The method of switching the base station in the cellular radio communication systems with code division multiplexing, a method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station and reception apparatus of a base station (options)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of radio engineering, in particular to cellular systems with code division multiplexing using the methods of a relay transmission to ensure continuity of communication of the mobile station with the base station. The technical result of the present invention is to improve the quality and reliability of the communication system capacity and optimal resource allocation system by reducing the impact of fast fading, the channel to a decision about a course of transfer. A new method of switching a base station in a cellular radio communication systems with code division multiplexing is that to determine the moments of the beginning and end of a relay transmission using adaptive smoothed estimates of the level of the signal in the reverse channel using to configure settings for smoothing the frequency estimation for fast fading in the communication channel. A new method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station is that the receipt of a signal return path before frequency analysis perform the restore monotonicity of the signal envelope, party / reception apparatus of a base station (options). 4 S. p. F.-ly, 9 Il.

The invention relates to the field of radio engineering, in particular to cellular systems with code division multiplexing using the methods of a relay transmission to ensure continuity of communication of the mobile station with the base station.

A prerequisite for the normal functioning of modern cellular mobile radio systems is the continuity of the communication session when the movement of the mobile station from the service area of one base station in the service area of another base station. The switching procedure of the user channel (traffic) from one base station to another when moving mobile station is called a relay transmission. A variation of this procedure, when the disconnection between the mobile station and the first base station in the beginning establish an alternative communication channel through the second base station, which both in direct and in reverse direction to convey the same information as on the first channel, called soft relay transmission. Soft relay transmission is used in digital systems, in which the mobile station is able to conduct a parallel reception of the information signal ignorami transmission explains Fig. 1, where

BS and BS respectively the base station of the first and second cells, BS.1 and BS.2 - accordingly, the sector of the base station 1;

BS.1-sector base station 2;

a) the trajectory of the mobile station;

b), C) and d) respectively graphs of average quality links with sectors BS.1, BS.2 and BS.1;

t1 is the time during which the mobile station maintains BS.1,

t2 is the time during which the mobile station maintains BS.2,

t3 - the time during which the mobile station maintains BS.1.

The main challenge when implementing algorithms for relay transmission is the definition of a specific point to start the transfer process. Existing methods are based on different criteria: comparison of the distances from the mobile station to the current and alternative base stations, comparing the quality of the communication channels between the mobile and the current and alternative base stations and others. Methods based on a comparison of the quality of the communication channels can be divided into two groups: with measurements from base stations and measurements as the base and mobile stations. The first group of methods used in most modern systems mobile ravennas system mobile telephony (AMPS) at the base station, serving a given mobile station to measure the signal level in the reverse channel and report the results to the system controller. When the signal level is reduced below a certain value, the system controller instructs the base stations adjacent to this, to start measuring the signal from a given mobile station. The base station that has registered the highest signal level, is considered a candidate for this service the mobile station. Further, the system controller continues to compare the results of measuring the signal strength of the given mobile station, made the current base station and found the candidate base station. When there is a definite correlation between the measurement results of these two base stations, the system controller instructs the first base station to stop transmission and receiving of signals for a given mobile station indicates the second base station to start the reception and transmission of signals from the mobile station, and this indicates the mobile station to start transmitting and receiving signals via the second base station. The procedure is a hard relay transmission, i.e. communication with the mobile station first breaks, the military shortcomings. First, during the relay transmission is intermittent disconnection with the mobile station. Secondly, due to the presence of fast Rayleigh fading signal possibly erroneous re-switching the mobile station to service the first base station to the second base station, the so - called ping-pong effect.

In the system with code division multiplexing (CDMA), for example according to the standard IS-95 [1, Standard compatibility the mobile and base stations for dual-mode cellular broadband systems with expansion of the range. TIA/EIA/IS-95-A, may 1995. Telecommunications Industry Association], is used along with the above is also another way of determining when the start relay transmission. In the CDMA system, each base station transmits its pilot channel, which from the point of view of the mobile station allows the neighboring base stations differ from each other. At the mobile station measure the relative level of the pilot signals from the surrounding base stations, the list of which the mobile station receives from the current base station. The results of the measurements for each pilot signal at the mobile station is compared with predetermined threshold values (set threshold),then the base station or system controller may decide the beginning (end) of a relay transmission to this mobile station. During the relay transmission channel (traffic) for a given mobile station is transmitted simultaneously through two or more base stations and the mobile station, depending on its characteristics, selects the best of the received signals or combines multiple received signals. In the reverse channel, the system controller selects the best from signals received from base stations from the mobile station.

A well-known system and method for providing soft switching in a mobile communication system with code division multiplexing (CDMA) [2, U.S. patent N 5101501, MKI5H 04 Q 7/00, H 04 M 11/00], in which each mobile station measure the relative level of the pilot signals from the surrounding base stations, the list of which is on the mobile station receives from the current base station. The results of the measurements for each pilot signal at the mobile station is compared with a given threshold value received from the base stations, and reported to the base station on the comparison results. Based on this information, the base station or the system controller decide the beginning (end) of a relay transmission to this mobile station. During the relay transmission channel (traffic) for a given mobile station chracteristic, choose the best of the received signals or combine multiple received signals. In the reverse channel, the system controller selects the best of the decoded signals received from base stations from the mobile station, or merges redaktirovaniya signals.

The disadvantage of this invention is that in a fast fading channel, the system and the proposed method does not accurately determine the start and end of a relay transmission. This leads to difficulties optimal adjustment of the length of the process soft relay transmission depending on the specific conditions and parameters of the mobile and base stations, which negatively affects the communication quality and system capacity. In addition, under certain conditions, there is an effect of ping pong, which leads to suboptimal resource allocation system.

The closest technical solution to the claimed method and device for its implementation the invention is [3, U.S. patent N 5345467, MKI5H 04 L 27/30 "Method and device for handoff in the CDMA system"], which use the N base stations of the cellular radio system so that the mobile station in any unite N base stations in logical groups so so in the active group was composed of all M base station through which the mobile station performs full-duplex communication, and in the next group - all To the base station directly neighboring base stations of the active group, to estimate the parameters of the communication channel with the mobile station through each of the M base stations of the active group and each of the K base stations neighboring groups, compared with the preset threshold value, if the estimation of the channel parameters of any of neighboring base stations of the group exceeds a predefined threshold value, this base station is switched to the active group and form it into channels of the transmit and receive signal for the mobile station, if the estimate of the channel parameters any of the M base stations of the active group is below a predetermined threshold level, when M is greater than 1, exclude such base station from the active set, removing it channels transmit and receive signal. This method uses parameters such as propagation delay of signal relative to the signal level, and combinations thereof.

The disadvantage of this invention is that this device and the proposed method does not accurately determine the start and oceane cell not always there is a definite correlation between the change in the propagation delay of the signal and changes the quality of the communication channels. Therefore, when you use for making decisions about the relay transmission time parameters, such as propagation delay of the signal, the distance between base and mobile stations, leads to non-optimal from the point of view of quality of reception, i.e., if the mobile station receives signals from two base stations with the same delay, the average levels of these signals can vary considerably.

In addition, the decision to relay transmission using the comparison of the levels of the pilot signals is unreliable due to the fading in the channel. The visibility of this shortcoming is illustrated in Fig. 2. As a result, this leads to difficulties optimal adjustment of the length of the process soft relay transmission depending on the specific conditions and parameters of the mobile and base stations, which negatively affects the communication quality and system capacity. In addition, under certain conditions, there is an effect of ping pong, which leads to suboptimal resource allocation system.

The signals in the channel sway depend mainly on the speed of movement of the mobile station. A good example of the spectral composition of such fading is shown in Fig. 3A, where

a - range fast fading (multipath interference);

b - main frequency fast fading;

with a spectrum of slow fading (terrain shadowing by large objects);

d - slow changes of level from the antenna directional diagram;

e - slow level changes from radial damping.

View the corresponding time domain signal shown in Fig. 3V.

Fading due to components C, d, e, are slow and lead to long-term changes in the quality of communication channels and may be a prerequisite for switching a given mobile station in the service of another base station. At the same time, the rapid fading in the communication channel caused by multipath interference, causing intermittent signal fading, which are not the basis for the initiation of a relay transmission, however, lead to errors in making decisions about a course of transfer, unless special arrangements.

For an accurate determination of the moments of the beginning and end of a relay transmission and aclual. To reduce the depth of fading you can use any method of smoothing. But for the effectiveness of smoothing is necessary to have information about the fundamental frequency of fading, which is directly proportional to the speed of the mobile station.

To evaluate the frequency of fading in the communication channel in systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station, which is mandatory for systems with code division multiplexing (CDMA) especially at low speeds, is difficult because the range of fading is masked by the power control. This is illustrated in Fig. 3b and g

There are various ways of assessing the spectral characteristics of the signal, such as a fast Fourier transform, which allows to obtain an estimate of the spectrum on the block of input discrete data [4, Ed. by K. A. samoilo. Radio circuits and signals. "Radio communication". M - 1982, S. 267 - 268], and other methods described in [5, S. L. Marple. Ed. by I. S. of Tanner. Digital spectral analysis and its application. M - "The World". 1990].

To assess the frequency of fading can be used the above methods of evaluation of the spectral characteristics of the signal, but in systems with closed loop power control in the States of fading, that is clearly illustrated by Fig.3. Moreover, the authors do not alter the sequence of operations evaluation of the spectral characteristics of the signal and convert the signal, which is then subjected to spectral analysis.

On available technical sources, the authors were unable to detect a closer technical solution which could be selected as the prototype for the method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station, so as a prototype taken the same technical solution, as for a method for switching a base station in cellular radio systems [3, U.S. patent N 5345467, MKI5H 04 L 27/30 "Method and device for handoff in the CDMA system"]. Moreover, the method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station was established to implement the method of switching the base station in a cellular CDMA radio communication systems, however, this does not exclude the possibility of its use in other communication systems. So it is highlighted in the independent claim of the invention. In the prototype measure the relative level of the principles of the dust. But measure this parameter for other purposes, for example for measuring the level of the received signal, for the posted summation and power control, and system statistics about the quality of communication.

In the description and formula of this invention is not detected that the measurement of the relative level of the received signal on each of the M base stations of the active group and each of the K base stations neighboring groups use it to estimate the frequency of signal fading. However, given the fact that this feature is still present in the prototype, the authors made it into the restrictive part.

The task, which directed the claimed group of inventions is a method of switching a base station in cellular systems with code division multiplexing, a method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station and reception apparatus of a base station (options), improving the quality and reliability of the communication system capacity and optimal resource allocation system by reducing the impact of fast fading in the channel for a decision about a course of transfer.

This task is achieved by the fact that:

At first the torus using the N base stations of the cellular radio system so to the mobile station at any point in space can communicate with at least one base station, namely, that combine the N base stations in logical groups so that in the active group was composed of all the base station through which the mobile station performs full-duplex communication, and in the next group - all base stations, directly neighboring base stations of the active group, to estimate the parameters of the communication channel with the mobile station through each of the M base stations of the active group and each of the K base stations neighboring groups, compared with a given threshold value, in this case, if the estimate of the channel parameters of any of neighboring base stations of the group exceeds a predefined threshold value, then such base station is switched to the active group and form it into channels of the transmit and receive signal for the mobile station, if the estimate of the channel parameters any of the M base stations of the active group is below a predetermined threshold level, when M is greater than 1, exclude such base station from the active set, removing it channels transmit and receive signal, in addition enter the following sequence of operations:

- Asses,

the loop L of the channels from the channels of neighboring groups in which the evaluation signal level exceeds a given threshold value,

- assess the frequency of fading of the signal from the mobile station in the distribution environment,

- compute the smoothed estimate of the level of the signal from the mobile station in each of the L channels of neighboring groups, and in each of the M channels of the active group by adaptive smoothing of the sequence of estimates of the level of the received signal, are used to adapt the information about the fundamental frequency of signal fading, get so M plus L smoothed estimates

- obtained the smoothed estimates of the level are compared with each other or with switching thresholds and the results of the comparison shall decide on the composition of the active group.

Secondly, in the method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station, at which rate the quality of communication for each of the M base stations of an active group with an interval equal to the interval between commands adjust the power, and transmit mobile station commands power adjustment, and, if the evaluation of the quality of communication at a base station of a CR base station is less than a predetermined threshold level, form a team to increase capacity, allocate to the mobile station from each of the M received signals commands power control and regulate the power so that, if the received command requires increasing power, increasing the power in A time when at least one command requires reducing power while decreasing in B, and A specified step of increasing the power, B is the given step decrease the power, namely, that measure the relative level of the received signal on each of the K base stations neighboring groups, optionally enter the following sequence of operations:< / BR>
- measure the relative level of the received signal on each of the L of the K base stations neighboring groups in which the evaluation signal level exceeds the specified threshold value with an interval equal to the interval between the teams power adjustment, form M plus L sequences of samples,

- remember to each of the M base stations of the active group are transmitted to mobile station commands adjust the power

- form the sequence of coefficients used for learned commands in such a way that if all M commands require more power then ient equal TO,

- correct sample sequence of the relative level of the received signal on each of the M base stations of the active group and each of L base stations neighboring groups by multiplying the elements of the source sequence to the corresponding elements of the received sequence of coefficients,

- form estimates the fundamental frequency of signal fading by frequency analysis of the obtained corrected sequences on each of the M base stations of the active group and each of L base stations neighboring groups, thus forming a M plus L evaluations

- calculate the average estimate of the fundamental frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment for a given mobile station, using all the obtained estimates (all M plus L estimates).

Thirdly, the reception apparatus of a base station according to the first variant, containing J spatially dispersed branches reception, each of which includes an antenna, an analog receiver, H data receivers and the receiver of the search, the adder explode, the decoder, and the control unit, the input of the antenna in each branch of the reception signal is the input of the output it is connected to the analog receiver output to the d of each receiver of the data from each branch of the intake is connected to a corresponding input of the adder explode, the second input of each data receiver is connected to its corresponding first output control unit, which are the control for data receivers, each receiver search with each branch of the intake connected with a corresponding first input of the control unit and is informational, the output of the adder explode is connected to the decoder, the output of which is connected to the second input of the control unit and an information input, the second and third outputs of the control unit are the outputs of the receiving equipment of the base station to the system controller, and the third output is the information, the fourth output control, the third and fourth inputs of the control unit are respectively instrumentation and control inputs receiving equipment of the base station, added a block averaging and the block frequency analysis,

- additional output of each receiver of the data from each branch of the intake is connected to a corresponding first input of the block frequency analysis, second, third and fourth inputs of which are connected respectively with the fourth, fifth and sixth outputs of the control unit, the output unit of analysis frequencies with the fifth input of the control unit,

in is coupled to the seventh output control unit, and the output of block averaging with the sixth input of the control unit and is output smoothed estimates of the level of the signal.

Fourthly, the reception apparatus of a base station according to the second variant containing Q sectors receiving the signal, each of which contains J spatially dispersed branches, adder explode and decoder, and a control unit, each branch contains a reception antenna, analog receiver, H data receivers and the receiver of the search, the input of the antenna in each branch receiving an input of the output it is connected to the input of an analog receiver, the output of which is connected to the first input of each of the data receiver and the receiver input search in this branch of reception, the output of each receiver of the data from each branch of the intake is connected to a corresponding input of the adder explode, the second input of each data receiver is connected to its corresponding first output control unit, which are the control for data receivers, each receiver search with each branch of the intake connected with a corresponding first input of the control unit and control unit information, the output of the adder explode is connected to the decoder, the output of which is connected to W is raised by the outputs of the receiving equipment of the base station to the system controller, and the third output are informational, the fourth output control, third and fourth inputs of the control unit are respectively instrumentation and control inputs receiving equipment of the base station, in addition to every sector of the reception signal is entered to the adder block averaging and the block frequency analysis,

- additional output of each receiver of the data from each branch of the intake connected to respective first inputs of the block frequency analysis and the input of the adder and an information output,

the output of the adder connected to the first input of block averaging, the output of which is connected to the fifth input of the control unit and is output smoothed estimate of the signal level,

the second input of the block averaging is connected with the fourth control the output control unit,

the second, third and fourth inputs of the block frequency analysis connected respectively to the fifth, sixth and seventh control outputs of the control unit.

Comparative analysis of the first of the proposed solutions - method for switching a base station in a cellular radio communication systems with code division multiplexing, with the prototype shows that the claimed invention differs nalicity way meets the criterion of "novelty".

Comparative analysis method for switching a base station in a cellular radio communication systems with code division multiplexing with other technical solutions known in the art [1, 2], revealed no signs stated in the characterizing part of the claims.

Introduction the combination of distinctive features allows in contrast to the known technical solutions [1, 2, and 3] in the presence of the fast fading channel to make more precise adjustments of start and finish of a relay transmission. This allows an optimal adjustment of the duration of the process soft relay transmission depending on the specific conditions and parameters of the mobile and base stations, which positively affects the communication quality and system capacity.

Therefore, the inventive method of switching a base station in a cellular radio communication systems with code division multiplexing meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty", "technical solution", "significant differences" and is responsible inventive step.

Comparative analysis of the second of the proposed technical solution, the method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in credibom shows that the claimed invention is characterized by the presence of new significant features stated in the characterizing part of the claims. Therefore, the claimed method meets the criterion of "novelty".

Comparative analysis method to estimate the frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station with other technical solutions known in the art [1, 2, and 4], revealed no signs stated in the characterizing part of the formula.

Introduction the combination of distinctive features of the claimed technical solution allows in contrast to the known technical solutions [1, 2, 3 and 4] to have information about the fundamental frequency of the fading for the precise determination of the moments of the beginning and end of switching the base station in the cellular radio communication systems with code division of channels.

Therefore, the inventive method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty", "technical solution", "significant differences" and is responsible inventive at the gas station in the first embodiment, with the prototype shows that the claimed invention is characterized by the presence of new significant features stated in the characterizing part of the claims, namely the entered block averaging and the block frequency analysis, and accordingly introduced and new relationships in the schema. As a result of these entered in the claims the essential distinguishing features, each base station has means for forming evaluation of the quality of the communication channel with the mobile station. Assessment of the quality of the channel in the form of a sequence of values is fed to the input of block averaging, which smoothes the flow of data. The control unit generates the unit for averaging a set of configuration options needed to provide the desired suppression of the fast fading and the allowable distortion of the useful component of the spectrum of the fading. Smoothed estimates of channel quality received from the output of block averaging on the control unit, which, depending on the particular implementation, uses them to form a decision about a course of transfer or direct them to the appropriate controller. The algorithm is a decision about a course of transfer may consist, in particular, to compare the quality evaluation azyvaetsja best, is the best candidate for the servicing of the mobile station.

Therefore, the proposed device meets the criterion of "novelty".

Comparative analysis of the reception apparatus of a base station in the first embodiment with other technical solutions known in the art [1 and 2], revealed no signs stated in the characterizing part of the formula.

Therefore, the proposed device meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty", "technical solution", "significant differences" and is responsible inventive step.

Comparative analysis of the fourth of the proposed technical solution, the receiving apparatus of a base station according to the second variant, with the prototype shows that the claimed invention is characterized by the presence of new significant features stated in the characterizing part of the claims, namely in each sector of the reception signal at the base station entered the adder block averaging and the block frequency analysis, and accordingly introduced and new relationships in the schema. As a result of these entered in the claims the essential distinguishing features, users have the ability to use nogosek the Dimo. With each sector or base station, each base station (provided the location of several base stations in one place) has the technical means to form assessing the quality of a communication channel with the mobile station. Assessment of the quality of the communication channel can be expressed in terms of signal to noise ratio, the number of errors in the received information or in other ways. Assessment of the quality of the channel in the form of a sequence of values is fed to the input of block averaging in each sector technique, which smoothes the flow of data. The control unit generates a block averaging across all sectors of receiving a set of configuration options needed to provide the desired suppression of the fast fading and the allowable distortion of the useful component of the spectrum of the fading. Depending on the specific implementation of block averaging its setting may be to change the integration time, the change of the filter coefficients or adjust its sampling rate, and so on Smoothed estimates of channel quality received from the output of block averaging of each sector receiving at the control unit, which, depending on the particular implementation, uses them to form a decision about estafette may be, in particular, the comparison of the assessments of the quality of alternative channels of communication between the sectors of one base station or base stations that are in the same location, with the given mobile station. Then the sector receiving a multi-sector base station (Q sectors) or base station (from Q in one location), the quality of communication with which is the best, is the best candidate for the servicing of the mobile station. Thus, the second embodiment of the receiving apparatus of a base station significantly expands the capabilities of the user in comparison with the first embodiment, in the case when you need it.

Therefore, the proposed device meets the criterion of "novelty".

Comparative analysis of the reception apparatus of a base station according to the second variant with other technical solutions known in the art [1 and 2], revealed no signs stated in the characterizing part of the formula.

Therefore, the proposed device meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty", "technical solution", "significant differences" and is responsible inventive step.

The method of switching the base steride distribution in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station and reception apparatus of a base station (options) created in a single inventive concept and helped to solve the problem - improving the quality and reliability of the communication system capacity and optimal resource allocation system by reducing the impact of fast fading in the channel for a decision about a course of transfer.

Fig. 1 explains the principle of soft handover, where BS and BS respectively the base station of the first and second cells, BS.1 and BS.2 - accordingly, the sector of the base station 1; BS.1 - sector base station 2; a) trajectory of the mobile station; b), C) non-compliant chart of average quality links with sectors BS.1, BS.2 and BS 2.1; tl is the time during which the mobile station maintains BS.1, t2 is the time during which the mobile station maintains BS.2, t3 is the time during which the mobile station maintains BS.1. Fig. 2 illustrates the unreliability of decision making with the use of comparing the level of the pilot signals in the prototype due to the fading in the channel. Fig. 3 illustrates a good example of spectral composition and type of the corresponding signals in the time domain, where a spectrum of the fast fading (multipath interference); b - the basic frequency of the fast fading; - range of slow fading (terrain shadowing by large objects); d - slow level changes from diagrammen block diagram of a reception apparatus of a base station (prototype). Fig. 5 illustrates a method of switching a base station in a cellular radio communication systems with code division multiplexing (claimed invention) when moving mobile station from one cell to another. In Fig. 6 presents a block diagram of a reception apparatus of a base station in the first embodiment (the invention), and Fig. 7 presents a block diagram of a reception apparatus of a base station according to the second variant (the invention). In Fig. 8 is a block diagram of the block frequency analysis shown in the example of execution for the receiving equipment of the base station by the first and second variants of execution. In Fig. 9 is a block diagram of the analyzer, included in the block diagram of the block frequency analysis 10 shown as an example run.

Reception apparatus of a base station (prototype) in accordance with Fig. 4 J contains space-separated branches of the reception, each branch contains a reception antenna 1-1-1-J, analog receiver 2-1 - 2-J, H data receivers 3-1 to 3-N - 4-1 To 4-N and the receiver search 5-1 to 5-J, the adder explode 6 and the decoder 7, and the control unit 8, and the input of the antenna 1-1 - 1-J in each branch of the reception signal is the input of the output it is connected to the analog receiver 2-1 - 2-J in its branches reception centuries of this branch of reception, the output of each receiver data 3-1 to 3-J and 4-1 to 4-J with each branch of the intake is connected to a corresponding input of the adder explode 6, the second input of each receiver data 3-1 to 3-J and 4-1 to 4-J is connected to its corresponding first output control unit 8, which are the control for data receivers, each receiver search 5-1 to 5-J with each branch of the intake connected with a corresponding first input of the control unit 8 and is informational, the output of the adder explode 6 is connected to the decoder 7, the output of which is connected to the second input of the control unit 8 and an information input, the second and third outputs of the control unit 8 are the outputs of the receiving equipment of the base station to the system controller, and the third output is the information, the fourth output control, third and fourth inputs of the control unit 8 are respectively instrumentation and control inputs receiving equipment to the base station.

Reception apparatus of a base station according to the first embodiment (of the invention) in accordance with Fig. 6 J contains space-separated branches of the reception, each branch contains a reception antenna 1-1 - 1-J, analog receiver 2-1 - 2-J, H p and the input of the antenna 1-1 - 1-J in each branch of the reception signal is the first input of the output it is connected to the analog receiver 2 - 1 - 2-J, the output of which is connected to the first input of each receiver data 3-1 to 3-J and the receiver input search 5-1 to 5-J in the corresponding branch of the reception, the output of each receiver data 3-1 to 3-J - 4-1 To 4-N, with each branch of the intake is connected to a corresponding input of the adder explode 6, the second input of each receiver data 3-1 to 3-J - 4-1 To 4-N is connected to its corresponding first output control unit 8, which are the control for data receivers, each receiver search 5-1 to 5-J with each branch of the intake connected with a corresponding first input of the control unit 8 and is informational, the output of the adder explode 6 is connected to the decoder 7, the output of which is connected to the second input of the control unit 8 and an information input, the second and third outputs of the control unit 8 are the outputs of the receiving equipment of the base station to the system controller, and the third way is informational, the fourth output control, third and fourth inputs of the control unit 8 are respectively instrumentation and control inputs receiving equipment base stations is to averaging 9 and the block frequency analysis, 10, at the same time, the output of each receiver data 3-1 - 3-H - 4-1 to 4-N, with each branch of the intake is connected to a corresponding first input of the block frequency analysis 10, second, third and fourth inputs of which are connected respectively with the fourth, fifth and sixth outputs of the control unit 8, the output of the analysis block frequency 10 - with the fifth input of the control unit 8, the output of the adder explode 6 connected to the first input of block averaging 9 in every sector of the reception signal, the second input of block averaging 9 is connected to the fifth output control unit 8, and the output of block averaging 9 - with the sixth input of the control unit 8 and is output smoothed estimates of the level of the signal.

Reception apparatus of a base station according to the second embodiment (of the invention) in accordance with Fig. 7 contains Q sectors receiving the signal, the adder explode 6, a decoder 7, and the control unit 8, each sector of the reception signal J contains space-separated branches of the reception, each of which contains the antenna 1-1 - 1-J, analog receiver 2-1 - 2-J, H data receivers 3-1 to 3-N and the receiver search 5-1 to 5-J, and the entrance of the antennas 1-1 to 1-J in each branch is an input device, the output it is connected to the analog receiver 2-1 - 2-J in the receiver search 5-1 - 5-J in this branch of the reception, the output of each receiver data 3-1 to 3-J - 4-1 To 4-N, with each branch of the intake is connected to a corresponding input of the adder explode 6, the second input of each receiver data 3-1 to 3-J - 4-1 To 4-N is connected to its corresponding first output control unit 8, which are the control for data receivers, each receiver search 5-1 to 5-J with each branch of the intake connected with a corresponding first input of the control unit 8 and is informational the output of the adder explode 6 is connected to the decoder 7, the output of which is connected to the second input of the control unit 8 and an information input, the second and third outputs of the control unit 8 are the outputs of the receiving equipment of the base station to the system controller, and the second output is information, the third output control, third and fourth inputs of the control unit 8 are, respectively, information and control inputs receiving equipment to the base station. In addition, in the receiving equipment of the base station advanced in every sector of the reception signal inputted block averaging 9, the block frequency analysis 10 and the adder 11, with the additional output of each receiver data 3-1 to 3-H and 4-1 to 4-N with each of the information is output, the output of the adder 11 is connected to the first input of the block averaging 9, the output of which is connected to the fifth input of the control unit 8 and is output smoothed estimates of the level signal, the second input of block averaging 9 is connected with the fourth control the output control unit 8, second, third and fourth inputs of the block frequency analysis 10 connected respectively to the fifth, sixth and seventh control outputs of the control unit 8.

The block frequency analysis 10 can be designed in many variants, for example in accordance with Fig. 8 is connected in series multiplexer 12, a multiplier 13 and the analyzer 14, the first inputs of the multiplexer 12 are informational inputs of this block, the second input of the multiplexer 12 is a control (with control unit 8), the output of the multiplexer is connected to the first input of the multiplier 13, the second input of which is also the project Manager (from the control unit 8), the output of the multiplier 13 is connected to the first input of the analyzer 14, the second input of which is also the project Manager (from the control unit 8), the output of the parser is the output of this unit to the control unit 8 and an information output about the speed of fading in the channel.

In the block diagram of analizator 14 for block frequency analysis 10 can be made of different options, for example, in accordance with Fig. 8 contains shaper weight function 15, connected in series multiplier 16, a buffer 17, the element fast Fourier transform 18, the comparison element 19.

Block averaging 9 may be also different, for example, can be an integrator, a digital filter or any other device to smooth data flow.

To implement the method of switching the base station in the cellular radio communication systems with code division multiplexing using the N base stations of the cellular radio system so that the mobile station in any point of space can communicate with at least one base station. N base stations are combined into logical groups so that in the active group included all base station through which the mobile station performs full-duplex communication, and in the next group - all base stations, directly neighboring base stations of the active group.

The method of switching the base station in the cellular radio communication systems with code division multiplexing implemented as follows (in accordance with Fig. 5).

For example, in cell siteeasy a regular hexagon, then with any base station adjacent six base stations.

The mobile station being located in the first cell, communicates with the first base station, which, therefore, is in the active group, and six base stations directly adjacent to the first base station are neighboring group. On command from the system controller searches the signal of the mobile station on each of the six base stations neighboring groups and assess his level. Thus, for example, define the second and the third base station of a neighboring group, in which the evaluation signal level exceeds a given threshold value. Then, on the first, second and third base stations measure the relative level of the received signal at intervals of not more than, the interval between commands adjust the power. Using the information about the frequency of fading in the channel, smooth received sample sequence of the relative level of the first, second and third base stations. If the second base station smoothed level exceeds a predefined threshold value, it is transferred to the active set and include on it the receiver and transmitter for receiving and transmitting signal. At the mobile station Ave is additionally included all base stations, directly adjacent to the second base station. Thus in the neighboring group together entered the base station adjacent to the first base station, and base station adjacent to the second base station. And the first and second base stations that support full-duplex communication with a mobile station located in the active group.

Upon further movement of the mobile station, the smoothed level of the signal received at the first base station falls below a given threshold, the base station is removed from the active group and accordingly stops the reception and signal transmission.

Now in the active group only includes the second base station and the neighboring group of base stations adjacent to the second base station.

The method of switching the base station in the cellular radio communication systems with code division multiplexing and a method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station to implement the receiving equipment of one base station (the first option) in accordance with Fig. 6.

The input signal from the movable hundred what-to-digital conversion in an analog receivers 2-1 - 2. the Output signal from analog receivers 2-1 to 2-J is supplied to the corresponding data receivers 3-1 to 3-N - 4-1 To 4-N.

Receivers search 5-1 to 5-J perform the detection of the separate beams of the signal in the delay and information about the detected beam is passed to the control unit 8.

In accordance with a control signal from the control unit 8 data receivers 3-1 to 3-J - 4-1 - 4-J perform demodulation of the input signal. The information output data receivers 3-1 to 3-J and 4-1 to 4-J in a sequence of modulation symbols is supplied to the corresponding input of the adder explode 6.

An additional output from each receiver data 3-1 to 3-J and 4-1 to 4-J, which is information about the relative output level of the signal supplied to the corresponding input of the block frequency analysis 10.

In the adder explode all 6 characters level on time, multiplied by weights and summed. The result is a sequence of modulation symbols, which is supplied simultaneously to the decoder 7 and the block averaging 9. The decoder 7 decodes and transmits to the corresponding input of the control unit 8.

In block averaging 9 use the received modulation symbols received in inost values of the relative level is subjected to smoothing, for example, using a filter of low frequency or any other device for smoothing. To configure the block averaging 9 use the information about the fundamental frequency of fading. The output signal from block averaging 9 is supplied to a corresponding sixth input of the control unit 8.

The input signal for the block frequency analysis 10 (Fig. 8) may be formed by multiplexing or additional summation of the output signals from the data receivers 3-1 to 3-J and 4-1 to 4-J. In this implementation, it uses the multiplexer 12 is controlled by a signal from the control unit 8. The control algorithm multiplexer may, for example, be switching its output samples of one of the receivers of the multiplexer until the receiver will not lose demoduliruem beam or until the signal is sufficient for the analysis level. In case of beam loss or decrease its level selects another destination, and such, for which there has been minimal compared to other receivers time since demodulation of the beam.

The output signal from the multiplexer 12 (Fig. 8) is supplied to the multiplier 13, where it is multiplied by the sequence of coefficients transmitted from the control unit 8.

is preobrazovaniya Fourier. Determine the spectral component with the highest frequency level exceeding a predetermined threshold value, which sets the control unit 8. The frequency of the found components are used as information about the fundamental frequency of fading.

In the control unit 8 assess the quality and form of the command to adjust the power, and if the evaluation of the quality of communication at the base station exceeds a predefined threshold value, then form a team to reduce power, if the evaluation of the quality of communication at the base station is less than the specified threshold value, then form a team to increase capacity. The generated command is passed in the forward channel and simultaneously reported to the system controller. The base station is not included in the active group that does not transmit a signal of the direct channel and does not generate commands adjust the power.

The output signal from block averaging 9, which is a smoothed estimate of the level of the signal through the control unit 8 transmits to the system controller.

In accordance with information, the system controller generates a sequence of coefficients, using commands to control power from all base stations in the active group. The cylinder if at least one command requires reducing power, the form factor of B, where A is a given increment of capacity (for example +ldB), the specified step decrease the power (for example-ldB). The resulting coefficients are transmitted to all base stations in the active group and the base station neighboring groups that monitor the signal level of the mobile station.

In the system controller can calculate the frequency of the fading channel. All base stations in the active group and all base stations in the neighboring groups that monitor the signal level of the mobile station transmits to the system controller the results of estimating the frequency of fading, the received block frequency analysis 10. The system controller calculates a generalized evaluation of the frequency, for example by averaging the estimates obtained from base stations. The obtained generalized assessment transfers to all base stations in the active group and all base stations in the neighboring groups that monitor the signal level of the mobile station.

The system controller compares the received from base stations smoothed estimates of the level (with units averaging 9) among themselves or with switching thresholds and the results of the comparison decides on the composition of the active group.

Nchod block frequency analysis 10 (multiplier 13 in the block frequency analysis). Moreover, as in the synchronous communication system known the exact time of execution by the mobile station commands the power control, the base station (in the control unit 8) carry out the alignment in time of the sequence of coefficients of the synchronous execution of commands adjust the power.

To control block averaging 9 using generalized estimating the frequency from the system controller. If the system controller not used for computing the generalized assessment, control block averaging 9 use the output of the block frequency analysis, 10, converted in the control unit 8.

The method of switching the base station in the cellular radio communication systems with code division multiplexing and a method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station to implement the receiving equipment of the base station (the second option) in accordance with Fig. 7. Reception apparatus of a base station according to the second variant is used under the condition of multi-sector base station. In this case, to improve the reception quality, the outputs of all of the data receivers of all branches accept all sectors, prinia. use one adder explode 6, one decoder and one control unit for Q sectors of the signal). Therefore, the blocks averaging 9 in every sector of the reception signal is connected not to the output of the adder explode, and through the adder to the additional outputs of the receivers of the data of the corresponding sector. This is because when such inclusion adder explode 6 of the output signal is not possible to obtain information about the position of the mobile station relative to the sectors receiving the signal, because it is impossible to compare the levels of the signals received in the relevant sectors of the administration.

The methods implemented as follows.

The input signal from the mobile station arrives at the inputs of spatially separated antennas in each branch of the intake 1-1 - 1-J in each sector signal or each base station (e.g., Q sectors of the reception signal of one multi-sector base station or Q base stations located in the same place), perform analog-to-digital conversion in an analog receivers 2-1 - 1-1. The output signal from analog receivers 2-1 to 2-J in each branch receiving respectively supplied to the data receivers 3-1 to 3-H - 4-1 to 4-N.

The receiver searches 5-1 to 5-J performs detected by the CLASS="ptx2">

In accordance with a control signal from the control unit the data receivers 3-1 to 3-J and 4-1 to 4-J perform demodulation of the input signal. The information output data receivers 3-1 to 3-J and 4-1 to 4-J in a sequence of modulation symbols is supplied to the corresponding input of the adder explode 6.

An additional output from each receiver data 3-1 to 3-J and 4-1 to 4-J, which is information about the relative output level of the signal is simultaneously supplied to the corresponding input of the block frequency analysis 10 and the adder 11.

In the adder explode all 6 characters level on time, multiplied by weights and summed. The result is a sequence of modulation symbols, which is supplied to the decoder 7. The decoder 7 decodes and transmits to the corresponding input of the control unit 8.

In block averaging 9 is subjected to the output signal of the adder 11 anti-aliasing, for example using a filter of low frequency or any other device for smoothing. To configure the block averaging 9 use the information about the fundamental frequency of fading. The output signal from block averaging 9 is supplied to a corresponding sixth input of the control unit 8.

the simulation of additional output signals from the data receivers 3-1 - 3-J and 4-1 to 4-J. In this implementation, it uses the multiplexer 12 is controlled by a signal from the control unit 8. The control algorithm multiplexer may, for example, be switching its output samples of one of the data receivers. The signal from the selected receiver is transmitted to the output multiplexer while the receiver will not lose demoduliruem beam or until the signal is sufficient for the analysis level. In case of beam loss or decrease its level selects another destination, and such, for which there has been minimal compared to other receivers time since demodulation of the beam.

Instead multiplexer 12 can be used in the adder.

The output signal from the multiplexer 12 (Fig. 8) is supplied to the multiplier 13, where it is multiplied by the sequence of coefficients transmitted from the control unit 8.

The received sequence is subjected to frequency analysis, such as spectral analysis using Fourier transform. Determine the spectral component with the highest frequency level exceeding a predetermined threshold value, which sets the control unit 8. The frequency components found use as infamante power adjustment, moreover, if the evaluation of the quality of communication at the base station exceeds a predefined threshold value, then form a team to reduce power, if the evaluation of the quality of communication at the base station is less than the specified threshold value, then form a team to increase capacity. The generated command is passed in the forward channel and simultaneously reported to the system controller. The base station (sector) that is not included in the active group that does not transmit a signal of the direct channel and does not generate commands adjust the power.

The output signal from block averaging 9, which is a smoothed estimate of the level of the signal through the control unit 8 transmits to the system controller.

In accordance with information, the system controller generates a sequence of coefficients, using commands to control power from all base stations in the active group. The coefficients form so that, if all commands to increase power, form factor, equal to 1/A, if at least one command requires reducing power, form factor, equal to B, where A is a given increment of capacity (for example +ldB), the specified step decrease the power (for example-ldB). The resulting coefficients penem signal of the mobile station.

In the system controller can calculate the frequency of the fading channel. All base stations in the active group and all base stations in the neighboring groups that monitor the signal level of the mobile station transmits to the system controller the results of estimating the frequency of fading, the received block frequency analysis 10.

The system controller calculates a generalized evaluation of the frequency, for example by averaging the estimates obtained from base stations. The obtained generalized assessment transfers to all base stations in the active group and all base stations in the neighboring groups that monitor the signal level of the mobile station. The system controller compares the received from base stations smoothed estimates of the level (with units averaging 9) among themselves or with switching thresholds and the results of the comparison decides on the composition of the active group.

The base station serves obtained from the system controller, the sequence of coefficients to the second input of the block frequency analysis, 10 (multiplier 13). Moreover, as in the synchronous communication system known the exact time of execution by the mobile station commands the power control, the base stations is Oleniy commands adjust the power.

To control block averaging 9 using generalized estimating the frequency from the system controller. If the system controller not used for computing the generalized assessment, control block averaging 9 use the output of the block frequency analysis, 10, converted in the control unit 8.

To the control unit 8 is connected to the Q outputs of blocks averaging (from all sectors of the signal), so it can stand-alone (without the participation of the system controller) to control the switching procedure in relation to these Q sectors of the reception.

Computer simulation method for switching a base station in a cellular radio communication systems with code division multiplexing, a method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station and a reception apparatus of a base station (options), showed that the claimed invention have several significant advantages compared with the known technical solutions in this field of technology. For example, the setting accuracy of the moments of the beginning and end of a relay transmission is improved in comparison with the prototype more than 3 times, eliminated the effect of a ping-pong table.

The method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station allows you to have information about the fundamental frequency of the fading for the precise determination of the moments of the beginning and end of switching the base station in the cellular radio communication systems with code division multiplexing. The method can also be used in other applications, for example in the framework of the system information about the frequency of fading can be used to improve the algorithm adjust the power of the mobile station.

Reception apparatus of a base station according to the first embodiment due to the introduction of block averaging and the block frequency analysis, and accordingly new connections in the block diagram allows to obtain a smoothed estimate of the quality of the communication channel, i.e., to reduce the impact of fast fading in Canastota fading (the speed of the mobile station) forms for block averaging a set of settings, necessary to ensure the required suppression of fast fading and allowable distortion of the useful component of the spectrum of the fading. Smoothed estimates of channel quality received from the output of block averaging on the control unit, which, depending on the particular implementation, uses them to form a decision about a course of transfer or direct them to the appropriate controller. The algorithm is a decision about a course of transfer may consist, in particular, to compare the quality evaluation of alternative channels of communication with this mobile station. Then the base station, the communication quality which is best, is the best candidate for the servicing of the mobile station.

Reception apparatus of a base station according to the second variant introduced with it new blocks and connections allows to obtain similar advantages, but its peculiarity is that it gives the opportunity to realize the claimed methods when using another structure of a base station (cell cell). This structure can be used for example, when a multi-sectoral division of the cell. When moving mobile station between sectors of a base station receiving signals is the ora signals can then be combined on a single adder explode, that under certain conditions, will provide significant benefits in the quality of reception. However, at the output of adder explode can not be obtained position information of the mobile station relative to the adjacent sectors. Therefore, in the second embodiment, the receiving equipment proposed another turning block averaging, forming a smoothed estimate of the quality of the communication channel in this sector.

In aggregate, the claimed group of inventions can improve the quality and reliability of communication, increase system capacity and to optimally allocate system resources due to more accurate setting of the moments of the beginning and end of a relay transmission in the presence of the communication channel is fast fading.

Sources of information

1. Standard compatibility the mobile and base stations for dual-mode cellular broadband systems with expansion of the range. TIA/EIA/IS-95-A, may 1995. Telecommunications Industry Association.

2. U.S. patent N 5101501, MKI5H 04 Q 7/00, H 04 M 11/00.

3. U.S. patent N 5345467, MKI5H 04 L 27/30 "Method and device for handoff in the CDMA system".

4. Ed. by K. A. samoilo. Radio circuits and signals. M.: Radio and communication. -1982, S. 267 - 268.

5. S. L. Marple, Jr Ed. by I. S. of Tanner. C is a cellular radio systems with code division multiplexing, when using N base stations of the cellular radio system so that the mobile station in any point of space can communicate with at least one base station, namely, that combine the N base stations in logical groups so that in the active group was composed of all the base station through which the mobile station performs full-duplex communication, and in the next group - all base stations, directly neighboring base stations of the active group, to estimate the parameters of the communication channel with the mobile station through each of the M base stations of the active group and each of the K base stations neighboring groups, compared with the preset threshold value, if the estimation of the channel parameters of any of neighboring base stations of the group exceeds a predefined threshold value, then such base station is switched to the active group and form it into channels of the transmit and receive signal for the mobile station, if the estimate of the channel parameters any of the M base stations of the active group is below a predetermined threshold level, when M is greater than 1 exclude such base station from the active set, removing it channels transmit and receive si the days of the group and assess its level, allocate L channels from the channels of neighboring groups in which the evaluation signal level exceeds a given threshold value, estimate the frequency of the fading signal from the mobile station in the distribution environment, compute a smoothed estimate of the level of the signal from the mobile station in each of the L channels of neighboring groups and in each of the M channels of the active group by adaptive smoothing of the sequence of estimates of the level of the received signal, are used to adapt the information about the fundamental frequency of signal fading, thus receive the M plus L smoothed estimates the obtained smoothed estimates of the level are compared with each other or with switching thresholds and the results of the comparison shall decide on the composition of the active group.

2. The method of estimating the frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment in wireless systems with closed loop power control of the mobile station, at which rate the quality of communication for each of the M base stations of an active group with an interval equal to the interval between commands adjust the power, and transmit mobile station commands power adjustment, and, if the evaluation of the quality of communication at the base station exceeds a predefined threshold value, then the ranks of the threshold, form a team to increase capacity, allocate to the mobile station from each of the M received signals commands power control and regulate the power so that if the received commands require increasing the capacity, increase the capacity And in time, if at least one command requires reducing power while decreasing in time, and As - specified step of increasing the power In a specified step decrease the power, namely, that measure the relative level of the received signal on each of the K base stations neighboring groups, characterized in that to measure the relative level of the received signal on each of the L of the K base stations neighboring groups in which the evaluation signal level exceeds the specified threshold value with an interval equal to the interval between the teams power adjustment, form M plus L sequences of samples, remember to each of the M base stations of the active group are transmitted to mobile station commands power adjustment, form a sequence of coefficients, used for learned commands in such a way that if all M commands require increasing the capacity, form factor I/A, if at least one team otnositelnogo level of the received signal on each of the M base stations of the active group and each of L base stations neighboring groups by multiplying the elements of the source sequence to the corresponding elements of the received sequence of coefficients, form of assessment the fundamental frequency of signal fading by frequency analysis of the obtained corrected sequences on each of the M base stations of the active group and each of L base stations neighboring groups, thus forming a M plus L estimates, calculate the average estimate of the fundamental frequency of signal fading in the distribution environment for a given mobile station, using all the estimates obtained all M plus L estimates.

3. Reception apparatus of a base station containing J spatially dispersed branches reception, each of which includes an antenna, an analog receiver, N receiver data receiver search adder explode, the decoder and the control unit, the input of the antenna in each branch of the reception signal is the input of the output it is connected to the input of an analog receiver, the output of which is connected to the first input of each of the data receiver and the receiver input search in this branch of the reception, the output of each receiver of the data from each branch of the intake is connected to a corresponding input of the adder explode, the second input of each data receiver is connected to its corresponding first output control unit, which are the control for prihoda control unit and information the output of the adder explode is connected to the decoder, the output of which is connected to the second input of the control unit and an information input, the second and third outputs of the control unit are the outputs of the receiving equipment of the base station to the system controller, and the third output is the information, the fourth output control, third and fourth inputs of the control unit are respectively instrumentation and control inputs receiving equipment of a base station, characterized in that the input block averaging and the block frequency analysis, an additional output of each receiver of the data from each branch of the intake is connected to a corresponding first input of the block frequency analysis, second, the third and fourth inputs of which are connected respectively with the fourth, fifth and sixth outputs of the control unit, the output unit of analysis frequencies with the fifth input of the control unit, the output of the adder explode connected to the first input of block averaging, the second input of block averaging is connected to the seventh output control unit, and the output of block averaging with the sixth input of the control unit and is output smoothed estimates of the level of the signal.

4. Reception apparatus of a base station, steriade explode and decoder, and the control unit, each branch contains a reception antenna, analog receiver, N receiver data receiver search, the input of the antenna in each branch receiving an input of the output it is connected to the input of an analog receiver, the output of which is connected to the first input of each of the data receiver and the receiver input search in this branch of the reception, the output of each receiver of the data from each branch of the intake is connected to a corresponding input of the adder explode, the second input of each data receiver is connected to its corresponding first output control unit, which are the control for data receivers, the output of each receiver search with each branch of the intake connected with a corresponding first input of the control unit and control unit information, the output of the adder explode is connected to the decoder, the output of which is connected to the second input of the control unit and an information input, the second and third outputs of the control unit are the outputs of the receiving equipment of the base station to the system controller, and the third output is the information, the fourth output control, third and fourth inputs of the control unit are respectively informera signal entered to the adder, block averaging and the block frequency analysis, an additional output of each receiver of the data from each branch of the intake connected to respective first inputs of the block frequency analysis and the input of the adder and an information output, the output of the adder connected to the first input of block averaging, the output of which is connected to the fifth input of the control unit and is output smoothed estimates of the level signal, the second input of block averaging is connected with the fourth control the output control unit, the second, third and fourth inputs of the block frequency analysis connected respectively to the fifth, sixth and seventh control outputs of the control unit.

 

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