Device for sealing cracks
(57) Abstract:The invention can be used for repairing cracks in cast parts. In a threaded hole made in the details in the area of location of the crack, is screwed a pin with a head and threaded shank. At least one of the threads of the shank has a top cavity and a top surface. Forming this surface is located relative to the plane perpendicular to the axis of the pin at an angle greater than 0°. Between the head and the shank is the limiter of axial movement of the pin in contact with the material of the workpiece in the area of the crack. The top edge of the top threads of the shank is offset from the lower edge of the adjacent depressions along the axis of the pin toward the head. Located on the outer thread diameter of the hole portion of each coil is displaced relative to the other part toward the outer surface of the material. By screwing the pin in the threaded hole and the interaction of its limiter threaded holes resulting force of contraction opposite sides of the crack. The result is a full recovery of strength properties of the cracked material. 2 S. and 26 C.p. f-crystals, 32 ill. Nastroenie relates to methods and devices for repairing cracks in cast parts by drilling into the details of the location of the crack openings, tapping into these holes and installed in these holes threaded pins, including pins with external thread, coils which are directed outward from the Central axis of the pin up towards head of a pin.Background of the invention
It is known that materials have different fracture mechanisms. Sometimes the materials are stressed above its ultimate strength and collapse suddenly and completely. In these cases, the material generally is not recoverable and must be replaced. Often, however, the materials are not destroyed suddenly and completely, and partly from education in some places the material cracks under the action of fatigue and stress in these places, exceeding the maximum allowable design values. Quite often at the time of origination of such cracks in the material still meets its purpose. For example, machines of the reciprocating action when the cracks in certain parts continue to function normally, but with a slightly lower efficiency. In these cases, cracks serve as a kind of overload indicators of material and create the possibility of repairs without replacing it entirely with cracks detallada temporary, because they do not provide full recovery of strength properties of the cracked material. Typically, the material in the zone of occurrence of cracks even after its termination has lower strength properties than the material in the adjacent zone of items that may cause future damage items due to the re-emergence of cracks in the same place. At the same time, sealing cracks in some cases, can extend the service life of parts and eliminates the need for long machine downtime for required for the appropriate repair time. Thus the possibility of repair of cracked parts can significantly reduce the costs associated with the need for replacement of cracked parts with new ones.Famous pin for installation in a threaded hole for cold sealing cracks in the material with the outer surface formed spaced on opposite sides of the crack rounded walls, which made the thread with the coils having outer and inner diameters, containing a cylinder with a device for loading pin with a torque that is placed below the head along the Central axis of the pin threaded shank, at least, about the internal thread diameter, and the upper surface between the lower edge of the basin and the top edge of the top, forming which is located with respect to the plane perpendicular to the axis of the pin, at an angle greater than 0o(US 4845828 A, 11.07.89, B 23 P 7/00).A device for braking the development process resulting in melted monolith cracks, representing appeared on the site of the monolith slit forming therein two sides, the distance between which determines the width of the cracks, containing a threaded connection with a threaded shank screwed into the threaded holes made in the sides of the crack, while the threads of the threaded shank have upper and lower surfaces at an acute angle to the longitudinal axis of the shank to provide retraction of the sides of the cracks by screwing the threaded shank in threaded hole (US 4845828 A, 11.07.89, B 23 P 7/00).These known devices do not provide full recovery of strength properties of the cracked material.Technical task, which directed the claimed invention is to provide a device for sealing cracks, low-cost, high produces housego material.A brief description of the invention
In a preferred embodiment, the proposed pin has a head, the form of which creates an opportunity for the application thereto of torque; below the head an annular groove; located below the groove of the flange; and below the flange of the threaded shank. The shape of the head, enables the application thereto of torque, can be very different. For example, the head can be performed multifaceted under the wrench of the appropriate size, or you can perform on it slots for the installation of slotted head of a tool for screwing or give it any other shape that enables the application thereto of torque. In any case, the application to the head torque is accompanied by rotation of the pin about its Central longitudinal axis.Annular groove is located between the head and flange and forms on the pin when the application to the head torque plot with low tear resistance. Therefore, the increase applied to the cylinder and torque to a certain size is accompanied by destruction of the pin is in the area of location of the groove m of the shank and forms on the pin area with an increased diameter. When screwing the pin into the threaded hole of the flange abuts against the outer surface of the part, limiting the possibility of further movement of the pin into the hole along the Central longitudinal axis.The threaded shank has a cylindrical shape, and its upper part adjacent to the flange, and the bottom forms a bottom opposite the head end of the pin. The outer surface of the shank is formed coils cut thread on it. The outer diameter of the thread is determined by the diameter of the peaks of the threads, and the inner diameter of the depressions. The upper surface of the coil extends from the bottom basin to the top of the top coil. The bottom surface of revolution extending from the upper edge of the trench to the bottom edge of the top.The upper surface of the coil gradually ascends from the bottom basin to the top edge of the top. Similarly, the bottom surface of revolution gradually ascends from the top of the trench to the bottom edge of the top. The upper edge of the top is located closer to the head of a pin than adjacent the lower edge of the hollow.When sealing cracks a hole drilled in such a way that its Central axis is located between the opposite edges terminology the diameter of the hole is slightly greater than the external diameter of the shank. Pin virtuves under the application of a torque in the hole until until its flange will rest against the outer surface of the part, after which further longitudinal movement of the pin into the hole becomes impossible.Further loading of the head of the pin point will be accompanied by rotation of the pin and slide the upper surface it turns on the corresponding one of the thread holes and tightening the opposite sides of the orifice, and hence the opposite edges of the crack together. With a further increase in torque voltage in the area of the annular grooves reach the ultimate strength of the material of the pin is cut head.The details of the crack length drilled a few holes after installation in which the threaded pins is a full sealing cracks. In addition, first, to strengthen the cracks, you can use disposable across the crack special locks that are installed in drilled for this purpose in the part near the crack openings slightly greater length. The installation of these locks is certain closing cracks.A brief description of the drawing uwsem the material of the hole (in cross section).Fig. 2 - picture of the proposed pin before installing it into the hole.Fig. 3 is a cross - section of the pin shown in Fig. 2 plane 3-3.Fig. 4 - hole cross-section shown in Fig. 1.Fig. 5 - a picture of a tap designed to cut threads in the hole shown in Fig. 4.Fig. 6 - the image in an enlarged scale of part of the teeth of the tap shown in Fig. 5.Fig. 7 is a bottom view shown in Fig. 5 tap.Fig. 8-11 illustrates separate operations for sealing cracks in the material proposed in the invention method using the proposed pins.Fig. 12 is an illustration of another method of sealing cracks with the use of locks.Fig. 13 - flow chart indicating the sequence of operations proposed in the invention a method of sealing cracks.Fig. 14 is an image with a partial section of another as compared to that shown in Fig. 2 variants of the proposed pin (without further details).Fig. 15 - image version of the pin shown in Fig. 14.Fig. 16 - the image of another version of the pin shown in Fig. 14.Fig. 17 - the image is th alternative in comparison with Fig. 4 option.Fig. 18 is a schematic depiction of the pin shown in Fig. 17, is used for sealing cracks located at the corner of repair parts.Fig. 19 is an image of several pins of the proposed design, screwed into the one shown in the cross-section of the hole.Fig. 20 - image version of the pin proposed in the invention design.Fig. 21 is a depiction in cross section of a variant of the holes shown in Fig. 1.Fig. 22 image in ISO shown in Fig. 20 pin at the moment of placing it in the hole shown in Fig. 21.Fig. 23 image in isometric remaining in the hole of the pin (Fig. 22) after final installation into the hole.Fig. 24 - the image is installed in the hole of the pin, similar to Fig. 23, the remaining part of the head flush with the surface of the part.Fig. 25 - the image of a drill designed for drilling shown in Fig. 21 hole (the hole itself is shown in Fig. 25 in cross section).Fig. 26 is a depiction of another embodiment of the drill shown in Fig. 25.Fig. 27-29 - image sequence of operations for installing a pin alokananda in Fig. 26.Fig. 30 image roughing tool used to cut threads in the hole shown in Fig. 21.Fig. 31 image finishing tap, the tap shown in Fig. 30, for threading into the hole shown in Fig. 21.Fig. 32 is an image of a tap, the tap shown in Fig. 31, for cutting threads in a blind hole, the geometry of which is shown in Fig. 21.The preferred option (options) of carrying out the invention
To illustrate the invention the drawings, the same elements are numbered, and Fig. 1 numeral 10 designated pin, designed for sealing cracks C in the material M. the Pin 10 is screwed into the hole H drilled at the location of the crack C, and its upward-directed coils 60 pull together with each other opposite edge of the crack C, thereby procrea and sealing material M in the area of location of the crack C.It is shown in Fig. 1-4 pin 10 consists mainly of head 20 located in its upper part, an annular groove 30 located under the cylinder 20, the flange 40 located below the groove 30, and a threaded shank 50 that is located behind the flange 40. On resembalence between the inner diameter 64 and an outer diameter 62, directed up toward the head 20. The vertex 70 each coil 60 is located closer to the cylinder 20, the coil 60 between adjacent depressions 80 in diameter 64.The hole H (Fig. 4) drilled in the plane which coincides with the plane of the crack C. In the hole H through the tap 550 (Fig. 5-7) tapped coils with T, the geometry of which coincides with the geometry of the coils 60 of the pin 10. Thus with respect to the surface S of the material M outer diameter A of each round T is closer than its inner diameter B.Using the appropriate instrument for application to the head 20, the pin 10 virtuves into the hole H. the Outer diameter 42 of the flange 40 exceeds the outer diameter of the threaded shank 50. When screwing the shank 50 in the hole H, the outer diameter 42 of the flange 40 abuts against the surface S of the material M, excluding the possibility of a further movement of the pin 10 along the Central axis 2 into the holes H.Upon further turning of the pin 10, the upper surface 66 of coils 60 abuts against the coils T holes H and presses the first round wall G orifice H, located on the first side D of the crack C in the direction of the second round wall 1 torroni cracks D and E are shifted towards each other and are attracted to each other.Annular groove 30 has a section 32 with a minimum diameter that is at a certain value transmitted from the head 20 to the coils of the thread 60 of torque is destroyed, resulting in the cutoff of the head 20. The presence of the groove 30 thereby eliminates the possibility of loading coils 60 is invalid for reasons of strength.Hereinafter described in more detail specific details of the design of the pin 10 and the geometry of the holes H in Fig. 1-4. In the upper part of the pin 10 is the head 20. The head 20 preferably has multiple faces 22, allowing the use of standard tools for application to the head 20 of torque. Preferably the head 20 to perform in the form of a hexagon, allowing to use to tighten the pin is the most common locksmith tools. There are also other options for complying with the head of a pin, in particular, a variant of the slotted head using in these cases, the corresponding tool. Preferably the head 20 to perform symmetrical relative to the Central axis 2 of the pin 10.Annular groove 30 connects the cylinder 20 with the shoulder 40. Preferably the groove 30 to perform in the form of a tapered groove, a larger diameter 34 which (foundations of the bus 32 is formed parallel to the boundary planes of the truncated cone, the form which has the annular groove 30. The diameter of the apex of the cone 32 is preferably the smallest diameter along the entire length of the pin 10. Due to this, when reaching a certain amount of time, the destruction of the pin 10 will occur at the site of the apex of the cone 32, i.e. at the site with the minimum along the entire length of the pin cross-section.In addition, the dimensions of the cross section on the section 32 are selected so that the maximum time that can pass this section was less than the moment that without destruction of coils 60 can be transmitted to the threaded shank 50. Therefore, with increasing time before the time reaches the value, the maximum permissible strength of the threads, there is a destruction of the groove 30 on section 32.From the bottom to the annular groove 30 adjacent the cylindrical section 42 of the flange 40 with increased in comparison with the dimensions groove diameter which exceeds the outer diameter 62 of coils 60 and the maximum diameter of A threaded hole H.The cylindrical section 42 of the flange 40 moves down the cone 46 in section 44 of smaller diameter adjacent to the upper surface 52 of the threaded shank 50. The outer surface of the con is Stevica 50, on which the end coils 60 cut into the shank of the screw thread. When screwing on a certain length along the Central axis of the pin 10 into the hole H of the flange 40 abuts against located around the hole H surface S of the material M, thereby limiting longitudinal movement of the pin a predetermined value. In the presence of flange 40 at some point the pin ceases to move into the screw holes and under the action of the coils 60 of the pin 10, the first and second sides D and E of the crack C begin to stick to each other. In other words, the flange 40 provides a change of direction of forces applied from pin 10 to the hole H.The threaded shank 50 has a cylindrical shape and starts from a smaller diameter 44 of the flange 40, which is its upper part 52, and ends with the end 54 of the pin 10, the most remote from the head 20. The threaded shank 50 has a longitudinal symmetry axis 2 passing through its geometric center. On the outer cylindrical surface of the shank 50 are the threads 60.Thread 60 is an essentially one continuous spiral that begins at the end of the shank 54 and up through the helix to the top 52. Although ascoltami continuous coils, going on screw lines from the end 54 of the shank to the top 52.The threads 60 are the top 70 that defines the outer diameter 62 of the thread, and the cavity 80 that defines an inner diameter 64 of the thread 60. As shown in Fig. 3, the threads 60 have upper surface 66, which is located between the lower corner 84 of the cavity 80 and the upper corner 72 of the top 70. The coils 60 are also the bottom surface 68 disposed between the top edge 82 of the cavity 80 and the bottom edge 74 of the top 70. The upper surface 66 and lower surface 68 are angled upward from the cavity 80 to the top 70. The top 70 and the cavity 80 between their upper edges 72, 82 and bottom edges 74, 84 are located at equal distances from the Central axis 2.In section surfaces 66 and 68 are straight lines passing from the cavity 80 to the top 70. It is obvious however, that when the screw rotation these direct around the axis of the shank 50, they form two helical curved upper and lower surfaces of revolution. Such a geometry similar to the geometry obtained in the cross-section plane of the cone facing down the top during the rotation of the cone and moving upward along its Central axis. Thus, the upper 66 and lower 68 over curved surfaces, having a cross-section view of a straight line.The upper surface 66 extending from the cavity 80 to the top 70, forms an angle with the plane 4, which is perpendicular to the Central axis 2. The angle of inclination of the upper surface coil is preferably 20obut you can select any range from 0 to 90o. The bottom surface 68 extending from the cavity 80 to the top 70, forms with the plane 4 angle . The angle of the bottom surface of the coil is preferably 40obut you can select any range from 0 to 90o.The angle of inclination of the upper surface is preferably less than the angle of inclination of the bottom surface so that the thickness of the threads 60 at the top 70 less than its thickness between adjacent depressions 80. In other words, the thickness of the threads 60, and hence its strength on the inner diameter 64 of greater thickness and higher strength at the outer diameter of 62, which increases the carrying capacity of the thread under the action of loads encountered during installation of the pin into the hole H.In Fig. 4 in detail shows the geometry of the holes H. the Hole H is usually performed in strict accordance with the form of the threaded shank 50 of the pin 10. The hole H is the thread T from the outside. is twistie H has the first round wall G, located on the first side D of the crack C, and the second round wall 1 located on the second side E of the hole H. in other words, the hole H as if cut through the middle of the crack C in two parts.The location of the holes H is chosen so that the crack C it was divided into two substantially equal parts. Thus with respect to the surface S of the hole H is oriented along an axis lying in the plane of the crack C. Preferably the hole H drilled from the surface S to the end of the crack C. However, in some cases, the length of the hole H may be less than the depth of the crack C (Fig. 1 and 4), due to the inability to use long pins 10 or so that reliable sealing of cracks can provide at a relatively small depth of the hole H and the length of the pin 10.The coils T cut in the hole H of the thread is made in such a way that their surface L, U coincide in form with the upper and lower surfaces 66 and 68 of the coils 60 of the thread cut on the pin 10. Thus the outer diameter of A 30 threaded hole H is preferably slightly greater than the outer diameter 62 of the threads 60 and the inner diameter B of T turns slightly preggo pin 10 and the hole H and facilitates the installation of the pin 10 into the hole H. At the same time allows some relative movement of the round walls G and I of holes H in the process of tightening pin, accompanied by contraction with each other, the first and second halves D and E of the crack C. Thus, to install the pin in the hole of the outer and inner diameters A and B of the screw holes H slightly exceeds the outer diameter and inner diameter 62 and 64 of the threaded part of the pin, and after installation of the pin 10 into the hole and tightening the difference in the diameters of the holes H and the threaded shank is significantly reduced or even disappears altogether.In Fig. 5-7 shows the tap 550, used for cutting threads in the hole H. the Tap 550 preferably has a cylindrical shape with intended for application to tap torque head 590 on the top end and the bottom end 552 on the other end. At the transition of smaller diameter 582 tap 550 to its greater diameter 584 emphasis is 580. The distance from the focus 580 to the lower end 552 is equal to the depth drilled in the material of the hole H. the Smaller diameter 582 tap 550, located below the focus 580, preferably equal to the diameter of the hole H before threading it thread tIn the bottom end 552 of the tap have and turns T cut the tap in the hole H. the Cutting teeth 560 have the top surface 562, the bottom surface 564, the outer surface 566 and the inner surface 568. The teeth 560 are separated from each other by longitudinal slots 575, which divide one cutting stage along the tap 550 on a separate cutting teeth. The presence of the slots 575, which gathers formed by the threading in the hole H chips, you can remove the chip and greatly facilitates the process of cutting the thread T in the hole H of the teeth 560.The teeth 560 have the top surface 562, the bottom surface 564, the outer surface 566 and the inner surface 568. The size of these sections 562, 564, 566, 568 teeth correspond to the dimensions of the coils T, cut into tapped hole H. as mentioned above, outer and inner diameters 62 and 64 of the coils 60 of the pin 10 are smaller than the corresponding diameters of the coils T hole H, the size of the teeth 560 slightly exceed the dimensions of the surfaces 66, 68 turns on the pin 10.The top surface 562 of each tooth 560 is formed with a plane 554, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tap 550, the angle of the top edge. The bottom surface 564 forms with the plane 554 angle of the bottom edge. The angle of the bottom edge and A chamfer on the pin.The lower portions of the teeth 560, located at the lower end 552, cut chamfer 570, which forms with the plane 554 angle equal to 60o. The presence of such chamfer 570 provides for the setting of tap 550 into the hole H the gradual increase in the amount of material that is cut off in the hole when cutting it thread. Obviously, for threading T in the hole H in addition to the tap of the described construction may be used and other devices and methods.When cutting the thread T in the hole H tap 550 is connected with an appropriate tool such as a drill, and focuses on drilled before the material of the hole H. the Rotating tap 550 then lowered to its lower end 552 into the hole H and the subsequent lowering into the hole cut in the side walls G and 1 hole H the threads T.Sealing cracks C in the material M (Fig. 8-12 and 13) by means of pins 10 are preferably as follows. First identify the location and extent of cracks C. the Length of cracks on the surface S is determined by its ends N. After the exact location of the crack C is advisable to use the locks 100, installed across the crack (see Fig. 12), as described in detail is Jesse its termination. For installation of locks 100 are special longer than locks, holes 101.Then the entire length of the cracks C are drilled hole H. At this extreme holes H must be at some distance from the visible ends of the crack C. With this arrangement of holes increases the likelihood that the sealing cracks will be implemented throughout its length. The distance between the axes of the holes H is chosen smaller than the diameter of the hole.After that, the holes H tapped T, as shown in Fig. 4. After threading in the holes H are screwed pins 10. Tightening the pins 10 are preferably carried out until the moment of the slice of the head 20 to the annular groove 30. This ensures complete tightness of the pins. Protruding from the hole of the pin 10 is then trimmed flush with the surface S using a conventional grinding tool.Although the operation of the sealing cracks and can finish, however, preferably between installed into the crack and cleaned the pins 10 to drill the crack C a number of holes (it should be noted that this involves partially drilled already installed pins 10). It should be emphasized that these additional iterative (first pass through one free period) so in final form, the pins completely filled the crack along its entire length.Drilling holes H is, thus, in three stages. First, the holes H are drilled at each end N of the crack C and at some distance from each other along the length of the crack. Then holes are drilled in the free spaces between adjacent drilled before these holes every two holes. And finally, at the third stage are drilled holes in all the remaining empty locations of the cracks.After the entire length of the cracks C are drilled hole H, the entire visible surface side of the S part of the crack is drilled and educated sections of drilled holes. It should be emphasized that in any pair of adjacent holes H are drilled hole is not directly one after the other, and the pins 10 are screwed one by one next to each other holes.Furtively into the hole H pin 10 on three quarters of its outer surface in contact with the material M, which ensures a reliable interaction between its coils 60 turns T thread is drilled into the material M of the hole H. After installation into the holes and tightening the pins are cleaned before it locks 100.The mechanism for sealing cracks C are shown in detail in Fig. 1. When installing the pin 10 into the hole H and the rotation of the thread between the coils 60 and coils T creates a force f Under the action of torque effort F and subject to forces arising between the coils 60 and T, the pin 10 is moved into the hole H. After the pin drops in sufficient depth his shoulder 40 abuts around the hole H in the surface S, and the translational movement of the pin into the hole under the action of the moment of force F will stop.Upon further loading of the pin 10 when a force F of the upper surface 66 of coils 60 abuts the upper surface U of T turns holes H. the result is applied to the material M on each side of the hole H, the force F', under which all of the walls G and I of holes H are attracted to each other. In the result, both sides D and E cracks C are drawn to each other. Thus, the pins 10, and the pins 110, 210, 310, 410, 910, 1010 pull together with each other both sides D and E of the crack C, thereby ensuring its termination.In Fig. 14 shows another variant of the proposed pin 10. The pin 110 is different from the pin 10 so that its flange 140 has a tapered section 46 (see Fig. 2), and has sostek 150 closer to the head 120, than the outer edge 142. When the screwing of the pin 110 into the hole H claws 144 abuts and cuts into the outer surface S around the hole H. it Should be noted that such a strong connection flange 140 with the surface of the workpiece around the hole H is to cut the head 120 of the annular groove 130.In Fig. 15 shows another embodiment of the pin 10. It is shown in the drawing, the pin 210 has a head 220 with faces 222 located above the annular groove 230, below which there is a flange 240, to which the bottom is adjacent the threaded shank 250. The pin 210 is different from the pin 10 so that the flange 240 has a shape of a truncated cone 246, located between the large diameter 242 and a smaller diameter 244.Another embodiment of the pin 10 shown in Fig. 16. The pin 310 is different from pin 10 of the preferred option the fact that the tapered flange 340 located between the large diameter 342 and a smaller diameter 344 has a great taper. Head 320 with faces 322, annular groove 330 and a threaded shank 350 - same as pin 10.Another variant of the design of the pin 10 shown in Fig. 17. The pin 410 has a head 420 faces 422, like the head of a pin 10. Annular groove 430 W is 7 shown is identical to the flange 340 of the pin 310. The threaded shank 450 pin 410 differs from the threaded shank 50 of the pin 10 so that its inner diameter 464 is made unstable by the length of the shank and gradually decreases with distance from the head 420.Reducing the minimum diameter 464 along the length of the tapered threads characterized by the angle in contrast to the parallel orientation of the pin 10. Equally along the length of the thread to the bottom of the shank is reduced and the outer diameter of the 462 pin 410. During operation, the pin 410 virtuves into the hole H', which cut a tapered thread T' with a diameter of peaks A' and the diameter of the depressions B'. The pin 410 virtuves into the hole H' up until it turns 460 will not run into the threads T'.At this point, terminated the longitudinal movement of the pin 410 along the Central axis 402. Further rotation of the pin 410 leads to the fact that both sides D and E of the crack C in which the drilled hole H', begin to stick to each other. With increasing torque applied to the cylinder 420 through her face 422, in excess of the maximum permissible level, determining a reliable interaction of coils 460 with coils T holes H', is cut head 420 groove 430.In Fig. 18 shows a corner detail of the material is maintained both sides D and E of the crack C, providing its terminations. Such use of the pin 410 provides contraction cracks C in the absence of a flat surface S, which could serve as a stop for the flange 440.In Fig. 19 shows another variant of the pin 10. The pin 610 is specially designed for installation into a long hole H drilled into the material M with a deep crack C. the Pin 610 is identical to the pin 10, except that he had no head, the annular groove and flange. Instead, at the end 652 of the pin 610 is executed recess 620 under the tool for screwing the pin. The pin 610 virtuves into the hole H through the interaction of coils 660 and T until it stops its lower end 654 in the bottom wall of the J holes H". Further tightening of the pin creates attached to one T-side coils 660 efforts, under which both sides D and E cracks C are drawn to each other.After that, the hole H" virtuves another pin 610, which its bottom end 654 rests on the upper end 652 of the first pin 610. In the result, the upper sections of the side walls D and E cracks C are drawn to each other. This method allows for the incorporation of a sufficiently long cracks C.Another option construtive 10 according to Fig. 1. Pin 910 also has a threaded shank 950 with coils 960, similar to the shank 50 with the screw coils 60 of the pin 10. Pin 910 differs from pin 10 of the flange 912, which differs from the flange 40 of the pin 10. The flange 912 preferably has a cylindrical side wall 914 and the bottom end 916, preferably perpendicular to the side wall 914 and the longitudinal axis of the pin 910.The angle between the bottom end 916 and side wall 914 preferably 90o. However, this angle can be increased to give the bottom end 916 pointed shape similar to the shape of the collar shown in Fig. 14. The bottom end 916 may rest against the surface S, or, more preferably, in the bottom of 714 counterbore 710 (Fig. 21) made in the upper part of the hole H on the surface S.Between the flange 912 and a threaded shank 950 is conical section 918. This conical section 918 forms between the flange 912 and the upper part of the threaded shank 950 free space, allowing you to cut on the shank the same as that of the pin 10, the thread with tilted up coils 960. The outer surface of the conical section 918 formed with a cylindrical side wall flange 914 912 angle equal to 30o.In Fig. 21 shows the Fig walls of the crack C. This hole H has a counterbore 710 made in the upper part of the hole H at the surface S. the Counterbore 710 preferably has a cylindrical side surface 712, the dimensions of which coincide with the dimensions of the cylindrical side wall 914 of the flange of the pin 910. The side surface 712 is located between the surface S and 714 bottom of the counterbore. The bottom 714 counterbore is preferably at an angle of approximately 90oto the Central axis of the hole H.The angle can be performed more 90odepending on the angle of the lower end 916 of the flange of the pin 910. Examples of such solutions are the flange 140 of the pin 110 (Fig. 14) and the bottom end 1016 of the pin 1010 (Fig. 27-29), described in detail below. Between 714 bottom of the counterbore and the upper edge of the thread T is made chamfer 718, the angle of slope to the Central axis of the hole H is equal to approximately 30o.The presence of the counterbore 710 allows for the installation of the pin into the hole to position the main part of the flange 912 below the surface S, and therefore, after cutting the head of the pin and strip protruding from the hole portion of the flange remaining in the hole portion of the flange will hold the threads of the pin and the holes in the stressed state, saving generated by the tightening of the pin S the bottom of the counterbore 710 forms a flat surface, in which all its bottom surface rests against the flange 912. In addition, when the cracked material opposite sides of the crack C are arranged with a slight offset in relation to each other, the presence of the counterbore 710 eliminates the possibility of displacement of one wall of the crack relative to the other in the direction of the axis of the threaded hole and thereby prevents the disclosure of the junction between the coils 960 and T and crack opening.In those cases, when a crack in the material is not perpendicular to the surface S, the hole H drilled in the plane of the crack, and the bottom 714 counterbore 710 is located perpendicular to the axis of the hole H and is parallel to the surface S. In these cases, the presence of the counterbore 710 the flange 912 pin 910 will Balk at the bottom of the counterbore and thanks at the same time in both walls of the crack C. the height of the flange 912 pin 910 is selected preferably such that after Stripping protruding from the hole portion of the flange inside the hole H has left him a large enough portion that excludes the possibility of deformation of the flange 912, which could result in reduced torque pin 910.In Fig. 22-24 shows the technique of using a pin 910. After drilling in rively in the direction of the arrow F pin 910 (Fig. 22). Rotation of the pin 910 in the direction of the arrow F continues until until its flange 912 will not run in the bottom of 714 counterbore 710 (Fig. 21). Further loading of the pin point in the direction of the arrow F is accompanied by contraction with each other opposite edges of the crack C (see above for description of the mechanism of action of the pin 10). When a certain torque level is the destruction of the pin in the ring groove 930 and slice his head 920 (Fig. 22). Then, acting over the surface S of the part of the flange 912 is polished flush with the surface S and for reliability reconceived in the hole H. For a more secure attachment of the pin 910 in the hole H can be used in various adhesive liquid.In Fig. 25 shows in detail the operation execution counterbore 710. For this purpose there is a special drill 800 made in a certain way cutting part. This drill 800 has an inclined cutting edge 802, the angle of which corresponds to the angle of the conical chamfer 718 counterbore, the end cutting edge 804, the angle of which with respect to the Central axis equal to the angle between the bottom 714 counterbore 710 and the axis of the hole H. the Diameter of the drill 800 below the inclined cutting edge 802 preferably does not exceed demetia in the upper part of the hole H of the counterbore 710. The depth of the counterbore 710 preferably is controlled and limited by the stroke limiter drill or size of the conductor.In the variant shown in Fig. 26, the drill 810 has an inclined cutting edge 814 and edge 812, whereby the bottom 716 counterbore 710 is not flat and conical, and has the shape of the lower end flange of the pin 1010 (Fig. 27-29), which in many respects is identical to the pin 110, shown in Fig. 14.Pin 1010 with a pointed bottom end flange is similar to the pin 910 head 1020 and an annular groove 1030. However, the pin 1010 lower end 1016 flange 1012 is located to the axis of the pin at an angle (Fig. 20), a large 90o. When installing the pin 1010 into the hole H, the counterbore 710 which has a conical bottom 716, interaction flange 1012 and bottom 716 counterbore increases the tightening edge of the crack C force F' (Fig. 1), primarily near the surface S. As shown in Fig. 27-29, how to use the pin 1010 is practically no different from how a pin 910.In Fig. 30-32 shows the process of cutting the threads in the hole H. in contrast to the shown in Fig. 5 one tap 550 is provided by the use of multiple taps 820, 830 and 840. For cutting in the hole is deaf, for the pins 10, 110, 210, 310, 410, 610, 910 threading T in it by using the tap 840 designed for tapping blind holes. Consistent use of threading in the holes H, H"' three taps 820, 830 and 840 allows you to minimize the likelihood of breakage.It should be emphasized that, based on the above detailed description of the invention while remaining within the framework of its main ideas and set forth in the claims characteristics may result in variants of various structural changes and associated with specific conditions of use improvements.Industrial applicability
Industrial applicability the present invention is illustrated by consideration of the purposes set out below inventions.The main aim of the invention is to develop a method of sealing cracks in the material by drilling of holes and installation in these holes threaded pins with tilted up towards the material surface coils.Another aim of the invention is to develop a method of sealing cracks, which involves contraction opposite the tree cracks, which strengthens the material in the crack area at or above the level of strength surrounding the crack of the material.Another aim of the invention is to develop a method of sealing cracks, which allows you to completely seal formed in the material of the crack.Another aim of the invention is to develop a method of sealing cracks located in the sharp corners of cast parts.Another aim of the invention is to develop a design intended for sealing cracks pin having a threaded coils which tilted up towards head of a pin.Another aim of the invention is to develop a design intended for sealing cracks of the pin, the head is easily available and commonly used for this purpose the tool is applied the moment.Another aim of the invention is to develop a design intended for sealing cracks of the pin that is threaded with high strength owing to the small thickness and a small height of the coils.Another aim of the invention is to develop a design intended for sealing cracks of the pin, which virtuves in sopronyi the wall of the hole.Another aim of the invention is to develop a design intended for sealing cracks of the pin, which is made annular groove, which, thus preventing damage to coils available on the pin thread, there is a shear pin.Another aim of the invention is to develop a design tool intended for cutting holes thread coils which is angled upwards to the surface of the material in which the drilled hole.Another aim of the invention is to develop a design intended for sealing cracks pins, characterized by simplicity of design, high durability and low cost of manufacture.Another aim of the invention is to develop a design tool with which you can easily cut in the threaded hole, into which you can screw designed for sealing cracks pin coils which are directed at an angle up to its head.Another aim of the invention is to develop a method and device for quickly repairing cracks in cast machine parts without disassembly into individual units and parts.Another aim of the invention is to develop an str is in the details using light hand tools.Another aim of the invention is to develop a design intended for sealing cracks of the pin with which you can pull with each other a wall having an appropriate shape of the holes drilled at the location of the cracks, and to keep these walls in drawn together position after removal of the grinding protruding above the surface of the cracked material of the pin.Taking into account the different purposes of the present invention, the first object is a threaded pin that is designed for installation in a threaded hole, overlying formed on the material surface crack, which has a first circular wall on the first side of the crack and the second circular wall on the second side of the crack and which is threaded with the coils with the outer and inner diameter, is designed so that the outer diameter portion of the coil is located closer to the surface of the material than the remaining portion, with the pin in the aggregate, has: a cylinder with a device for loading pin torque; a threaded shank, located below the head and having an external thread with coils, at least one of which has a vertex that is on rnost, passing from the lower edge of the said top and the upper part of this surface of revolution, going to mentioned the top of the forms with a plane perpendicular to the Central axis of the pin, the angle, the greater of zero; and a device for limiting the movement of the pin along its Central axis, due to the presence of which when screwing the mentioned pin in the hole further after stopping the forward rotation of the pin is accompanied by contraction with each other of the first and second sides of the cracks closed up.The second object of the invention is a tap for cutting in-drilled in the material of the hole threads with the outer and inner diameter of coils, which parts are located on the outer diameter, are located closer to the surface of the material than the sites located on the inner diameter, with the tap in the aggregate, has a cylindrical section whose diameter is equal to the diameter of the drilled hole, and located on the cutting teeth, each of which has an upper surface, a lower surface and an external surface and are separated in the vertical direction from each other by the inner surface, the distance from which horizonis diameters cut carving, and adjacent to the said exterior surface areas mentioned upper and lower surfaces are higher than those of their plots that are adjacent to the said inner surface, due to which the coils are cut into the tapped hole threads are starting from the inner diameter of the thread pitch in the direction of the surface of the material.The third object of the present invention is a method of pulling with each other the opposite sides are formed in the material cracks, providing the following operations: drilling between opposite sides of cracks, holes, starting from the surface of the material; cutting this hole thread, characterized in that the upper surface of the coils is located closer to the surface of the material at the outer thread diameter than its inner diameter; screwing into the hole of the pin, which has a head, a shoulder, a diameter which exceeds the diameter of the hole, and the thread with the coils, the upper surface which is located closer to the cylinder on the outer diameter of the thread, than its inner diameter, up until the flange reaches the adjacent hole in the surface of the material.These and other aseevadanay above description and the attached drawings. 1. Pin for installation in a threaded hole for cold sealing cracks in the material with the outer surface formed spaced on opposite sides of the crack rounded walls, which made the thread with the coils having outer and inner diameters, containing a cylinder with a device for loading pin with a torque that is placed below the head along the Central axis of the pin threaded shank, at least one of the coils which has a top that defines the outer diameter of the threaded shank, the cavity defining an inner diameter, and an upper surface located between the lower edge of the basin and the top edge of the top, forming which is located with respect to the plane perpendicular to the axis of the pin, at an angle greater than 0°, characterized in that it is provided with a limiter of axial movement of the pin, is placed between the head and threaded shank in contact with the material in the crack area for creating the effort of pulling opposite sides of the crack by screwing the pin in the threaded hole and the engagement of the stopper with its thread, the top edge of the top threads of the threaded shank offset from the bottom edge Sosa is the actu each coil is displaced relative to the other part toward the outer surface of the material.2. Pin under item 1, characterized in that it is equipped located between the head and threaded shank annular groove with the cutting element to cut the head when loading its time, the value of which exceeds the maximum allowed for the turns of the screw shank.3. Pin under item 2, wherein the shear element is an annular groove made in the form of an annular groove, the diameter of which is smaller than the inner diameter of the thread of the shank, to provide a cut head in the area of the grooves to a possible failure of the threaded shank and stop axial movement of the pin is made in the form located between the head and threaded shank annular flange, the diameter of which exceeds the outer diameter of the threaded hole in the material.4. The pin according to any one of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the outer thread diameter of the threaded shank is made smaller than the outer thread diameter of the hole, from the condition of education by screwing into the hole of the gap between the tops of the threads of the shank and threaded holes on the outside diameter, providing the possibility of relative sliding of the threads of the pin and chamfer holes, accompanied by the ins.5. The pin according to any one of paragraphs. 1-4, characterized in that the angle of inclination of the upper surface of the threads of the threaded shank to the plane perpendicular to the axis of the pin, does not exceed the angle between this plane and the bottom surface of coils located between the upper edge of the trough and the bottom edge of the top.6. Pin on p. 5, characterized in that the angle of inclination of the upper surface of the threads of the threaded shank to the plane perpendicular to the axis of the pin, is in the range from 5 to 45°, and the angle of inclination to the same plane as the bottom surface of the coil is in the range from 10 to 70°.7. The pin according to any one of paragraphs. 1-6, characterized in that the top threads of the threaded shank and the cavity in the area between the top and bottom edges are made in the form of a cylindrical surface for increasing the thickness of the threads of the threaded shank and the hole in the material, increasing their strength and increase in force of contraction cracks.8. The pin according to any one of paragraphs. 1-7, characterized in that the screw shank is made in the form of a cone, the larger base of which is situated on the side of the head, for screwing into the conical threaded hole.9. Pin on p. bojomu shank and has a diameter, equal to the inner diameter of the thread of the latter, and more base - paired with the annular groove and has a diameter greater than the outer thread diameter of the threaded shank, to ensure tightening opposite sides of the crack by screwing the pin into the hole until the stop flange in the outer surface of the material, which results in stopping further axial movement of the pin and extra turning.10. Pin on p. 3, characterized in that the annular collar is made with on his side, paired with a threaded shank, and a pointed annular ledge for cutting into the material around the hole when screwing in the pin and securing the sealing material.11. Pin on p. 3, characterized in that mated with the threaded shank end of the annular flange is made in a plane located perpendicular to the Central axis of the pin, to prevent loading of the walls of the cracks effort, seeking to reveal it by screwing the pin into the hole.12. Pin on p. 11, characterized in that the annular flange is made with a tapered section, a large base flange and smaller - threaded shank of the conditions therein thread.13. Device for braking the development process resulting in melted monolith cracks, representing appeared on the site of the monolith slit forming therein two sides, the distance between which determines the width of the cracks, containing a threaded connection with a threaded shank screwed into the threaded holes made in the sides of the crack, while the threads of the threaded shank have upper and lower surfaces at an acute angle to the longitudinal axis of the shank to provide retraction of the sides of the cracks by screwing the threaded shank in threaded hole, characterized in that which the threaded shank is made with the adjacent surface of the molded monolith section to limit axial movement of the shank in the threaded hole and the further contraction of the sides of the cracks. flange and the cylinder, an annular groove, in which the shear pin and separating his head from the threaded shank flange when the excess is applied to pin the efforts of magnitude, providing closure of the cracks.14. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that the threaded connection includes a pin on which is threaded the shank part, and thread the screw holes formed in at least one threaded coil located on both sides of the crack and having a step profile, the appropriate step and the thread profile of the shank.15. The device according to p. 14, characterized in that adjacent to the surface of the cast monolith section is intended to prevent axial movement of the pin and the formation of a strong and fixed connection of the two sides of the crack between themselves and with the pin upon further loading of the pin torque.16. The device according to p. 14, characterized in that the threaded section of the shank for limiting the axial movement is made in the form located in the upper part of the shank flange, the diameter of which exceeds the diameter of the shank, with the said flange overlaps the crack, down to one side on one side of the crack, and the second side on the second side of the crack to ensure tightening both sides of the crack, stopping their relative displacement and prevent their vertical position.17. The device according to p. 16, characterized in that the threaded shank of the pin is made in the form of a solid Central rod, the diameter of which equals wohnste, located between the Central rod and the upper edge of the coil and forming with the plane perpendicular to the Central axis of the pin, angle, whose value is greater than 0° but less than 90°.18. The device under item 17, characterized in that thread the screw holes made with two upper surfaces located on either side of cracks parallel to the top surface of the threads of the shaft with the opportunity to interact with her after stopping axial movement of the pin into the hole.19. The device under item 18, characterized in that the flange of the pin is made in the form of a cone, and a threaded hole is made with a counterbore to accommodate the above-mentioned collar.20. The device under item 18, characterized in that the collar is made with located at its bottom end with a sharpened annular ledge.21. The device under item 18, characterized in that the pin is made with a head designed for rotation of the pin and located between the flange and the cylinder, an annular groove, in which the shear pin and separating his head from the threaded shank flange when the excess is applied to pin the efforts of magnitude, providing closure of the cracks.22. From the displacement of the pin in the threaded hole and the further contraction of the sides of the cracks designed in the form of the lower end of the threaded shank, installed in contact with the bottom of a blind hole, to ensure the force interaction between the turns of the thread of the bore and shank.23. The device according to p. 22, characterized in that it is provided with an additional pin, set deep in the threaded hole above the main pin in contact with the lower end of the threaded shank addressed to him with the upper face of the main pin to ensure tightening the upper parts of the sides of the crack, as well as inhibition of their relative displacement and prevent vertical shift.24. The device under item 18, characterized in that the Central rod threaded shank made in the form of a cone, the vertex of which is directed downward, and the thread of the threaded shank is made conical with pointed tops of the coils that are located on a conical surface parallel to the conical surface of the Central rod.25. The device according to p. 24, characterized in that the threaded pin is made in the form located on the lateral surface of the rod protruding coils formed by the upper and lower surfaces, the first of which is located with respect to the plane perpendicular to the axis of the pin, angled, large 0° and ptocheia fact, the thread of the pin is made in the form located on the lateral surface of the rod protruding coils formed by the upper and lower surfaces, the latter of which is located below the upper surface at an angle greater 0° relative to the plane perpendicular to the axis of the pin, and at an angle greater than the angle between the plane and the upper surface of the thread.27. The device under item 26, characterized in that the tops of the coils formed by the intersection of the upper and lower surfaces in the form of a helical surface, parallel to the side surface of the Central rod threaded shank.28. The device according to p. 27, characterized in that the Central core pin has a cylindrical shape.Priority points:
16.06.93 on PP.1 - 28.
FIELD: restoration of parts cast of aluminum alloys with use of fusion welding.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of cutting out flaw containing portion spaced equidistantly by distance (3 - 8)n from boundary of flaw; making insert of deformed aluminum alloy welded with casting alloy of restored part at relation of coefficients of percentage elongation Gd/Gc = 9 - 25, where Gd and Gc coefficients of percentage elongation respectively of deformed and casting aluminum alloys, n - thickness of cast part in restoration zone.
EFFECT: lowered labor consumption at restoring parts of aluminum alloys.
3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: metal working, namely correction of flaws of metals such as aluminum and its alloys, possibly in nuclear industry branch at making fuel elements, in machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of fusing flaw by means of electron beam along path in the form of eight-end star; providing variable according to cyclogram electric current values of beam, time periods of acting upon surface, frequency and amplitude of scanning. Decision unit provides control of said parameters according to demands for welding zone parameters such as depth of welding through, width of welded seam, depth of shrinkage recess in center of seam, trend of seam to occurring of shrinkage cracking. It is realized with use of model equations for each parameters of welding zone.
EFFECT: enhanced stability of quality characteristics, increased strength of welded seam, lowered number of rejections caused by welding process, flexible control in case of changing demands to welded seam.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: mechanical engineering; instrumentation engineering; repair of surface and under-surface defects in metals and alloys in form of pores and micro-cracks of structural and technological nature.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in revealing defects and forming flaw-free zone by repeated action on section under test by laser beam at simultaneous monitoring of quality; flaw-free zone is formed by melting the surface layer at simultaneous active location of near-surface layer of section treated by surface acoustic waves arising on section being treated at generation of laser plasma; generation of laser plasma is monitored till reaching preset minimum of amplitude difference of two adjacent pulses of acoustic waves, after which surface is again shifted relative to laser beam. Laser beam is simulated in space in plane of focusing on surface of metal.
EFFECT: hardening of metals at hidden flaws; increased productivity.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: welding and surfacing, namely forming melt surfaced part on main material, possibly monocrystalline or crystalline material produced by directional crystallization, restoration processes of defective zone of main material, joining methods of main material with additional one, restoration of turbine blades, air-jet engines and other machines of similar designation.
SUBSTANCE: welding is realized for forming on main material large number of surfaced portions while keeping preliminarily set gaps between adjacent surfaced portions. Then surfaced portions are formed in each gap. Main material is monocrystal received by directional crystallization. Surfaced portion is formed in direction normal to crystal growth direction of main material. At joining additional material with main, crystalline or monocrystalline material, all said operations are realized. At restoring, defective portion of cast metal is removed and respective concave portion is formed on surface of cast metal and it is filled with surfacing metal.
EFFECT: improved strength of surfaced parts due to elimination of cracking.
23 cl, 23 dwg
FIELD: process for restoring metallic surfaces by surfacing, possibly at removing flaws of machine part surface at repairing.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of taking out flaw before surfacing and deforming edges of turned out zone for forming on worked surface shoulder with height 0.3 - 0.5 mm and with width 2 - 3 mm. Then surfacing is performed till half of shoulder width. Then surfaced metal is taken out till level of worked surface.
EFFECT: improved quality of worked surface.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: welding production process, possibly flaw correction of castings of nickel-base high-alloy refractory alloys.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of hot gas-static compaction of castings; separating flaw containing casing portion having surface micro-porosity just before compaction; subjecting said portion of sand-blast treatment; then spraying onto it coating whose chemical content is almost the same as of casting material; performing heat treatment of casting in vacuum at temperature lower than temperature of alloy homogenizing; rayed coating has thickness no less than 200 - 300 micrometers.
EFFECT: reliable effective correction of flaws of casting of gas turbine engine blades.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: restoration of surface of metals by surfacing process, possibly removing flaws of machine part surfaces at restoring them.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of taking up flaw before surfacing; deforming edges of taken up zone for forming on worked surface bead with height 0.3 - 0.5 mm and width 2 - 3 mm; performing surfacing operation whose boundary achieves half of bead width; removing surfaced metal till level of worked surface.
EFFECT: improved quality of worked surface.
1 ex, 5 dwg
FIELD: production of ingot-blanks by electroslag refining of low-ductile steel containing boron and rolling tubes of such blanks in tube rolling plants with pilger mills for further conversion of rolled tubes to hexahedral tube-blanks used for compacted storage of waste nuclear fuel.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of casting ingots with size 470-490 x 1700-1750 mm by electroslag refining; mechanically working them by turning to ingot-blanks with size 460 - 480 x 1700 - 1750 mm; drilling central opening with diameter 100±5.0 mm; heating them till yielding temperature 1060 - 1090°C; piercing ingots in skew rolling mill on mandrel with diameter 275 mm to sleeve with size 470 - 480 x 290 in. x 2500 - 2600 mm at elongation degree 1.47 - 1.51; rolling sleeves in pilger mill with backing carbonaceous rings to conversion tube-lengths with size 290 x 12 x 22000-23000 on mandrel with diameter 264 -265 mm at elongation degree 10.25 - 11.0; cutting off pilger heads and seed ends by hot cutting saw; cutting tube-lengths by two tubes of the same length or to tubes with length multiple to length of conversion blank; further straightening tubes in six-roll straightening machine at using temperature of heating for rolling. Electroslag refining ingots are cast in the form of hollow ingots with size 480 x 270 in. x 2450 ± 50 mm. Bottom and shrinkage portions of hollow electroslag refining ingots forming pilger head and seed end at rolling conversion tubes are cast of ductile carbon kinds of steel. Height values of bottom and shrinkage portions of ductile carbon steel are determined from expressions Lb = (0.12 - 0.15)Lt, Ls = (0.05 - 0.06)Lt where Lb - height of bottom portion of hollow ingot of ductile carbon steel, mm; Ls - height of shrinkage portion of hollow ingot of ductile carbon steel, mm; Lt -total height of hollow ingot (2450±50)mm. Hollow ingots are bored and turned at shrinkage side to hollow blanks with size 470 x 280 in. mm till boundary of fusion of two metals in bottom portion of ingots or till shifting to side of ductile carbon steel by 50 - 80 mm at surface roughness degree Rz = 40 mcm or less. At turning, smooth transition from main metal to ductile carbon steel in bottom portion of ingot is provided in the form of truncated cone along distance 50 - 80 mm. Bimetallic hollow ingot-blanks are heated till yielding temperature 1040 -1060°C according to mode for heating steel containing 1.3 - 1.8% of boron. After removing technological crops such as pilger heads and seed ends of ductile carbon steel, - at side of pilger heads and seed ends portions of tubes of ductile carbon steel with length 500 -700 mm are left. Then after cutting tube-lengths by two tubes of the same length or by tubes with length multiple to length conversion blank, tubes are guided for further warm straightening in six-roll straightening machine by their ends of ductile carbon steel. Openings for pulling chain at warm shaping are drilled in tube-blanks with carbon ductile end portions in zones of tube-blanks of ductile carbon steel. Ends of tube-blanks of ductile carbon steel are removed before heat treatment while performing all further operations of manufacturing process.
EFFECT: lowered quantity of rejected tubes, improved efficiency of pilger mills, reduced cost of commercial hexahedral tube-blanks.
10 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: production of cover hexahedral tube-blanks of low-ductile boron steel for compacted storage of waste nuclear fuel, possibly manufacture of hexahedral tube-blanks of given size, restoration of rejected hexahedral blanks after boring, turning and repairing of their outer surfaces according to rolling-origin flaws.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of rolling conversion tubes with size 290 x 12 x 2100-2200 mm; cutting tube lengths by means of hot cutting saw by tubes; marking out tubes for cutting by blanks; marking blanks; cutting tubes by blanks; measuring geometry parameters of blanks; straightening blanks with common curvature along length more than 3.0 mm; boring blanks for further quality control of their inner surface and inner diameter; marking blanks inside by means of paint; forming inner and outer chamfers; turning blanks in machine tools with servo system; technologically controlling wall thickness of blanks; inspecting and repairing defect zones of outer surface; measuring thickness of wall; repairing zones of outer surface having flaws and thickness of wall outside plus limit size; performing secondary turning if necessary; transferring number of blank by means of stamps onto outer surface of blanks; degreasing blanks; subjecting blanks to induction heat treatment, ultrasound flaw detection and to spectroscope control; drilling openings for drawing chain for profiling on marked ends of blanks; applying salt lubricant onto blanks; warm shaping of hexahedral blanks; controlling geometry sizes of hexahedral blanks; degreasing them; heat treating hexahedral blanks; controlling size 257 ± 2 x 6 + 1.75/-1.0 mm; correcting portions whose sizes are outside plus allowance field; controlling total curvature of faces along length of hexahedral blanks; marking out and cutting hexahedral blanks by measured length 4300+80/-20 mm; selecting templates in order to make samples for mechanical testing; transferring marking; removing fins, trimming and blowing through hexahedral blanks; straightening in press hexahedral blanks with curvature more than 3.0 mm along length of tube-blank; inspection after straightening curvature and controlling size; controlling hexahedral blanks for passing templates through them; straightening if necessary; controlling geometry size of hexahedral blanks; trimming portions of hexahedral blanks whose sizes are outside plus limit values along wall thickness and finish sizes; reception; brightening; testing metal templates of hexahedral blanks by mechanical properties; final reception; marking and packaging hexahedral tube-blanks. Blanks after boring, turning and repairing flaws of outer surface with wall thickness in repairing places less than 5.0 mm are fed for further operations of manufacturing process including degreasing of blanks and then flaw zones are repaired by electric arc surfacing under flux layer or in argon shield atmosphere by means of electrode of boron steel. Repaired zones are subjected to grinding till predetermined wall thickness and smooth joining with planes of hexahedron and then they are subjected to heat treatment at performing all next technological operations according to manufacturing process.
EFFECT: lowered metal consumption, reduced cost of commercial hexahedral tube-blanks.
3 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: after preliminary cleaning of defective part of surface of pipe by an abrasive wheel, the edges of the cracks are determined using penetrant flaw detection method and the defective part is then melted by an unsmeltable tungsten electrode. The process of melting starts and ends 10-15 mm from the beginning of the crack and after its end with formation of a depression with fused edges. The obtained depression filled along its whole length by an argonarc method with a filler wire. The surface is then cleaned, flush with the main metal and quality is controlled using ultrasonic flaw detection. Subsequent hardening is carried out using ultrasound pulse processing of the cleaned surface. The method reduces labour intensiveness of the repairing pipes which are in use and with defects in form of stress-corrosion cracks.
EFFECT: increased longevity of gas pipelines.
4 dwg, 1 ex