The device control process of sowing fertilizers screw metering system
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of agricultural engineering, and in particular to devices and devices to monitor and control the process of sieving material machines with screw actuators. The technical result is to increase the uniformity of seeding and the reduction in time of setting-up, adjustment and control of the seeding rate. The device comprises a hopper with a metering valve, which is across the movement has a spiral auger enclosed in a rotary casing driven with holes. It also includes two seed sensor, control unit, display unit, actuator and control circuit actuating mechanism. When the device signals from the sensors seeding installed over the first and the last is driven by the holes, are compared, the result of the comparison, adjusts the position of the rotary casing. 5 Il. The present invention relates to agricultural machinery, and in particular to devices and devices to control the process of sieving material machines with screw working bodies, and can also be used in other sectors x is nekby metering system , contained hopper dispensers, which has a spiral auger enclosed in a casing, a driven hole which is made in the form of a parallelogram, the acute angle which is the angle of rise of the helix of the screw. Holes overlap comb flap, the crests of which are arranged with a pitch equal to the pitch holes, and inclined to a casing forming an angle equal to the angle of ascent, helix screw. On the edge of the screw surface screw installed purifiers with elastic elements.The disadvantage of this device is that for regulation, control and adjustment of the working bodies require a significant investment of time. More than half of these costs falls on the control and the adjustment of the uniformity of seeding, and this leads to poor performance of the unit. In addition, the participation of the operator in setting up the machine makes a subjective factor.It is also known device , comprising a rotatable casing, inside of which is placed screw. In the lower part of the casing are driven holes are blocked by a shield. The body is placed in-feed conveyor and metering device, which is connected with the rotary casing by means of a hydraulic cylinder, working PA the ends of the casing are installed switches, included in the electrical circuit of the valve.The disadvantage of this device is that by turning the casing cylinder is not achieved given the unevenness of application.The closest technical solution, selected as a prototype, is the device , comprising a rotatable casing, consisting of movable and stationary sections, with holes, inside of which is screw. The casing is kinematically connected lever system consisting of a lever, rod and gear sector with a metering device located on the back wall, with each section together with the General longitudinal thrust, one end of which is fixed on the stationary peripheral section.The disadvantage of this device is that the control and uniformity of fertilizer requires considerable time, as well as reduced performance due to periodic stops to adjust seeding rates.The invention solves the problem of increasing the difference between the actual and perform the adjustment and control of the seeding directly during operation of the screw machine.To achieve this, the technical result in the well-known Stroitelny in the rotary casing driven with holes, includes two sensor seeding fertilizer, the control unit, the actuator and the display unit, and the first seed sensor is located below the first driven hole and connected to the first input of the control unit, the second seed sensor fertilizers is located beneath the latter is driven by the hole and connected to the second input of the control unit, to the first output of which is connected to the display unit, and the second output through the control circuit actuating mechanism associated with the actuator, which is rigidly attached to the frame of the sowing machine bolts and kinematically connected with one end of the rotary casing.The claimed technical solution is illustrated by drawings.In Fig. 1 presents a General view of the screw of the seed distributor.In Fig. 2 depicts a functional diagram of the control device.In Fig. 3 - section a-a in Fig. 1.In Fig. 4 is a view along arrow b of Fig. 1.In Fig. 5 is a diagram of the control unit.The device control process of sowing fertilizers screw metering system comprises a hopper 1 with a metering valve, which is across the movement has a spiral auger 2, enclosed in a rotary Komi Windows 4, which are connected respectively to first and second inputs of the control unit 7, the actuator 8 and the display unit 9, and the actuator 8 through the control circuit actuating mechanism 10 is connected to the second output of the control unit 7 and is rigidly attached to the frame 11 of the sowing machine bolts 12.The actuator 8 is a reducer, worm wheel which is kinematically connected to one end of the swivel casing 3, and a worm shaft of the stepping motor, which is rigidly fixed on the frame 11 of the sowing apparatus by bolts 12. The display unit 9 contains two LEDs, one of which indicates the inclusion of device management, the other on violation of conditions of sowing fertilizer. As the control circuit 10 actuator selected a model reverse stepper motor.The control unit 7 includes an integrated circuit 13 of the type TO 1816 BE 48, analog-to-digital Converter 14 To 572 THP and the chip output 15 of the type TO 580 VA. Conclusions (DA1, DA2) 16,17 chip 14 are connected respectively to the sensors 5, 6 seeding fertilizer. Conclusions (PA0...PA7) 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 chip 14 are connected respectively to output the respectively with pins 39, 40, 41, 42, 43 of the chip 13 and (RD) 44.Conclusions ( ALE) 45 chip 13 is connected to the pins 46 and 47 of the chip 14.Conclusions (INT) 48 chip 13 is connected through the "reset" button 49, ( VCC) 50, 51, (VD) 52 is connected through the start button 53 to the power supply 15V.Conclusions (XTAL1)54 and (XTAL2)55 connected to the quartz resonator (BQ)56, and they, in turn, through the capacitors (C1)57, (C2)58, and the input 59 via a capacitor (C3)60 and conclusions (Vss)61 is connected to "earth".The leads of the chips 13 (P20P21P22P23P24) 62, 63, 64, 65, 66 attached respectively to the pins 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 chip 15, the conclusions 72, 73, 74 which are connected with the terminals of the unit, the display 9. Conclusions 75, 76 chip 15 is connected to the control circuit 10 to the Executive mechanism. Conclusion 77 chip 15 is connected to power supply +5 V, and the output 78 of the chip 15 is connected to "earth".The device operates as follows.When turning on the device button ("start") 53, the control unit 7 tests the display unit 9, i.e., includes LEDs of the display unit 9, and after some time disables them, so that the machine operator can ensure that the display unit 9 and the output 62 ptx2">When moving the machine across the field, sowing the material passes through the driven window 4 swivel casing 3 and gets on the sensors 5 and 6 seeding fertilizer. The control unit 7 polls the sensors 5 and 6 seed.The survey is done the following way: chip 13 on the conclusions 39, 40, 41, 42 generates a signal on the survey of the first sensor 5 seed, which is connected to the output 16 analog-to-digital Converter 14. After the conclusion 38 analog-to-digital Converter, a signal is generated on the end of conversion signal in digital form, the chip 13 reads the signal q1from the sensor 5 and puts it into the first memory cell. The conclusions 39, 40, 41, 42 chip 13, a signal is generated on a survey of sensor 6 seed, is connected to the output 17 analog-to-digital Converter 14. Next on output 38 analog-to-digital Converter 14, a signal is generated on the end of conversion signal in digital form q2which is read by the IC chip 13 and is placed in the second memory cell.Next is the calculation of the difference signals
q = (q1-q2)
If q does not exceed the maximum allowable deviation value  , repeated polling of the sensors 5 and 6 seeding fertilizer. About the>/P>When the difference signal q exceeds the maximum permissible deviation  is, repeated polling of the sensors 5 and 6. If during this time the difference of q exceeds the maximum allowable deviation  , that is determined by the sign of this difference.If the difference q is positive, then the control unit 7 generates a signal at the output 65 of the chips 13 to activate the actuator 8 through the control circuit 10 actuator to rotate the casing 3 clockwise and at the same time on the display unit 9 led lights up, indicating that the violation of the seed.There is a further survey of the sensors 5 and 6 is similar to the sequence. If after adjustment, the difference in the readings of q does not exceed the maximum permissible deviation  , produces the following survey sensors 5 and 6 seed.If the difference in the readings of q is negative, then the control unit 7 generates the output 66 of the chip 13 a switch-on signal of the actuator 8 through the control circuit 10 actuator to rotate the casing 3 counterclockwise and simultaneously on the display unit 9 led lights up, indicating that the violation of the seed.Adjust proizvedenii information.1. A. S. USSR N 1375163, 1986 MCI5A 01 G15/00
2. A. S. USSR N 1423030, 1987 MCI5A 01 G15/00
3. A. S. USSR N 1501949, 1987 MCI5A 01 G15/00
4. Horsetail C., and other Microprocessors and microcomputers in automatic control systems: a Handbook-L.: engineering, 1987. - 640 S.5. Chip DAC and ADC: Operations, parameters, application): Energoatomizdat, 1990 - 320 C.6. Microelectronical for automation systems (technical Handbook). Ed. by E. A. Lodochnikova, Y. M. uverova-M.: "Energy", 1969. - 272 S. The device control process of sowing fertilizers screw metering system containing hopper with metering valve in which across the movement has a spiral auger enclosed in a rotary casing with a driven hole, wherein one end of the rotary casing kinematically connected with the actuating mechanism through a control circuit connected to the second output of the control unit, to the first output of which is connected to the display unit, and the first and second inputs of the control unit are connected with sensors seeding, located respectively below the first and the last is driven by the holes.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: feeder-metering device of loose materials consists of converging receiving hopper with unloading branch, of installed on bottom of hopper shaft with transporting spiral and of drive. The transporting spiral corresponds to a cylinder compression spring tied with the shaft by means of two bushings each equipped with a lock member-clamp. The feeder consists of a mechanism of change of lead of a spiral turn; the mechanism is positioned on a driven shaft and divides the spiral into a transporting and a metering sections. The mechanism of change of lead of a spiral turn is made as two-shoulder lever; it is installed in a lengthwise through slot by means of the axle and can perform a restricted turn in plane of the slot. Also shoulders of the lever on their ends are equipped with rollers with a circular radial groove; the rollers interact with a spiral turn. On the side opposite to the drive a free end of the shaft corresponds to a journal with profile surface facilitating rotation of the shaft when a turn lead of the transporting and metering sections of the spiral is changed for adjustment.
EFFECT: raised reliability and expanded range of efficiency adjustment during supply of loose material.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: fertiliser distributing unit consists of a hopper 1, a sowing mechanism and a fertiliser tube 3. The hopper 1 at the lower part has a rectangular transition to the sowing mechanism made in the form of a horizontal replaceable hexagonal or triangular shaft of corrosion-resistant metal. The shaft consists of three sections 6, mutually offset by 15 degrees, and rests on the sleeves 11 of polymeric material with the right and left-hand thread. The housing 7 of the sowing mechanism has input 8 and output 9 windows and is made of polymeric material, at the ends of which the inner right- and left-hand thread 10 is cut. The fertiliser tube 3 for supplying fertiliser to the coulter is made U-shaped. The transmission to regulate the fertiliser application rate consists of two blocks of sprockets 13 connected by the chain 14 with the remote switching mechanism 15.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of fertiliser distributing unit, its reliability and durability, to reduce the cost of maintenance and repair, as well as to provide quick differentiated fertiliser application to the soil.
FIELD: forest engineering, in particular, forest seed sowing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: seeding unit has hopper, agitators and seed urging devices formed as screws mounted in seed guides. Closures with apertures are fixed at screw ends. Agitators are mounted on hopper shaft pin and are provided with slots.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing predetermined seeding depth and spacing between seeds, improved quality of germinated seedlings and reduced losses upon emergence of seedling sprouts from soil.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment used in drills for group sowing of vegetable and cucurbitaceous crop seeds in risky agriculture zones.
SUBSTANCE: seeding section is connected to frame through four-link pivotal leverage system. Seeding section has casing with seed box, shank connected to seeding unit, coverer, roller and sweep. Seeding unit is made in the form of endless belt equipped with cells. Endless belt is placed on driving and driven drums, which are of equal length. Driving drum has smaller diameter than driven drum. Driving drum is aligned with drive shaft and is positioned below driven drum, above shank body. Seed baffle positioned above driving drum is made in the form of loop manufactured from rubberized material. Seeding section allows 3-4 seeds to be compactly placed within single receptacle on uniform discharge of group of seeds from seed box.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and uniform sowing of crop seeds over the entire field.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, single seed seeding equipment.
SUBSTANCE: seeding unit has seed box, conveyor mounted on seed unit bottom and equipped with cells, active guides, and baffle. Leading run of conveyor is put onto drive, bypass and pulling drums and is provided with portion inclined to horizontal plane, and horizontal portion. Baffle formed as brush-type drum is mounted above horizontal portion behind bypass drum and is equipped with movable cutoff device secured at an angle to seed box rear wall. Active guides formed as flexible rods are disposed on front wall of seed box, in parallel with inclined portion of conveyor leading run. Guides for flexible members of pull-type drum are extending in parallel with inclined portion of conveyor leading run. Brush-type drum of baffle and drive drum of conveyor are kinematically connected through synchronizing transmission. Conveyor drive drum is mounted above seed guide. Front wall of seed box is equipped with seed cutoff device for cutting off seeds from conveyor cells. Surfaces of drive drum, bypass drum and pull drum are reinforced with friction material.
EFFECT: increased efficiency owing to uniform ejection of single seeds from seed box and feeding thereof into seed guide.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, seeding units for single seed drills.
SUBSTANCE: seeding unit has seed box, conveyor provided with cells and mounted at seed box bottom, active guides and baffle. Drive run of conveyor running over drive, bypass and tension drums has portion inclined to horizontal plane, and vertical portion. Baffle is made in the form of brush-type drum and is mounted near vertical portion, rearward of bypass drum. Baffle is provided with movable cutoff device, which is secured at an angle to horizontal plane, on seed box rear wall. Active guides formed as flexible rods are fixed on seed box front wall, in parallel with inclined portion of conveyor drive run. Brush-type drum of baffle and drive drum of conveyor are kinematically connected through synchronizing transmission. Drive drum of conveyor is disposed above seed guide. Surfaces of drive, bypass and tension drums are reinforced with friction material.
EFFECT: increased efficiency owing to uniform single-seed discharge of seeds from seed box and feeding thereof into seed guide.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, dosing equipment for subsurface portioned local application of bulk fertilizers.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has hopper with bulk fertilizer discharge windows, and caver arranged in lower part of hopper. V-shaped frame adjoining discharge windows carries dosing-transporting unit consisting of two transporters. Each of transporters has triangular chain contour with carrier flexible belts immovably attached to links thereof. Scrapers fixed on belts in equally spaced relation from one another are made in the form of straight prisms with trapezium-shaped bases thereof. Prisms are fixed to belt with their larger face. Fertilizer troughs are defined between scrapers. Chain contours of transporters are mounted on driving and driven sprockets of related shafts of V-shaped frame and when paired conform to shape thereof. All of sprockets are positioned in vertical-longitudinal plane to thereby allow transporter chain contours to move in single plane. Two branches of chain contours are arranged adjacent one another.
EFFECT: increased uniformity in application of fertilizers and provision for localization of fertilizer portions in subsurface application process.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, seeding units for single seed sowing of swollen germinated seed drills.
SUBSTANCE: seeding unit has seed box. Seeding conveyor with cells and active guides is positioned in side wall of seed box. Cells are staggered on conveyor and made to conform to seed shape. Seeding conveyor is positioned at an angle to horizontal plane. Hood mounted above conveyor has width equal to that of seeding conveyor to thereby allow adhering thereof to seeding conveyor upon emptying of seed box. Seeding unit itself is disposed near rear wall of share.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in seeding of cucurbitaceous crop seeds and increased productivity.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: seeding unit has seed box, cellular drive disk with seed baffle which is closed in zone adjoining inoperative part of disk with housing, and drive for cellular disk. Disk is positioned at an angle to horizontal plane. Disk cells are shaped and sized so as to conform to said parameters of seeds and are arranged in groups on peripheral part of disk. Number of cells in group is equal to number of seeds sown into bed, and distance between groups is proportional to accepted seeding pitch (distance between beds). Annular protrusions provided between cells have width of 1.5-2.0 mm and height of 0.6-0.7 the thickness of seed. Baffle is made in the form of elastic apron attached to side wall of seed box. Baffle has elastic protrusions-seed ejectors provided in the vicinity of ejection window above shank. Seed box portion adjoining peripheral portion of disk has parabolic rounded portion of vertical wall. Conical drive of seeding disk is closed with housing.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in sowing of germinated seeds without damaging thereof.