Emergency disc brake rolling stock

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to railway transport and can simplify the design of the brakes and to improve the reliability and safety of movement of trains. The brake holds the axle of the wheelset, which is rigidly mounted the disk, and the brake shoes with friction linings mounted articulated on the ends of the symmetrical U-shaped power lever made of a material with thermally reversible shape memory. The lever is mounted on the boss between columns flexible arm that can be rotated by the angle "a" axis and rests on the supporting cross beam of the bogie frame of the rolling stock. Over the boss of the bracket on columns installed rack with spring return and traction control. In the open position, the U-orany the power lever is turned by an angle "a" and the brake shoes are on the brake disc. Technical result achieved is to provide opportunities for effective and reliable operation of the brakes by using the kinetic energy of motion of the rolling stock in an emergency situation. 4 Il.

The alleged invention relates to railway vehicles, and more particularly to those devices.

Brakes are an essential means to ensure the safe movement of trains and use them to regulate the speed of trains on the route and at the service and emergency stops.

As is known, in such cases, for damping the speed of the train is the main type is the friction of the mechanical braking, i.e. braking with friction brake Shoe when exposed directly to the surface of the brake disc wheelset.

Such a friction disc brake generates a braking torque applied to the wheel pair, by means of a brake disk, rigidly mounted on the axis of the wheels and brake shoes, which is directed toward the rotation of the wheels of the rolling stock.

The force pushing on the brake shoes carried by the compressed air pressure on the piston in the brake cylinder through a system of intermediate levers is transmitted to the brake shoes.

To known analogs refers disc brake (see for example: the book "Automatic", the author C. M. of Tatarintsev, ed. "Transport", M, 1974, pp. 12-13, Fig. 7 or "Guide on the brakes", ed. "Transport", M, 1975, page 350, Fig.212, or Reference. Brakes", the author in rolling against thermal stress during braking.

This brake includes the axis of the pair of wheels rigidly mounted drives from the brake cylinder through the intermediate levers is transmitted to the pressing on the brake shoes.

Brake cylinders and the intermediate levers mounted on the supporting cross beam of the frame, a wheeled truck and the brake shoes on each side of the brake disc, on the coupled levers tick type suspended on special brackets, also rigidly mounted on the cross beam of the truck.

The main disadvantages of such a brake device are: a) the device is difficult by design, as it includes the whole complex of additional devices: pipeline, valves, compressor, compressor drive, a variety of tanks, valves, gaskets, etc ; b) to control the device requires a complex, branched electrical connection (circuit) and power sources: batteries, generators, etc.;) separated one from another part of the composition of such brake becomes inoperative; g) is required to install a lot of space; d) there are many and complex elements reduces reliability and increases the cost of construction.

Closest in its technical the RF patent N 2044668, CL 6 61 H 5/00, 1995, in which the actuator is a power lever, made in the form of a symmetrical U-shaped lever, from a material with reversible thermal shape memory, on the middle part of each of the shoulders which has electric heating elements, and the free ends of the shoes with friction pads on the sides of the brake disc.

U-shaped power lever mounted on a stationary bracket that is rigidly connected with the bearing of the transverse frame beam wheeled trolley (see Fig. 1, 2 and 3 of the patent of Russian Federation N 2044668).

The disadvantages of such disc brakes first and foremost is the need for the brake control the availability of power for the electric heating elements that in terms of, for example, in an emergency situation, it is not always possible. For example, if disconnected (off) one or more cars (emergency) and naturally disturbed power supply circuit brakes, and the car (cars) going downhill, increasing the speed, the risk of a severe accident in this case, very real.

Thus known prototype for the patent of the Russian Federation N 2044668 for 1995 for all its benefits and good work in normal mode does not provide the fully condition the gain is the creation of an emergency disc brakes rolling free from the above disadvantage, i.e., the creation of such a brake, which effectively and reliably would work due to the kinetic energy of motion of the rolling stock in an emergency situation and absolutely would not need any additional energy resources (for example, no electricity or compressed air).

This objective is achieved in that the proposed device comprises a brake disc mounted on the axis of the wheelset and brake shoes with friction plates, pivotally mounted on the ends of the symmetrical U-shaped power lever made of a material with thermally reversible shape memory serving power drive brake, which is mounted in the boss of the bracket, and the specified bracket U-shaped power lever made movable, with the possibility of rotation on a transverse axis at some angle , includes the additional balancing his weight and rack, kinematically linked with a return spring and traction control mechanically connected (articulated) with triggering lever.

In addition, the brake shoes is made of metal with high heat conductivity and have on their lower, inner lead parts symmetrical bevels, and the brake disc on the th invention consists in the fact, instead of electric heaters on the shoulders parallel U-shaped lever, which serve as heat when braking in a known solution, heating the symmetric U-shaped power lever from a material with reversible thermal shape memory in the proposed solution is produced directly by the rotating brake disk friction brake shoes on the face (lateral) surface of the specified disk braking rolling stock.

The materiality of the differences is that due to the presence of the swivel bracket on a transverse axis, can be rotated at some angle and balancing load and hours, kinematically linked with a return spring and traction control, there is a new property - the active drag force that occurs when the mutual contact of the rotating brake disc with brake shoes in braking torque.

This property allows the efficient inhibition of rolling stock in an emergency situation when there is no electricity, manually, using for example, includes a lever with a handle through the control rod, when all other brake system does not operate.

duplication of manual control and even remote control, includes brake from the cab to control cravings should be affected, for example, by using a solenoid or the rod from the piston of the air cylinder or other means.

It should be noted that the availability of emergency disc brakes rolling stock does not exclude the use of and parallel to the work of other known braking devices, but only complements them in emergency situations, increasing the safety and reliability of rolling stock traffic.

For technical and economic advantages of the proposed technical solutions include the following: (e) there is no need for braking in a special power: electrical, pneumatic system, etc.; W) simplifies the design of the entire brake system: no need for ducts, pneumatic cylinders, compressors, etc.; C) increased reliability when braking in an emergency situation; and) the device is vibration-and shock-resistant; K) simplifies maintenance and repair.

The essence of the invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 there is shown a braking device on the side view in the initial position (i.e., to turn on the brake); the ku at the time of braking (i.e., in the on position, brake); Fig.4 shows the brake device in the top view at the time of braking (i.e., in the on position, brake);

In the drawing are marked by letters:

- the direction of rotation of the brake disc;

P - force pressing the power lever when braking to the bracket;

Kt- the force pressing the brake Shoe;

Q is the mass of the balancing weight;

B - the distance (gap) between the brake shoes in the initial position of the brake;

In the thickness (width) of the brake disc;

- the angle of rotation of the holder;

The direction of movement of the control cable when the brake is being applied;

D - the direction of movement of the control cable when disconnecting the brake;

r is the radius of rounding of the sharp edges on the perimeter of the disc brake;

E - the direction of rotation of the bracket when turned on;

Fn - force of a return spring.

We offer emergency disc brake rolling stock (see Fig. 1; 2; 3 and 4) contains the axis 1 of the pair of wheels on which are rigidly mounted brake disk 2, the thickness (width), having at its perimeter (circumference) rounded sharp edges with a radius "r".

On the horizontal axis (line) symmetry in the top view (see Fig. 4) Obskoy columns 4 and 5 is symmetrical U-shaped power lever 6, made from a material with reversible thermal shape memory (for example, from a Nickel-titanium alloy).

The movable bracket 3 mounted on the supporting cross beam 7 of the bogie frame of the rolling stock and connected with it articulated with the transverse axis 8. The bracket 3 has a cross-sectional U-shaped and is located asymmetrically relative to the vertical axis (see Fig. 1 and 3): a large part 9 is in the direction of the brake disc 2, and a smaller, opposite to it, goes into the lever 10 (which may be made integral with the bracket 3 or rigidly welded to it), which is fixed to an adjustable counterbalancing the load 11 (rocker) weight Q, using the fastening element 12 (for example, bolts, screws).

Over the greater part 9 of the bracket 3, the cross beam 7 of the bogie frame of the rolling stock is rigidly mounted supporting base 13 with a cushioning pad 14 (for example, rubber). Above the boss 4, columns 5, with the fastening elements 12 mounted rack 15 with the return spring 16 and pivotally connected with her management draft 17 with a control lever (not shown). At the free end of a symmetric U-shaped power lever 6, with the axes of the hinge 18 Ooty (see Fig. 2) have a symmetrical bevels 21 and the distance B (the gap) between them in the initial position, the brake is equal to or slightly less In thickness (width) of the brake disc 2 (i.e. B). The brake shoes 19 is made of metal with high heat conductivity (for example, bronze, alloy, brass and others).

Boss 4, column 5, the rack 15 and the horizontal surface of the bracket 3 are isolated (from U-reverse power lever 6) rigid insulation (for example, of Teflon).

The brake device is assembled (without return spring 16 and rod 17) balanced in the transverse axis 8 by an adjustable balancing load 11, which is then fixed fastening elements 12. Then the brake device is installed in place, the initial position on the axis 8 (see Fig. 1), which is fixed, for example, pins or pins 22, and then to the rack 15 of the bracket 3 is mounted a return spring 16 with preload and control rod 17, which is connected with a rack 15 of the hinge with the axis 23.

This return spring 16, his force Fn presses the bracket 3 for supporting the flexible element 24 (for example, to stoparea bolt with nut), which installation is in a similar position, moreover, the bracket 3 is rotated about its horizontal axis.

The proposed balanced braking device is vibration - and shock-resistant, which is an indispensable quality for rolling stock.

During operation (see Fig. 1; 2; 3 and 4) at the initial time, using, for example, a brake lever with a handle (not shown) control rod 17 is moved in the direction of arrow G and the bracket 3, stretching the return spring 16, is rotated (counter-clockwise) in the direction of arrow E on the axis 8, while rotating the brake disc 2 falls between the bevels 21 brake shoes 19 and further turning slightly away from each other to the ends of the U-shaped power lever 6, with a little effort is between the brake Shoe 19 with lining 20 (for example, as the knife switch is included between the jaws).

Then as a result of further cooperation between the forces of friction between the friction pads 20 of the brake shoes 19 and forces the rotating clockwise , the brake disc 2, a force P, which moves the U-shaped power lever 6 with the bracket 3 in the final horizontal position (see Fig. 3), resulting in a bracket 3 lies with its greater part 9 on the supporting base 13 with amortiz is on disk 2, as a result of friction is the dynamic heat capacity and intense heating of the brake Shoe 19, which is made of metal with high thermal conductivity, they transfer their heat to the U-shaped power lever 6.

When reaching a certain value of temperature increase memory forms a U-shaped power lever 6, the free ends of it will tend to come together (this form at this elevated temperature is laid in the manufacture and forming a U-shaped power lever 6 and the brake shoes 19 will have the maximum pressing the brake effort "CT".

In the result, the brake shoes 19 through friction lining 20 is clamped end (side) surface of the brake disc 2 and prevent its rotation in the direction of rotation (see Fig. 3 and 4), thus producing a braking wheel pair.

Brake force CT very significant and quite provide the necessary clicking when braking, and at the time of braking effort P press the U-shaped power lever 6 to the bracket 3, which through the support base 13 with a cushioning pad 14 passes them on bearing cross beam 7 of the bogie frame of the rolling stock.

After stopping the rolling stock is cooled U-shaped power lever 6 naturally by convection of air (although it is possible artificial and forced cooling by air or water), as a result, achladies to the original low temperature, which is also included in thermal shape memory, U-shaped power lever 6 by removing the braking force CT, will return to the original position (see Fig. 1) under the influence of return spring 16.

This occurs because the mechanical connection between the friction lining 20 and the end (side) surfaces of staying brake disk 2 due to friction between them is now insignificant and return spring 16 with a force Fn will turn the bracket 3 by the angle clockwise and it will hit your rear bevel adjustable in the support element 24, i.e. will be set to its original position. When this control rod 17 moves in the direction of arrow D and install the brake lever with the handle in the first initial position.

Return to the original position possible manually, manually moving the brake lever with the handle in the original position. May o, latch, lock, lock, wire seal, etc. of the way from accidental inclusions.

Most efficient use of the proposed solution for its intended purpose, i.e., as it is the emergency brake of the rolling stock of railway transport, although it may work on other terrestrial modes of transport. We offer emergency disc brake rolling stock due to its compactness and due to the lack of need for additional energy during braking can be installed in every car rolling stock, which will significantly increase braking performance and as a result the safety of passengers and cargo.

Implementation of the proposed technical solutions, taking into account all of the above benefits (see paragraphs: "e", "W", "h", "I", "K") will provide significant technical and economic effect.

Emergency disc brake rolling stock containing the disk mounted on the axis of the wheelset and brake shoes with friction plates, pivotally mounted on the ends of the symmetrical U-shaped power lever made of a material with thermally reversible shape memory serving power pravovovogo made movable arm to rotate on a transverse axis at some angle and includes the additional balancing his weight and rack, kinematically linked with a return spring and traction control, and brake shoes in their lower, inner lead parts contain symmetrical bevels, and the brake disk around the outer perimeter has a rounded edge on both sides.

 

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