The method of cleaning soil from pollution by oil and oil products

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular for the remediation of soils contaminated with oil and oil products. In soil contaminated with oil and oil products, enter peat, which is pre-activated by the introduction of mineral supplements that contain nitrogen and phosphorus, and subsequent incubation in mesophilic regime within 3 - 7 days to increase the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms. Required for activity of microflora trace elements are found in the peat. The activated peat provides simultaneous sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons and is the carrier nefteynaliva cultures of microorganisms, providing a high rate of degradation of oil.

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, in particular for the remediation of contaminated oil and petroleum products soil.

A known method of cleaning soil [1], including mechanical removal of excess oil from the surface, applying a layer of organic sorbent, which is used as peat, implementation is covered by peat surface contaminated soils landings dickov woody plants with zapolnit only as a sorbent and without the addition of mineral supplements is not fulfilling the role of destructor of petroleum hydrocarbons. In addition, paid a lot of peat over 0.7 m3/10 m2and is also additional surgery - planting woody plants, unnecessary, for example, when cleaning oil-contaminated arable land. All this leads to higher reclamation works.

The closest way, selected as a prototype, is a method of cleaning soil from oil pollution [2], including the introduction of a contaminated environment, cultures of microorganisms and mineral supplements containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. As a culture of the microorganisms use a blend of active natural nefteynaliva cultures of microorganisms isolated by the method of selection of the natural communities of microorganisms present in the contaminated environment, and culture of microorganisms contribute to neutral porous media, which is used as sawdust, earth, peat.

The disadvantages of this method include the implementation of costly and long-term allocations of culture nefteynaliva microorganisms from contaminated soils and its application to porous media. These operations are unnecessarily increase the complexity of the process.

Task is the implementation of labour-intensive, expensive operations, which will in a short time to restore the soil. This is achieved by the fact that the contaminated oil and petroleum products enter the soil environment culture of microorganisms and mineral supplements containing nitrogen and phosphorus, and as a source of microorganisms using peat, which is pre-activated by the introduction of mineral supplements containing nitrogen and phosphorus and subsequent incubation in mesophilic mode for 3 to 7 days.

In the proposed method, the activated peat provides simultaneous sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons and is the source and media nefteynaliva cultures of microorganisms whose activity under certain conditions and when injected into the contaminated oil soil increases dramatically. Therefore, the need for special selection and cultivation nefteynaliva microorganisms and application of porous media (as in the prototype) is not meaningful.

The method is environmentally advantageous, because its implementation is peat, which is cheap, environmentally friendly raw materials, providing the sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons, improve soil structure and enhance soil gazoogle the appearance of grass vegetation. The use of peat, which is the sorbent of ammonium ions and phosphate ions, reduce the likelihood of groundwater contamination by mineral fertilizers compared to the prototype.

The method is economically advantageous because it does not require an operation for selection of soil, cultivation and application of media nefteynaliva cultures of microorganisms, as in the prototype. Does not require the implementation of additional operations on soil mineral fertilizers, as in the prototype, as they contribute to the peat to activate it.

The advantage of the proposed method is the possibility of activation of peat directly at the scene.

For activation can be used any peat humidity from 55 to 70% and mineral supplements that contain nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen and phosphorus contribute to peat as a power source for microflora with the goal of increasing the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms. Required for activity of microflora trace elements are found in the peat. Used the moisture content of the peat 55 - 70% provides the best conditions for the sorption of ammonium ions and phosphate ions. As the nitrogen-containing mineral additives used>/P>The amount of mineral additives used to activate the peat and the number of activated peat, made in oil-contaminated soil, can be varied depending on the degree of contamination of the soil, providing it the ratio of C : N : P, equal to 10 : 1 : 1 required to sustain microbial life.

The method is as follows. First conduct the activation of peat. This peat is mixed with mineral fertilizers in the following ratio, wt.%:

Peat (dry matter) - 35,0 - 65,0

Ammonium nitrate - 15,0 - 35,0

Double superphosphate - 20,0 - 39,0

Then incubate the prepared peat within 3 - 7 days in mesophilic regime to ensure the necessary level of numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms.

Characterization of activated peat acting as a sorbent of oil and oxidant petroleum hydrocarbons:

sorption capacity in relation to oil 8,0 - 10,5 g oil/1 g.with.in. ;

- the total number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms (100 - 400)108cells/1 g.with.in.;

including the number of active cultures, the number of cells per 1 g.with.in.:

- bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas (7 - 10)of 108;

- BNY peat scatter across the site in the required amount depending on the degree of contamination. To enhance aeration and better mixing of the components carry out agricultural activities: plowing, disking. If for one season not achieved the destruction of oil to the maximum allowable values, the next - when the temperature increases the activity of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms resumes.

Example 1. The area of the soil area 1 104m2had an average degree of oil pollution: 8 - 10 liters per 1 m2. For clean-up of oil pollution was prepared activated peat composition, wt.%: peat 44,5; ammonium nitrate 20,3; and double superphosphate 35,20.

To prepare 1 103kg activated peat was taken fen peat decomposition rate of 23%, ash content 24.9 percent, humidity 64%, with the magnitude of the absorption capacity of oil - 8.5 g of oil/1 g.with.in., with the total number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms 1232,9 106cells/1 g.with.in., the number 689 kg, ammonium nitrate and double superphosphate in the number 113,6 and 196,6 kg, respectively. The resulting composition was mixed in a mixer for 8 to 10 minutes and incubated in mesophilic mode at a temperature of 22oC for 7 days to ensure the necessary level of numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing mnogo peat, ensure the ratio of C : N : P in the soil is equal to 10 : 1 : 1. When injected into the contaminated soil activated peat provides simultaneous sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons and the increase in the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms to a level of 2.6 1011cells/1 g.with.in., including active cultures: bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas - 10,2 108, bacteria of the genus Bacillus - 3,1 1010, actinomycetes - 3,1 108.

High counts of microorganisms observed during the observation period is 30 days, after which the oil content in the soil was reduced to 1 l/m2.

Example 2. The area of the soil area 1 104m2had an average degree of oil pollution 8 - 10 liters per 1 m2. For clean-up of oil pollution was prepared activated peat composition, wt.%: peat 44,5; ammonium nitrate 20.3 and double superphosphate 35,20.

To prepare 1 103kg activated peat was taken fen peat decomposition rate of 23%, ash content 24.9 percent, humidity 64%, with the magnitude of the absorption capacity of oil - 8.5 g of oil/1 g.with.in., with the total number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms 1232,9 106cells/1 g.with.in., in the amount of 810 kg, ammonium nitrate and decenia 8 - 10 minutes and incubated in mesophilic mode at a temperature of 30oC for 3 days to ensure the necessary level of numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms.

1 104m2contaminated soil was added 1 of 105kg activated peat, which provided the ratio of C : N : P in the soil is equal to 10 : 1 : 1. When injected into the contaminated soil activated peat provides simultaneous sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons and the increase in the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms to 3.2 1011cells/1 g.with.in., including active cultures: bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas - 11,0 108bacteria of the genus Bacillus is 3.5 1010, actinomycetes - 2,8 108.

High counts of microorganisms observed during the observation period is 30 days, after which the oil content in the soil was reduced to 1 l/m2.

Application of the proposed method of cleaning of lands contaminated by oil and oil products, will allow in the short term (within one summer season) to restore the soil. The perfect way from an environmental point of view and economically beneficial. The activated peat provides simultaneous sorption of oil uglevodorodami destruction of oil.

Sources taken into account:

1. RF patent N 2009626, class A 01 B 79/02, 1994. The way the remediation of soils contaminated with oil and oil products.

2. RF patent N 2057724, class C 02 F 3/34, 1996. The method of purification of water and soil from pollution by oil and oil products.

The method of cleaning soil from pollution by oil and oil products, including the introduction of a contaminated environment, cultures of microorganisms and mineral supplements containing nitrogen and phosphorus, characterized in that as the source of microorganisms using peat, which is pre-activated by the introduction of mineral supplements containing nitrogen and phosphorus and subsequent incubation in mesophilic mode for 3 to 7 days.

 

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6 tbl, 2 ex

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