The method of disposal of nuclear substances

 

(57) Abstract:

The method of disposal of nuclear substances allows for the disposal of radioactive substances in any state: liquid, solid, and with the possibility of changing States of matter. Capacity for disposal is multi-layered and all is filled with an aqueous medium, each layer has a thickness that ensure compliance with radiation safety standards. Multilayer container of the nuclear substance is placed on the bottom of the reservoir. Each cavity is connected to the upper part of the back-pressure valve with external water environment. The inner cavity is additionally connected with the external environment by a tube placed in the lower part of the cavity. Tube bend up and fill with a liquid separating medium, which can be used mercury. The technical result is to protect the environment from radiation and contamination radioactive substance. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The technical solution relates to the field of disposal of radioactive substances in liquid or solid state after use of the substance in the industry for any type of radiation or combination of types of radiation.

There is a method of placement of the radiation is postimage radiation (I, p. 141).

The disadvantages of the described method can be considered:

- you can activate the neutron flux of sediment in the aquatic environment, with consequent impacts on living creatures in the aquatic environment with all the consequences that

if the radioactive substance is in a liquid state, the entire volume will be dangerous to all living things with any type of radiation,

if the disposal is subject to the Assembly with neutron radiation, it is accompanied by emission in the form of helium, hydrogen, and sealed the signing of the substance in the tank would burst capacity with the emission of substances into the environment.

The situation is exacerbated by heat allocation substance with insufficient heat.

The combination of radiation, heat, gas leads to the destruction of almost any material, and the half-life can reach tens of thousands of years for heavy elements (II, page 141). Similar disadvantages does any reactor (research or energy), because all the factors mentioned above are present in the implementation process. All materials used in the reactor will break from these influences to which prilocaine deficiencies namely:

- ensure the protection of radioactive substances protective layer and a material that will provide for a specified period of the external security environment from radiation and direct exposure to substances in the environment,

- possibility of filling the storage of liquid, solid and material that can change its state, for example, when the destruction of the Assembly.

This objective is achieved in that the internal cavity of the container filled with radioactive material and communicate it with the external environment substance in liquid form through a tube, the capacity to perform multilayer and the entire volume, including the internal fill fluid, which will be omitted capacity, while the thickness of each water layer is carried out sufficient to ensure radiation safety standards each layer, each cavity is provided in its upper portion with a check valve direction in the environment.

Explanation way:

1. If should be buried Assembly in the solid state, it is located in the inner cavity with clearance relative to the first shell with a gap, which will provide security standard after the first shell. The retention Assembly may be carried out will limit KJV the NCI with a radioactive substance. It may be stand on legs, like a stool.

2. A more complex case, when the substance is in a liquid state and in this case there is a direct effect of radiation on the material wall. In any material, the wall will crumble. However, when the destruction of the first inner wall hundreds of times will decrease the concentration of radioactive substances, because the thickness of one layer between the inner and second wall must meet safety standards, but in the General case, the mass of water between the layers is subject cubic dependence (as for the ball in the General case), so the mass of one environment will increase not less than the 33= 27, since the thickness of the layer in the inner cavity will provide security. The second layer will reduce the concentration of the 27320,000 times. If layers of such a few, we can achieve an arbitrarily low concentration. Anyway, no one bothers to achieve any degree of protection as the destruction of the walls.

3. Materials for walls it is better to be combined: for example polyethylene and non-ferrous metal. Polyethylene keeps well the impact of sea water, as the metal color. The polyethylene can be sprayed. All construction is soft and can be thin-walled.

4. About the e tube with mercury, which will fill the lower part of the water environment in the inner cavity. Mercury will protect from radiation the lower part, and the resulting amalgam will make the bottom strong and protected. Mercury fill until liquid state of matter) until after the check valve on the upper part of the inner cavity will not receive the substance. This means that the internal cavity has an air environment. However, if the air will be formed in the process of radiation, it will be released through the check valve.

The surface of the mercury will be in contact with spring water environment and the internal environment of radioactive substances. Can change only the outer layer of mercury (to oxidize, for example, because the liquid cannot be destroyed, can be formed film). Diffusion is excluded due to the large difference in density and film forming.

Perhaps you can find a more efficient material instead of mercury, but it will require special searches.

Each cavity is filled with an aqueous medium, which is used for dipping, and all layers have the check valve with output up to possible leakage of gas or pressure relief temperature. Thus, the bottom soil will have Acoe device, because it is filled with an aqueous medium, which is the number of layers of water between the shells exceed the desired degree of protection. The device must not be laid on its side, it is desirable to have a large stand under it.

The design provides good heat, so thermal processes will not affect the integrity of the system. After a few hundred years, the entire design will be muddy and further its existence will be provided in a natural way. Mercury will go in the complete destruction in the ground, Yes it is small, because the hydraulic lock of the mercury does not require a large diameter.

Thus, we receive all of the above goals.

Attached is a drawing without explanation for a fuller picture of the way.

Literature used:

1. The effect of radiation on materials and parts, U. the use of nuclear energy while C. M. USSR, a collection of articles translated from English, issue 27, Moscow, 1959

2.Radiation safety standards: (NRB-69), Atomizdat 1972

3. The fast reactors, Palmer, gosatomizdat, Moscow, 1966

1. The method of disposal of nuclear substances, which consists in placing it on the bottom ground of the reservoir, characterized in that the matrix provides safety standards for each of the layers, filled internal cavity connecting with the external environment of the tube, which is placed mainly in the lower part of the inner cavity, bend it up and fill the tube with liquid separating medium, and each cavity and the internal cavity of the link at the top of the tank, a check valve with external water environment.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the separating of the environment of the use of mercury.

 

Same patents:
The invention relates to the protection of the environment, namely the collection and disposal of radioactive waste generated as a result of floating nuclear power plants (PAES)

The invention relates to the field of disposal of radioactive substances

The invention relates to the field of treatment and disposal of soil, soil, bottom sediments of streams contaminated with plutonium isotopes and radionuclides released during accidents during production of underground nuclear explosions in the Northern regions in remote sparsely populated areas

The invention relates to the field of radioactive waste management in nuclear power and industry, and other activities and can be used for long-term storage and/or disposal of moderately and metallovedeniye radioactive waste
The invention relates to the protection of the environment, namely, the cleaning area from radioactive waste, reactor compartments formed by the utilization of nuclear ships, submarines, ships, etc

The invention relates to methods and means for reducing environmental pollution, domestic and industrial waste

The invention relates to the nuclear industry and can be used in the field of disposal of liquid radioactive waste (RW)

The invention relates to the disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in underground repositories

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the disposal of toxic industrial waste in solar rocks

FIELD: monitoring the ecological safety.

SUBSTANCE: it is proposed a new method for monitoring the safety of sites for storage of radioactive wastes. The method is based on determination of the Cr(VI) nonsorbed ion concentration in the soils, surrounding the storage sites.

EFFECT: reliability of monitoring the safety of sites for radioactive waste storage.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: evacuation of radioactive wastes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for container-free subsurface burial of solid radioactive wastes in abandoned deep workings of cryolite zone involves delivery of solid radiation sources pre-cooled in winter to abandoned mine workings. Radiation sources are placed in layer-by-layer manner on prepared falsework paled floor, leveled, compacted, flooded with water, and frozen by natural cold before piling radioactive wastes to full height of subsurface workings. In the process, burial ground is shaped in the form of pillar. Split ice is added in the course of placing layers of solid radioactive wastes including their forced cooling with cold atmospheric air.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and safety.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: disposal of radioactive wastes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for building radioactive waste disposal structure involves formation of horizontal helical system of round-section transport and room tunnels penetrated by single mechanized tunneling machine including erection of grade-crossing elimination structures. Helical system of tunnels is made in the form of ellipse with variable distance between adjacent tunnels of helical system. Grade-crossing elimination structures are erected at two diametrically opposite points of system where each pair of tunnels is joined to form single tunnel communicating with adjacent coupled tunnel through crossover. Tunnel-to-tunnel distance is predetermined at several points by simulation including heat and radiation load on soil mass.

EFFECT: enhanced radiation safety and reduced construction charges.

1 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: methods of the radioactive waste disposal.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the radioactive waste disposal. Substance of the invention: the method of the radioactive waste disposal includes boring of a borehole, placement of containers with the A-waste and leaving of a barrier pillar in the zone of the plastic deformations of the surrounding rocks, filling of the free volume of the borehole with an expanding plugging material and sealing of a the borehole head. At that the A-waste disposal is conducted in a clay bed, which is in a plastic state. The containers with the A-waste are placed in the middle part of the clay bed in its section with a length of l = m -2hδ, where "m" is the clay bed thickness, hδ is the thickness of argillaceous rocks. The plugging of the free volume of the borehole is conducted using the extracted from the borehole dried and crushed rock. At that on the section of placement of the containers the plugging is performed by substitution of the drilling mud, and on the section of the barrier pillar after an evacuation of the drilling mud - by portioned feed with water addition in the volume corresponding to the natural humidity. Advantages of the invention consist in an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased degree of reliability at the radioactive waste land disposal.

5 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: long-term storage of radioactive wastes.

SUBSTANCE: spent nuclear fuel storage has vertical well with bridge in top part of well, containers with spent nuclear fuel boxes disposed in well, and well ventilating system. Containers are made in the form of cylinders with perforated sections in bottom part which are vertically installed on well face. Boxes holding spent nuclear fuel are disposed within container one on top of other. At least one empty container is placed in well and bridge is installed in top part of well below upper ends of containers.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and long time of radioactive wastes isolation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: burying liquid radioactive wastes; waste recovery at radiochemical plants.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for burying liquid radioactive wastes incorporating hydrolyzing admixtures into deep-seated container bed includes correction of waste pH by nitric acid solutions and pre-treatment of container bed by forcing nitric acid solutions therein. Nitric acid solution is introduced into container bed in amount sufficient for neutralizing carbonates contained in soil which enters in reaction with waste and for attaining void liquid pH of 1.5, as well as into wastes until their pH is brought to 1 - 1.5. Under such conditions wastes are passed into deep-seated formations without precipitating over long distances.

EFFECT: elongated working time of well, enhanced safety of burying wastes into deep-seated beds.

1 cl, 3 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: physics; construction.

SUBSTANCE: process of crashed atomic reactor entombment includes construction of underground mortuary in the form of vertical underground excavation. Internal volume of the excavation is filled with ice which forms a new temporary ice foundation under the basis of the crashed reactor. The weight of the latter is shifted to the new ice foundation, heat is conducted to it, and gradually the height of ice foundation is decreasing till the complete removal of ice. At that, the crashed reactor is set at the mortuary made previously at the basement of excavation. Before deposition of the crashed reactor underground, solidity (thickness) of frozen soil body under the reactor basis is improved, and then, after the new ice foundation is ready, the load is increased, and the previous ground base is destroyed by adjoining of excavation ice body to the crashed reactor basis via flexible load-bearing cables laid through the vertical wells.

EFFECT: reduces amount of work in immediate proximity to a crashed atomic reactor.

FIELD: underground disposal of biologically hazardous sewage.

SUBSTANCE: process of underground disposal of biologically hazardous sewage into geological formations, which do not have distinct aquifiers above the working floor, includes drilling of injection wells and pumping sewage into the working floor. The process is distinguished by sewage pumping into working floor simultaneously with technical fluid injection into a stratum above the working floor. Pressure of technical fluid injection into the buffering floor is sustained at the level of 0.9-1.1 of sewage injection pressure in the working floor.

EFFECT: prevents disposed sewage penetration into higher aquifiers.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction, hydrotechnics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to cleaning methods for beds of minor rivers in permafrost zone with seasonal flow from sediments contaminated with radionuclides from radioactive solid waste handling. Removal of contaminated sediments is executed in winter by segments in downstream direction after discharge cancellation and their dewatering. Bottom ground is loosened and mechanically shaved by layers as it is freezed by natural cold with stocking it in temporary piles and subsequent transportation outside river floodplain for burying or laying in surface burial hills. To speed-up layer-by-layer freezing the net of trenches with vertical walls is cut in parallel in bottom ground depth as it freezes. Trench width is defined by parameters of equipment being used, their depth is not less than half a meter and distance between trenches corresponds to double trench depth. The invention allows to isolate from biota (for a period of not less than 100 years) the most migration suspectable solid radioactive wastes and hence to lower the risk of people irradiation.

EFFECT: lowering the risk of people irradiation.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for protection of fresh groundwater, ground and soils from pollution by toxic and radioactive substances in areas of technical wastes storage. In expected place of landfill it is created barrier, formed samples set of ground strata for depth till first water-bearing stratum of protected territory and set of local clay samples from the nearest region. Samples of ground strata are divided into layers presented by different lithological members and then territory is divided into separated sections and for each of them functioning critical time as natural geochemical barrier is defined. Then territorial sections (k) are defined, for them variation range ΔTs of territory required operation life Toper from critical time of its operating as natural geochemical barrier Tscrit exceed previously agreed acceptable value ΔTs= Toper - Tscrit > Tacc. Then it is formed database of potential contaminant migratory parameters for local clays and materials for artificial barriers, each section of being protected territory is covered by barrier material.

EFFECT: providing criterion of predictability territory operation critical time, appraisal ability of contaminants migration velocity in ground strata and increasing of being protected territory operating time.

7 cl, 2 dwg

Up!