The device produce steam by burning carbon-containing material and a gas generator with a rotating fluidized bed

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a device for generating steam by burning fuel in the gas generator with a rotating fluidized bed. The gas generator 1 with a rotating fluidized bed includes the combustion chamber 5 and the stationary supply pipe 3, in which the carbonaceous material and/or limestone on the outside of the gas generator 1 can be fed to the gasification chamber of the combustion chamber 5 through the rotating walls of the combustion chamber 5, and the fixed pipe 3 is located inside the combustion chamber 5 on its axis so that the rotating inner node of the combustion chamber 5 is rotated around a stationary pipe 3. A device for receiving the pair includes a boiler with superheater, economizer and dust collector. The invention allows to prevent premature coking of the fuel and removing his gas stream. 2 C. and 25 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to a new generator with a rotating fluidized bed, which can be used either with the boiler of a power plant in which coal is gasified, and now it is burned to produce steam or microwave heat treatment, or gas turbine, and the loading of coal and limestone in a rotating layer of the gas generator through the rotating section or the back plate of the furnace chamber.

Due to the high cost of oil and the dangers inherent in nuclear power, scientists and engineers back to coal as a cheap and easily accessible energy source. Coal is burned to produce heat that is contained in the pair generated by compact boilers. The steam is used either to drive a turbine generator to generate electricity, or in various industrial productions. Unfortunately, the combustion of coal is allocated SOxand Noxpolluting the environment.

The furnace used in conventional furnaces with coal dust, have low efficiency, because they consume a lot of energy, require the use of costly spraying coal and expensive wet scrubbers to reduce the level of SOx. In addition, the flue gases contain undesirable high concentration of Nox. To reduce the concentration of Noxcommonly used selective catalytic absorption by injecting ammonia or urea, but this can result in ammonia, and it is necessary to use more expensive technical solutions.

In their work to overcome the above deficiencies is key vision of the means of obtaining energy from coal inventor investigated the use of a rotating furnace with a rotating fluidized bed in boiler installations, coal-fired.

Early studies of the rotating furnace with a rotating fluidized bed is described in U.S. patent N 4039272 (Elliott), issued 2.08.77, and articles C. I. Metcalfe and J. R. Howard "creating a fluidized bed and the combustion gas in a rotating fluidized bed", Applied Energy, Applied Science Publishers Ltd. volume 3, (1977), pages 65-73, J., Broughton, D. E. Elliott, "Heat transfer and combustion in a centrifugal fluid layers", I. Chem. E. Symposium Series N 43, page 11-1 - 11-6.

All the above-mentioned rotating furnace with a rotating fluidized bed are designed for burning coal in drums or in the combustion chambers which rotate around a vertical axis so as to form a mainly vertical layers. In U.S. patent N 4039272 (Elliott) describes a device for implementing the reaction in the fluidized bed, comprising a rotating drum with a gas-permeable annular wall. During operation, the layer of particles is supported on the annular wall of the rotating drum and the reagents are served in this layer. Siaosi the gas passes through the annular wall of the drum. For keeping the fine particles carried away from the bed fluidizing gas used by the receiver. These fine particles will return to the layer, upon completion of the work. Mo The above references describe only placed vertically rotating furnace with a rotating fluidized bed.

In U.S. patent N 5070821 (Virr), released 10.12.91, describes a rotating combustion chamber, which includes a rotating drum with a gas-permeable annular wall; means for supplying fluidizing gas through the wall of the drum; a layer of particles, which at least when the gas generator is held on the inner surface of the wall and condense fluidizing gas; discharging means for receiving from the outside of the gas generator of carbon-containing material and loading it into the drum; means for injection of steam into the drum; pipe reducing concentrations of Noxhaving a mixing zone and zone linking nitrogen; means for entering secondary air disposed between the mixing zone and zone linking nitrogen: and means for entering tertiary air, is placed between the pipe reducing the concentration of Noxand the main boiler or furnace.

In accordance with the patent Virr the drum, that is, the rotating section of the combustion chamber, rotates the motor shaft and use of the belt. The shaft includes a shaft directly, the seals, the outer and inner housings and bearings. The shaft is connected to the plate of the distributor of the rotating body. Coal and limestone are loaded into the fluidized bed when Nigeria concentrations of Nox.

All of the above rotating combustion chamber have a disadvantage in the absence of a practical method of input fuel and other means, for example, igniter burner inside a rotating drum. The usual method of supplying coal and limestone in a rotating layer, as described in U.S. patent N 5070821, is to feed them through the pipeline inside the open side of the rotating drum, that is, the side closest to the pipe reducing the concentration of Nox. Such a device in which fuel and limestone are served from the open side of the rotating drum, usually leads to action on fuel high temperature and premature coking. Unfortunately, the generators with rotating fluidized bed are intractable technical problem related to the fuel and limestone in a rotary drum without premature coking or without loss of fuel by taking his gas stream. Both of these factors reduce the efficiency and increase the concentration of SOxand Noxin the boiler due to penetrating or non-gasified regions zakoksovanie fuel coming from the gas generator in the boiler.

The gas generator with a rotating fluidized bed, which comprises: a combustion chamber having a rotating inner node and a fixed outer section, and a rotating internal node includes gazopronitsayemykh annular wall, and a rotating wall that is located perpendicular to the annular wall so that between them form the gasification chamber, and stationary external node includes a fixed housing or casing surrounding the rotating internal node; means for supplying fluidizing gas through the annular wall into the gasification chamber: layer of particles, which at least when the gas generator is held on the inner surface of the annular wall and oijala fluidizing gas; means for feeding carbonaceous material on the outside of the gasifier, the gasification chamber, and means for supplying carbonaceous material to the gasification chamber is a fixed pipeline, located inside the rotating wall on its axis so that the rotating inner node is rotated around a stationary pipe; pipe reducing con placed between the mixing zone and zone linking nitrogen; and means for entering tertiary air, is placed between the pipe reducing the concentration of Noxand the main boiler or furnace.

This design of the core allows the supply of limestone and steam in the gasification chamber through the fixed pipeline. Also in the fixed pipeline can be placed detecting the reaction conditions in the gasification chamber.

Means for rotating the internal node of the combustion chamber around a stationary pipeline includes: drive means for transmitting rotation from the drive to the rotating internal node, and means for transmitting rotation is around a stationary pipe and attached to a rotating internal node; and a bearing located between the outer surface of the rotating part of the internal node, which is located around the fixed pipe and the internal surface of the part fixed to the external node, which is located around the fixed pipeline.

Preferably rotating seals are located between the rotating inner hub and the stationary outer section is audace wall and the gasification chamber. The insulation layer preferably has a conical shape so that the Central portion of the insulation layer has a recess relative to the part of the insulation layer that is in contact with the layer of particles. The Central recess in the insulation layer is located around the outlet of the fixed pipeline.

It is desirable that the generator was located horizontally so that the rotating inner node of the combustion chamber is rotated around its horizontal axis, and a layer of particles inside the gasification chamber is formed around the horizontal axis.

Additionally opposite rotating wall can be placed in the separation wall or the threshold around the annular wall so that the excess particles of the particle layer can be discharged through the dividing wall section of the centrifuge, which is located between the gasification chamber and the pipe reducing the concentration of Nox. Means for oxidation of excess particles may be additionally attached to a section of a centrifuge, where the sulphide of calcium contained in excess particles is converted into calcium sulphate.

The present invention also includes a device for generating steam by the combustion of operatsionalnoy boiler, moreover, the means for entering tertiary air, is placed between the pipe reducing the concentration of Noxand the main boiler; superheater; economizer; dust collectors, fabric filters, and exhaust pipe.

Other objects, advantages and features of this invention will become clear from the following description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which the same parts are labeled with the same numbers.

In Fig. 1 presents a diagram of the gas generator with a rotating fluidized bed having a fixed supply pipe Central location or pipe in accordance with this invention.

In Fig. 2 presents a diagram of the gas generator with a rotating fluidized bed, has a section of the oxidizer in accordance with another variant of embodiment of the present invention.

In Fig. 3 presents a diagram of the nodes bearings and gas seals around the stationary feed pipe Central location in accordance with this invention.

In Fig. 4 presents a diagram of the device produce steam by burning carbonaceous material.

The gas generator with a rotating pseudologia there is a rotating internal node), which specifies the shape of the fluidized bed. This allows the use of higher values of g centrifugal acceleration in the layer that gives the possibility to use a higher speed than is possible when the acceleration is equal to one "g". Thus, the gas generator can operate at speeds of up to 6.1 m/s at facilities burning order 119,2 kJ/m3/h at atmospheric pressure. However, the gas generator with a rotating fluidized bed in accordance with this invention operates on the capacities that make up 1/4 to 1/2 of these quantities, which is enough to obtain a gas with a low heat. The generator works on carbonaceous materials such as light gas oil, gasoline, coal, coal-water emulsion or a suspension of bitumen in water.

This invention can be described best with the help of the attached drawings, where Fig. 1 and 3 presents the scheme of a new gas generator 1 with a rotating fluidized bed, with the supply pipe 3 a Central location, which can be placed mine supply 52, the igniter 50, the steam line 54 and other tools needed to control the reaction conditions of the gasification process.

Of rotations the chamber 5 thus, what prevents premature coking of the fuel. Insulating layer 7, which is located between the rotating wall 9 and fluidized bed 11 has a conical shape, and the outlet 13 filing recessed so that the fuel and/or limestone is directed over the surface of the insulating layer 7 in the fluidized bed 11. Thus, generally, prevents the removal of fuel and/or limestone together with the gas flow. That is, most of the fuel and/or limestone is fed into the combustion chamber 5 through the opening 13 under the action of centrifugal forces occurring inside the combustion chamber 5 during the rotation of the rotating internal node or drum (i.e., rotating wall 9 and the annular wall 17), the fuel and/or limestone pressed against the wall of the insulating layer 7 and lower it down until you reach the fluidized bed 11, where they are splitting.

The gas generator 1 with a rotating fluidized bed is usually attached to the wall 84 of the boiler 80 of the plant, as shown in Fig. 2. The gas generator 1 includes a combustion chamber 5, having a rotating inner node or a drum and a stationary outer section. Rotating inner node includes a rotating wall 9, gaspron the section includes a fixed housing or casing 19. The pipe 33 is located inside the stationary body 19 in order to submit a primary fluidizing gas (i.e. air) and/or combustible gas through the wall 17 in the gasification chamber 21. The layer of particles 11, which at least when the gas generator 1, are held on the gas-permeable wall 17 (i.e., on the distribution plate), oijala fluidizing gas supplied through the pipe 33. Each gas generator 1 is equipped with a fixed pipe or tube 3, which in the gasification chamber 21 may be injected fuel, limestone, water, steam, igniter and tools. The gas generator 1 can be equipped with optional pipe 23 reduce the concentration of Noxwith the agitation zone 25 zone and the 27-linking nitrogen, the input tool secondary air 29 disposed between the mixing zone 25 zone and the 27-linking nitrogen, and means for entering tertiary air 30 placed between the pipe reducing the concentration of Noxand the main boiler or furnace 31.

The gas generator 1 can be modified to include a means for injection of steam into the combustion chamber 5. Pairs together with the fluidizing gas comprising about 10 to 60% of air (stoichiometrical ratio), creates the, that rotating inner node of the combustion chamber 5 is rotated around its horizontal axis, and a layer of particles 11 inside the gasification chamber 21 is formed around the horizontal axis.

Combustion chamber 5 comprises a stationary pipe 3 so that the fuel and/or limestone from the hopper is fed into the gasification chamber 21 by means of a screw feed means on the shaft 52, which is located inside the fixed pipe 3. Rotating inner node of the combustion chamber 5 is rotated around a stationary pipe 3 through the pulley 42, which is connected to the motor 44 via a drive belt (not shown). The pulley 42 is attached to the rotating internal node of the combustion chamber 5 by the bolts 65 which is attached to the rotating wall 9. Rotating wall 9 is rotated around a stationary pipe 3 through bearings 46 mounted in the hub 47, which is part of the stationary casing 19. The bearings 46 are located between the stationary body 19 and the rotating wall 9 so that the rotating inner node is rotated around a stationary pipe 3 at the same time as the fixed housing 19 remains stationary relative to the rotating inner node. Perry stationary casing 19, in order to give the air in the fluidized bed 11 through the gas-permeable annular wall 17. This is accomplished by using a rotating seal 48 between the inner surface of the fixed housing and the outer surface of the rotating wall 9, and between the inner surface of the rotating wall 9 and the outer surface of the fixed pipe 3.

Solid carbonaceous fuel is usually supplied by means of a screw feed means located within the shaft 52, as in the case of liquid fuel is a simple tube with a nozzle on the end.

The igniter 50 may also be introduced into the gasification chamber 21 to the stationary pipe 3. On a stationary pipe 3 in the gasification chamber 21 can be introduced by other means such as means for supplying limestone for sulfur retention, tools such as thermometers, thermocouples), and water or steam to control the gasification process.

In addition, the fixed pipe 3 can additionally be cooled by a cooling fluid, such as water in the pipe 90, covering the fixed pipeline 3.

For sonogi 60. In section centrifuge 60 rapidly rotating solids from the fluidized bed 11 fly through the dividing wall or threshold 62, located at the end of the fluidized bed 11, which is closer to the open side of the combustion chamber 5. Then the solid particles under the action of centrifugal forces fly through the perforated casing 64 and fall in issue 66 of ash. As shown in Fig. 2, solid particles or ash, which under the action of centrifugal forces are in issue 66 ash, contain sulphide of calcium, which falls into the oxidation unit 70.

Oxidative unit 70 is installed directly under the release 66 ash and connects with the furnace chamber 5 through the pipe 72. Ash passes through two ash valve 73, which operate in such a way that the ash passes through them into the oxidation unit 70, and the resulting gas is not. Oxidative unit 70 contains a fluidized bed 74 liquefied oxidizing air supplied through the inlet pipe 76. This air converts the calcium sulfide to calcium sulfate, which allowed for disposal in landfills. Oxidative unit 70 is connected to the duct 78, through which gaseous products of combustion are returned back to the boiler eleased flame detector 82, designed to determine the existence of a stable flame.

The invention also includes a device for generating steam by the combustion of carbonaceous material in the gasifier 1 with a rotating fluidized bed, which comprises the following steps: feeding fluidizing gas and a combustible gas by pipeline 33 and a stationary pipe or the pipe 3 into the combustion chamber 5, and the particle layer, for example, sand, oigawa for the formation of the fluidized bed 11; ignition of combustible gas in the gasification chamber 21 through the burner igniter 50, which can also be placed inside the fixed pipe 3; heating the particles of the layer, approximately, up to 540oC; supply of carbonaceous material and/or limestone from the hopper 40 to the gasification chamber 21 by pipeline or by means of a screw means 52, is placed in a stationary pipe 3; remove combustible gas by terminating its supply pipeline 33; the supply of steam to the gasification chamber 21 to the steam line 54, which can also be placed in a stationary pipe 3; the regulation of the temperature in the gasification chamber 21 in the range of 870 - 980oC by changing the amount fluidizing gas and padaca secondary air through the nozzle 29 of the secondary air conduit 30. Siaosi gas is preferably fed into the combustion chamber 5 in smaller quantities than is required to ensure complete combustion of the carbonaceous material so as to obtain a gas with a low heat.

Combustion chamber 5 includes a rotating internal node and a fixed outer section. Rotating inner node of the combustion chamber 5 includes a rotating wall 9, an annular wall 17 and the insulating layer 7 (optional). The fixed outer section includes a fixed housing or casing 19, located in such a way that between the inner surface of the housing 19 and the outer surface of wall 17 is formed in the Plenum 92. The camera 92 provides a supply of fluidizing gas from the pipe 33 into the housing 19 and then in the gasification chamber 21 through the annular wall 17. Rotating inner node of the combustion chamber 5 is located between the stationary body 19 and the pipe 23 reduce the concentration of NOxthat fixed in the process. Rotating inner node of the combustion chamber 5 is preferably rotated at a speed in the range from 50 rpm to 1000 rpm

Coal, oil, emulsion coal dust in water, a mixture of bitumen with water and similar CME gasification chamber 21 after starting the generator 1. The feed coal is fed into the gasification chamber 21 from the hole 13 in the stationary pipe 3 and is moved in a concave wall insulating layer 7, until it reaches the fluidized bed 11. Preferably, limestone and steam can also be supplied to the gasification chamber 21 to the stationary pipe 3. When operating in normal mode in the gasification chamber 21 is maintained a temperature of about 870 - 980oC, providing the conditions of recovery and getting hot gas with a low heat of combustion, that is, 3730 - 5960 kJ/m3. Producer gas exits the chamber 21 and enters the mixing zone 25 of the tube 23 reduce the concentration of Noxwhere the temperature of the gas increases. Secondary air is injected into the pipe 23 reduce the concentration of Noxthrough a nozzle 29 and raises the temperature to 1540 - 1760oC. Secondary air reacts with the gas in the zone 27 fix nitrogen in accordance with the following equation:

4NH3+ 3O2+ N2---> 6H2O + 3N2.

Thus, higher temperatures decompose the ammonium and any cyanide hydrogen to water vapor and nitrogen.

Gas with a low heat of combustion after passing zone 27 linking nitrogen imeet in contact with the tertiary air (the air for combustion), coming from the pipe 30, to provide complete combustion of gas with a low heat of combustion coming from the gas generator 1. Because some particles of coal ash coming from the gas generator 1 is connected to the boiler or furnace, the resulting flame will be bright. This flame has a temperature of about 1200 - 1650oC.

Heat produced by the flame of the gas generator 1, is used to produce steam in the heat exchangers placed in the boiler. Flue gas exits the combustion chamber of the boiler through sirovy the heat exchanger and superheater. Then, the combustion gas passes through the economizer and the dust collector with fabric filters, dust collector, he sent in a chimney. Flue gas discharged from a chimney into the atmosphere, typically contains less than 10% SOxand less than 100 ppm Nox(up to 25 ppm).

The gas generator with a rotating fluidized bed in accordance with this invention, it is proposed to use conventional boilers with a capacity of 50 - 660 MW, operating at a spray angle, instead of conventional ovens. This generator can also be complexion with a reverberatory furnace for melting metal or heat-treating.

1. The gas generator with a rotating fluidized bed, characterized in that it is provided with a combustion chamber containing a rotating internal node, comprising gas-permeable annular wall and a rotating wall that is located perpendicular to the annular wall to form between the said walls of the gasification chamber, and stationary external node, comprising a stationary casing mounted around the rotating internal node, means for supplying fluidizing gas through the annular wall into the gasification chamber, the layer of particles liquefaction them fluidizing gas, located on the inner surface of the annular wall, means for supplying carbonaceous material on the outside of the gasifier, the gasification chamber, made in the form of a fixed pipeline, located inside the rotating wall on its axis while rotating inner Assembly is mounted for rotation about a fixed pipeline.

2. The gas generator under item 1, characterized in that it includes means for supplying limestone outside of ha is combined under item 1, characterized in that it includes means for supplying steam or water on the outside of the gasifier, the gasification chamber made in the form of a fixed pipeline.

4. The gas generator under item 1, characterized in that it comprises means of controlling the reaction conditions in the gasification chamber, located in the fixed pipeline.

5. The gas generator under item 1, characterized in that the rotating inner node additionally includes an insulating layer located between the rotating wall and the gasification chamber.

6. The gas generator under item 1, characterized in that the insulating layer has a tapered shape, wherein the Central portion of the insulating layer has a recess in relation to that part of the insulating layer which is in contact with the layer of particles.

7. The gas generator under item 1, characterized in that the Central part of the recess in the insulating layer is located around the outlet of the fixed pipeline.

8. The gas generator under item 1, characterized in that it is horizontal, with rotating inner node of the combustion chamber is mounted for rotation around its horizontal asator under item 1, characterized in that it includes a dividing wall dropping in section centrifuge excess particles of the particle layer mounted around the annular wall and is associated with a section of a centrifuge.

10. The gas generator under item 9, characterized in that it includes means of oxidation of excess particles from the cooling centrifuge and conversion of calcium sulfide in excess particles in the calcium sulfate.

11. The gas generator under item 1, characterized in that it contains means of rotation of the rotating inner node of the combustion chamber around the fixed pipeline, comprising drive means for transmitting rotation from the drive to the rotating inner node located around the fixed pipe and mounted on the rotating inner node, the bearing located between the external surface of the rotating part of the internal node that is located around the fixed pipe and the internal surface of the stationary part of the external node that is located around the fixed pipeline.

12. The gas generator according to p. 11, characterized in that it includes a seal located between the rotating internal node and a fixed external knots the gasification chamber, pipe reducing concentrations of NOxhaving a mixing zone and zone linking nitrogen, the input tool secondary air disposed between the mixing zone and zone linking nitrogen, the means for entering tertiary air, is placed between the pipe reducing the concentration of NOxand the main boiler or furnace.

14. The device produce steam by burning carbon-containing material, characterized in that it comprises a main boiler, superheater, economizer, dust collectors, fabric filters, flue and gas generator with a rotating fluidized bed, which is equipped with a furnace chamber having a rotating inner node, comprising gas-permeable annular wall and a rotating wall that is located perpendicular to the annular wall with the formation of the gasification chamber between the said walls, and a fixed external node, comprising a stationary casing mounted around the rotating internal node, means for supplying fluidizing gas through the annular wall into the gasification chamber, the layer of particles liquefaction fluidizing gas, located on the inner surface of the annular wall, and means for supplying uglerodsoderzhashchie pipeline located inside the rotating wall on its axis while rotating inner Assembly is mounted for rotation about a fixed pipeline.

15. The device according to p. 14, wherein the gas generator includes a means for supplying limestone on the outside of the gasifier, the gasification chamber made in the form of a fixed pipeline.

16. The device according to p. 14, wherein the gas generator includes a means for supplying steam from the outside of the gas generator in the gasification chamber made in the form of a fixed pipeline.

17. The device according to p. 14, wherein the gas generator includes a means of controlling the reaction conditions in the gasification chamber, located in the fixed pipeline.

18. The device according to p. 14, characterized in that the rotating inner node additionally includes an insulating layer located between the rotating wall and the gasification chamber.

19. The device according to p. 14, wherein the insulating layer has a tapered shape, wherein the Central portion of the insulating layer has a recess in relation to that part of the insulating layer, which raspolojenia in the insulating layer is located around the outlet of the fixed pipeline.

21. The device according to p. 14, characterized in that the gas generator is positioned horizontally, with rotating inner node of the combustion chamber is mounted for rotation around its horizontal axis, and a layer of particles inside the gasification chamber is located around the horizontal axis.

22. The device according to p. 14, characterized in that it includes a dividing wall dropping excess particles of the particle layer in a section of a centrifuge located around the annular wall and is associated with a centrifuge.

23. The device according to p. 22, characterized in that it includes means of oxidation of excess particles from the cooling centrifuge and conversion of calcium sulfide in excess particles in the calcium sulfate.

24. The device according to p. 23, characterized in that it includes means for supplying combustion gases from the excess of particles in the main boiler.

25. The device according to p. 14, characterized in that it comprises means rotating internal node of the combustion chamber around the fixed pipeline, comprising drive means for transmitting rotation from the drive to the rotating inner node located around the fixed pipeline and sacralises internal node, located around the fixed pipe and the internal surface of the stationary part of the external node that is located around the fixed pipeline.

26. The device according to p. 25, characterized in that it comprises a seal located between the rotating internal node and a fixed external node.

27. The device according to p. 14, wherein the gas generator includes means for supplying steam or water in the gasification chamber, the tube reduce the concentration of NOxhaving a mixing zone and zone linking nitrogen, the input tool secondary air disposed between the mixing zone and zone linking nitrogen, the means for entering tertiary air, is placed between the pipe reducing the concentration of NOxand the main boiler or furnace.

 

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