increase in the carrying capacity of the ice crossing.The method is as follows.In ice cover on the ways of transportation P are drilled hole. Then through them under the ice is placed a horizontal plate to a depth of H > 0,3 L (where the length of exclusive breastfeeding; D - cylindrical rigidity of the ice cover;in- the density of water; g is the acceleration of gravity (see D. E. Chasin "Dynamics of the ice cover". Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat. - 1967 - 217 C. ). Plate attached to the ice by means of vertical rods by marajuana their upper parts in the ice cover. To facilitate such hladotehnika works dampers, i.e., a horizontal plate with rods structurally can be made in the form of drop-down umbrella. After complete freezing of the water in the holes and the corresponding fastening the upper parts of the vertical bars crossing ready for use.The invention is illustrated graphically, where Fig. the holes under the ice put the dampers 3, the length of the rod (l-h) must not be less than H = 0,3 L (h - thickness of the ice cover). After freezing of water 4 that poured into the holes 2, and the installation plate 5 in a horizontal position to prepare ice crossing to the operation ends. The way to create icy crossing, which consists in cleaning the snow from the ice cover, characterized in that the ice surface form a through hole through which the ice is lowered dampers made in the form of horizontal plates attached to the ice by means of vertical rods and sunk to a depth at which water no waves caused by the movement of goods across frozen.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct temporary roads across lakes and other water obstacles.
SUBSTANCE: ice bridge includes cooling plant, pipelines connected to cooling plant. Pipelines are submersed in water and suspended by wire ropes. Cooling plant has reducers for pressure reduction, 10 MPa gaseous nitrogen cylinders and liquid nitrogen cylinders adapted to fill pipelines with liquid and gaseous nitrogen mixture. The pipelines include several coiled sections or formed as straight and finned pipes. The pipelines are arranged in several rows and extend in vertical or horizontal directions. The pipelines are submersed for 0.1-5 m depth and are connected by wire ropes to balloons floating at water surface or to finned pipes driven in ground of river bottom and connected one to another by diaphragms. The cooling plant provides water freezing within 3-5 km range and obtains ice having thickness of 3 m or more.
EFFECT: increased water freezing rate.
FIELD: movable or portable bridges, floating bridges adapted to convey loads over ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: method to transport vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover over ice involves moving vehicle having weight not exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover at resonance speed; moving vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying capacity to ice cover line when above vehicle having lesser weight has moved away from ice cover line for distance equal to 2/3 of resonance bending-gravity wave length; initiating above vehicle having larger weight movement with above resonance speed. Resonance bending-gravity wave length is determined from where D is cylindrical stiffness of ice plate, ρ and h - ice density and thickness, g - gravity, H - water body depth.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of ice cover.
FIELD: floating bridges, for instance temporary bridges for load transportation over ice.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes ice blanket in which vertical holes are drilled for the full bridge structure length so that the holes are located from both bridge sides. Reinforced concrete blocks connected to ropes are inserted through the holes so that the blocks are located under the ice blanket. Discs having diameters exceeding hole diameters are connected to upper block ends. Rope lengths are selected to prevent ice blanket movement in upward direction with respect to initial ice position if flexural-gravity waves are generated in ice blanket.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity.
FIELD: bridge crossing equipment; ferries and floating bridges.
SUBSTANCE: proposed motor unit includes displacement hull with joints in sides, engine mounted inside hull and water-jet propeller, two hinged pontoons which are articulated with hull and mechanism for opening and folding the pontoons. Each hinged pontoon is provided with torsion-loaded swivel hydrostatic shield on external side which is articulated with hinged pontoon in area of its bottom; hinged pontoons are also provided with mechanism for turning the shield; this mechanism is made in form of hydraulic cylinder with rod secured in hull of hinged pontoon. Thrust roller secured on end of rod is received by guide of hydrostatic shield.
EFFECT: reduced resistance of shuttle ferry due to improved streamlining of projecting lower part of motor unit.