Device for irrigation of greenhouses, greenhouses and gardens
(57) Abstract:The device is used for automatic watering of plants in limited areas. The technical result is increased efficiency, enhanced operational capabilities and possibilities of controlling the frequency of irrigation. The device contains an accumulation tank with a hole in the bottom, close by the valve, float valve, an auxiliary tank, which is a float valve. The water level in the auxiliary tank is installed lower than in the accumulation tank, and it is connected by flexible piping pressure vessels with porous bottoms, established in the soil, and also with the exhaust manifold. When the suction of water by the soil through the porous bottom of the vessel, the water level in the auxiliary tank lowers, the float opens the valve, and the water after it enters the holding tank. When the preset level, the water enters a low pressure watering system, as well as through the pipeline in a supporting capacity. The water level therein rises, the float valve closes. When working with high-pressure irrigation system its running time by time for the LASS="ptx2">The invention relates to irrigation systems and can be used to implement automatic irrigation limited - greenhouses - greenhouses and garden sites.It is known device  , containing an accumulation tank, in which water is supplied by pipeline from the adjusting valve. In the bottom of the tank has a vent, closed valve, triggered by a system of floats, flexible rods and levers. The valve on the pipeline regulate previously so that the cumulative capacity is filled within a certain time, and after the filling automatically closes the valve and the water through the outlet is fed into the irrigation system. The process then repeats.The disadvantage of the described device is that the water in it only depends on the adjustment of the valve discharge pipe, and not from soil moisture, which in turn may change during the growing season, depending on weather and other factors. It also does not allow to regulate the irrigation norm and always throws in the irrigation system at a given frequency a certain amount of water equal to the volume of the storage tank. The device, for example, provided is a device may only be used for low pressure irrigation: furrow, flooding (flooding), and so on, but cannot be used for sprinkling, drip-pulse irrigation, etc. that require high water pressure.More closest prototype is a device , which contains a water tank, a yoke rigidly mounted on the axis of the shut-off valve placed on his shoulders sliding cargo, movement of which is limited by the magnetic stops. At one end of the rocker arm is vessel-counter, on another vessel, the evaporator is placed in it with soil and plants. Wall and the bottom of tank-evaporator perforated. The height of the vessel shall be taken not less than the depth prorostania root system of cultivated plants, and its area is not less than the area sufficient for growing such plants. The evaporator is in the area of irrigation. Drainage capacity between adjacent parts of the soil in natural (monolithic) condition is simulated by selecting the number of perforations in the vessel of the evaporator.The disadvantage of the described device is inaccurate accounting for changes in soil moisture due to its location is not in the natural (monolithic), and as isolated from the whole array of pieces, placed in a vessel of the evaporator. In this case, the OSD is s in the vessel-evaporator molecular and mainly capillary forces underlying layers (up to the level of ground water), which, studies show hydrology and soils, have a great influence on soil moisture;
more intensive evaporation (not only from the surface as the soil, in its natural state, but also from the sides and from the bottom through the perforation), which leads to more rapid drying of the soil in the vessel, the evaporator compared to soil in the natural state. During high temperature balance is disturbed rocker and begins the process of water supply, i.e., the periods between the position "Open" and "Closed" are reduced, which leads to disruption of irrigation regime. In addition, it is known that the water absorption of the soil, i.e. its ability to absorb and filter moisture and change in this regard, the humidity, depends on the presence of cracks, voids, cracks, moves worms and roots. Therefore, vadapalani soil in the vessel-vaporizer - basic array and soil simply the underlying array will vary, as between the walls of the vessel-evaporator alcove in the main array, which includes a vessel-evaporator when the tilt of the beam, there are gaps, the parameters of which change depending on the angle of the beam. It is necessary to account for the variability of water absorption in the space VI is willow. It does not provide for regulation of irrigation norms when water in low-pressure systems.The purpose of the invention is increased efficiency, enhanced operational capabilities and possibilities of controlling the frequency of irrigations.This goal is achieved by the fact that the device containing the storage capacity for water pipeline to supply water to this tank through the attached float valve, exhaust manifold connected to the exhaust device of the listed capacity is installed on the pipeline valve is equipped with an auxiliary capacity, the location of which the height can be adjusted. In addition, the device has a flexible pipe attached to one of its ends to the auxiliary tank, and the other - to the sealed vessels with porous bottoms that are installed in the soil at a given depth in the area of intended irrigation. The device includes a flexible conduit attached by its end to the auxiliary tank and the other to the exhaust pipe between the valve mounted on the exhaust manifold, and the outlet of the storage tank. Float valve, through which under the tank. In addition to the outlet nozzle of the float valve is attached a flexible conduit, the other end of which is located in the accumulation tank. This pipe has a bend with the installed valve between cumulative capacity and drainage on the flexible piping device for precise control of water, such as a valve. The same valves installed on flexible pipelines connecting the auxiliary airtight container vessels with porous bottoms. To the auxiliary capacitance is connected by piping fitted with valves additional capacity, the location of which the height can be adjusted.In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the device of Fig. 2 - piping with valves and auxiliary capacity.the device consists of the accumulation tank 1, is installed on the base 2. In the bottom of the tank has a vent with a saddle, which is the exhaust valve 3. To the valve attached metal rod 4 passing through the guide sleeve 6 mounted on the bracket 5. By the end thrust 4 is attached to the flexible rod 7. The other end of the traction bar 7 is attached to the float 8 so that the length of the rod 7 can be otren on the fixed bearing 10, performed in a known manner and is rigidly connected with a storage capacity of 1. The length of this thrust is such that the float 8 cannot fall below the positions shown by the dotted line, i.e., will not reach the upper end of thrust 4. To the outlet attached to the exhaust manifold 11 is installed on the adjusting valve 12. Next to the accumulation tank 1 is an auxiliary tank 13 mounted at a height H above ground level. This height is known, it may be adjusted.Water supply to the device is done through the pipeline 14 is installed on the valve 15. This pipeline is attached float (ball) valve 16, the float 17 which is placed in the auxiliary tank 13. To the output pipe float valve 16 is attached a flexible conduit 18, the other end of which is omitted in the accumulation tank 1. The pipe 18 is attached to the outlet 19 with a shut-off valve 20. On the pipeline 18 is set as the device for precise control of water flow, for example, the valve 21.To the auxiliary capacitance 13 is attached a flexible conduit 22, the other end of which is connected to the exhaust pipe 11 between the valve 12 and the exhaust adversarie their other ends attached to the sealed vessels 24 with porous bottoms. Such vessels are used as humidity sensors (tensiometers). These vessels are tightly fitted into the soil in the irrigation zone to a predetermined depth corresponding to full or partial depth of the location of the root system of plants. In Fig.1 is conventionally shown two vessels 24, although the number can be anything. When this auxiliary tank 13 should be a corresponding number of sockets for the connection of the pipes 23. On pipelines 23 set screw clamps 25 for regulating the cross section of these pipelines. To the auxiliary capacitance 13, if necessary, can be connected through pipes 26 with the valves 27 additional auxiliary tank 28, the location of which the height can be adjusted (see Fig. 2). To exclude the ingress of atmospheric moisture in the auxiliary capacitance 13 and additional capacity 28 over them is fitted with a removable visor 29.The device operates as follows. Under furrow irrigation, flooding, subsurface irrigation, and other low-pressure way first attach the pipe 11 to the irrigation system, and the valve 12 open. Then adjust the length of the flexible rod 7 sets forth estvovati irrigation norm. After this known method is filled with water in the auxiliary tank 13 and the tank 28, the flexible pipes 23 and vessels of 24 pre-installed in the soil. Screw clamps 25 installed on the piping 23, must be open. The air inside these nodes must go. This is regulated by the position of the containers 13 and 28 height. They are set so that when filling the water level was at the height of the joining of the flexible pipe 22 and at the same time would be on the value of h below the water level and the accumulation tank 1, the corresponding irrigation norm. The float 17 of the float valve 16 should be free to lie at this level in the auxiliary tank 13. When the float valve 16 will be in the Closed position. First piping 23 should be horizontal to the water under their own weight from the auxiliary tank 13 through the piping 23 filled in the vessel 24.Next, open the valve 15 to the discharge pipe 14 and close the valve 20. Fully open the valve 21. First, in the absence of water in the accumulation tank 1 discharge valve 3 under the action of its own weight falls into the saddle and close vypuskno hnic soil layers depth (effect Sousa strength of the soil"), including vessels 24. This effect increases with decreasing soil moisture. The suction of water occurs through the porous bottom of the vessel 24. The porosity of each of the bottom is such that there is seepage through them only water, but excludes the penetration of air into the vessel 24. It is known that is created when water suction vacuum in vessels of 24 (tensiometers) accurately enough for practical purposes corresponds to soil moisture in the range from full field capacity to a moisture content slightly below the lowest capacity. In this range, as is well known, occur the growth and development of plants.When the suction decreases the water level in the auxiliary tank 13 (new level shown by the dotted line in Fig. 1). The float 17 of the float valve 16 is lowered and the latter is gradually transformed into the "Open" position. Water from the pipe 14 through valve 16, conduit 18 enters the holding tank 1 and fills it up to the specified level. The float 8 rises and opens the exhaust valve 3. Water pipeline 11 is supplied to irrigation. Because the irrigation system has a resistance, part of the water after the valve opening 3 at the same time flows through the pipe 22 into the auxiliary tank 13 and the group of "Closed" t, that is, to supply water in the accumulation tank 1 is terminated. If the resistance in the irrigation system is not sufficient for lifting water through the pipe 22 into vessel 13, 28, the control valve 12 to achieve the desired resistance in the pipe 11, ensuring the rise of water in the tank 13, 28.The next cycle will begin once through "Sousa strength of the soil, as well as its own weight of water, depending on the position of the pipes 23, again will decrease the level in tank 13, 28. The time between the filling of the storage tank 1, i.e., watering frequency can be adjusted in the following ways, based on the application of the law of flow through porous media (Darcy law):
1. the number of vessels 24, because the amount of water sucked away from the tank 13 28 is directly proportional to the total area of the bottoms of these vessels;
2. the change in resistance of the pipes 23, since the flow rate of water passing through them will be inversely proportional to the drop of pressure-dependent resistance (this can be done either by raising or lowering any pipe sections 23 relative to the water level in the auxiliary tank 13 and reported it to the tank 28, or by adjustment of screw terminals 25, ustanovlennya by attaching or detaching the tank 28 through valves 27, because this changes the volume, and hence the time of suction of water by means of vessels 24, provided that the number of these vessels does not change.In addition, it is possible to change the specified time filling of the storage tank 1. changing the length of the piping 23 (if there is a set of replacement pipelines), because the number of sucked water is inversely proportional to the path length of the seepage.If you water in the high-pressure irrigation system (sprinkler, drip-pulse irrigation and other), then the operation is performed as follows. The pipe 19 is attached to the irrigation system, the valves 12, 20 and 15 open. Then adjust the water in the irrigation system. This is done by regulating the time of filling a small volume in the storage tank 1. This amount is set by adjusting the length of pull 7 and the supply (flow) of water through the pipeline 18 regulate by means of valve 21. Because the flow of water through the valve 21 is small, the filling time can be adjusted from several hours to several days. Then, as in the previous case of irrigation through low-pressure system, pour water into the vessel 24, a flexible pipelines case, positioning them so that the water level was set at the height of the joining of the flexible pipe 22 and at the same time would be at a value below a given level in the storage tank 1. When the float valve 16 will be in the Closed position. When the suction of soil water from the tank 13, 28, the valve is gradually transformed into the "Open" position, and is filing for irrigation through the pipe 19. At the same time through the pipe 18 will be filling a predetermined volume of the storage tank 1 for a predetermined time. After filling in the specified volume of the float 8 will raise the valve 3 and the water will go through the pipes 11, 22 in the vessel 13, 28. The excess water from these tanks will be poured over the edge. The float valve 16 will go into Closed position, and watering will stop. After that, the cycle will resume after the extraction of water from the tank 13, 28. The time between cycles is the same as in the first case, the use of the device for low-pressure irrigation systems.If the device supplies water for irrigation to the outdoors, Pets possibility of accounting for the effect of precipitation on the soil. For this purpose it is necessary to remove the protective shield 29. Then the level in elshitsa water supply from the pipeline 14. If the device works on a protected ground, the impact of precipitation should be excluded by setting the visor 29. During hot weather, in all cases, the water in tank 13 28 will evaporate, which also leads to the reduction of water levels in these tanks and to reduce the time between cycles. Thus, the proposed device is universal because it applies to all irrigation systems high-pressure and low-pressure, open and protected ground and takes into account all the weather factors.The device can be simplified, if it will only be used to supply water to the low-pressure irrigation system. The float valve 16 may be mounted directly above the accumulation tank 1 so that the water output pipe would fall immediately to the specified capacity. This allows you to renounce the use of pipes 18, 19, valves 20 and 21.In the absence of water supply network and when using the device for low-pressure irrigation system it can be powered from any capacity, raised to a certain height (tank etc), pre-fill the pump or in any other way.The device is structurally simple, it has no electronics and it Vorovskogo service. It can operate autonomously without a human presence that matters, when there is a possibility only occasionally (e.g. once a week) to exercise control over his work. The device is designed for the mass consumer. It allows, if it is made from chemically resistant materials, liquid fertilizer into the soil. The device mainly consists of commercially available parts and components: valves 3, 16, used in plumbing, flexible pipelines, etc. as a float 8 can be used a piece of foam. The device monitors the actual soil moisture in a natural condition in the root zone. It is self-regulating because it automatically changes the mode of irrigation depending on soil moisture. The device allows you to adjust the irrigation rate and to change the time between watering.Sources of information:
1.Patent USSR N 1790349 class. A 01 G 27/00.2.RF patent N 2053649 class. A 01 G 27/00, 25/16. 1. Device for irrigation of greenhouses, greenhouses and garden plots containing cumulative water tank, a pipe for supplying water into this tank through installed on it a float valve, exhaust manifold, attached to the eat, it is equipped with an auxiliary capacity, the location of which the height can be adjusted, flexible pipes, attached to one of its ends to the auxiliary tank, and the other - to the sealed vessels with porous bottoms established in the area of the proposed irrigation in the soil at a given depth, a flexible tubing connected at one end to the auxiliary tank and the other to the exhaust pipe between the valve mounted on the exhaust manifold, and the exhaust device of the storage tank, while the float valve is mounted so that its float is located in the auxiliary tank.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the outlet pipe float valve attached flexible tubing, the other end of which is located in the storage tank, while the pipeline is equipped with a drain installed at the exhaust valve, and between cumulative capacity and drainage on the flexible piping device for precise control of water flow, for example, a valve.3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the flexible pipelines connecting the supporting capacity of the different sections of these pipelines, and to the auxiliary capacitance is connected by piping with the specified them the gates of additional capacity, the location of which the height can adjusted.
FIELD: irrigation systems used for automatic watering of plants on restricted area plots.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has accumulating vessel with bottom opening closed with valve, auxiliary vessel, two float valves, one of float valves being adapted for supplying of water into accumulating vessel and other float valve being adapted for cutting-off water supply. Valve floats are arranged in auxiliary vessel disposed below accumulating vessel bottom and connected by means of flexible pipes with hermetically sealed vessels provided with porous bottoms deepened into soil. When water is sucked through porous bottoms into soil, water level in auxiliary vessel is lowered and float valves are opened, with water being delivered into accumulating vessel through one of float valves. When predetermined water level is reached, valve for discharge opening is opened, water is supplied into low-pressure irrigation system and is further delivered through second float valve into auxiliary vessel. As a result, water level in auxiliary vessel is increased to cut-off water supply into accumulating vessel.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.