The way the organization combustion and flame stabilization on the heat exchange surfaces of heat exchange surface for the implementation of the method and section of the heat exchanger

 

(57) Abstract:

The way the organization combustion and flame stabilization on the heat exchange surfaces of heat exchange surface and section of the heat exchanger can be used in the field of engineering, specifically in thermal power plants, used for heating of premises, buildings, constructions, and also in various industrial settings. The way the organization combustion and flame stabilization on the heat exchange surface includes air flow along the surface with concavity and coolant from bumps, education in each concavity in the back direction of the main flow area of the suction air flow, a supply of fuel in the area of air leaks in the concavity and creating local zones of combustion in one stage or in several stages in series flow, alternating between the combustion zone with a heat exchange zones. Heat exchange surface for implementing the method includes spaced parallel rows of spherical holes, with a spherical hole of one or more series provided with a fuel injector located in the rear holes on the main thread, and after each series of holes with the injector raspolozheniem series of spherical holes with the fuel injectors on the opposite surfaces. Such a method and such an implementation allows to obtain a stable combustion, reliable stabilization of the flame and intense heat transfer fluid. 3 S. and 4 C. p. F.-ly, 4 Il.

The invention relates to the field of engineering, specifically for power plants, used for heating of premises, buildings, constructions, and also in various industrial settings. A known heat exchanger with a fiery heat (German patent 4239689, F 28 D 1/04, publ.01.06.94), which contains the burner, a guiding device for hot gases, the national chamber for the exhaust gases. Between the guiding device and camera team has a cavity which serves as a fiery furnace chamber, and a tube heat exchanger, mounted coaxially with the through holes on the guide device or the national chamber for the exhaust gases.

Known heat exchange surface and the method of controlling the processes of heat and mass transfer, implemented in this device (the international application WO 93/20355, F 28 D 1/12, F 28 F 1/10, publ.14.10.93), which is the closest analogue to the claimed. The task of the management processes of heat and mass transfer, by initiating the birth of krupnomasshtabno and heat-mass transfer surface, which is the boundary between continuous current environment of gas and solid wall, flat, cylindrical, conical, or any other profile that allows you to manage the processes in the boundary or the boundary layer flow due to a run on three dimensional concave or convex relief. Three-dimensional relief in the form of concavity or convexity with lots of curves and transition, arranged in a checkerboard or koridoram order. Concavity on the surface of the heat transfer are vortex intensification of heat transfer. The epicenters of education vortices are located inside the concavity in front of the thread part. Within each concavity in the back direction of the main (outer) flow area is formed of air leaks from the stream.

Known heat exchange surface.with.1768917, F 28 F 1/10, 3/02, publ.16.10.92. Bull.38), which is the closest analogue to the proposed device to implement the method and contains placed on the surface parallel rows of spherical holes. The wells are located in koridoram or staggered.

A known heat exchanger (application Japan 4-81717. F 28 F 1/32, 13/08, publ. 24.12.92), which is the closest analogue of the claimed section HEA is by Uta thus, what in the direction of flow of the heat carrier formed of alternating narrow and wide sections of the channels.

The known method and the known heat exchangers effectively carry out its function of heat transfer, but require additional devices for heating the coolant.

The technical result for the solution of which the present invention is directed, is to create a highly efficient, compact heat exchangers, in which at the same time organized the combustion process, for example, gas fuel with high combustion completeness.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method the organization combustion and flame stabilization on heat transfer surface having a three-dimensional relief, made in the form of concavity, including air flow along the surface with concavity and coolant from bumps, education in each concavity in the back direction of the main flow area of the suction air flow in the area of air leaks down the fuel and create a local zone of combustion in the concavity, and the burning arrange in a single stage or in several stages, alternating between the combustion zone with a heat exchange zones. About the I surface includes spaced parallel rows of spherical holes. What's new is that the spherical holes of one row or several rows provided with a fuel injector located in the rear holes in the direction of the main flow, and after each series of spherical hole fuel injectors are the rows of holes without them. On the surface between the spherical holes with the fuel nozzles in each row is made grooves. On the surface between the rows of holes with the fuel injector is made of longitudinal grooves.

Section of the heat exchanger includes a package of heat exchanger surfaces, each surface includes spaced parallel rows of spherical holes, with the holes of one row, or more subsequent rows are provided with a fuel injector located in the rear holes in the direction of the main flow. After each series of holes with the fuel injectors are the rows of holes without them. On the surface between the holes with the fuel nozzles in each row is made grooves. On the surface between the rows of holes with the fuel injector is made of longitudinal grooves. Every two heat-exchange surface sections facing to each other holes, the rows of spherical hole fuel injectors protivopolozhny the proposed method consists in the following. Spherical depressions made on the heat transfer surfaces, substantially intensify the total heat transfer surface of heat exchange with a slight increase in loss of hydraulic friction. When the flow of liquid or gas along the surface of the recesses is self-organization of large-scale vortex structures. The epicenters of education vortices are located within recesses in the front stream side of the recess. Vortex structures are alternately emitted from the epicenters in the external incoming flow. Through these vortices intense release of heat and mass from deepening. Inside the recesses are secondary recirculation flow: caught in the deepening air moves along the surface of the recess from the rear edge against the direction of incident flow. Later in front of the deepening of the air podrachivala and out of the recess. The issues of deepening the air again partially captured in the recess at the rear downstream wall, forming a closed recirculation loop. Thus, in each concavity in the back direction of the main stream is formed, the area of air leaks from the stream. The flow structure in sfericheskie effective recycling process when burning occurs when the ratio h/d is not less than 0.2, where h is the depth of the spherical holes, d is the diameter of the spherical hole. The presence of recirculation return currents and low values of the flow velocity in the recesses (about 40% of the speed of the main flow) contribute to the sustainable stabilization of the flame. When organizing burning on the heat exchange surface is implemented efficient method of heat transfer through the wall from the burning flare gas to the coolant. Stable combustion and reliable stabilization of the flame is achieved while supplying the gas in the back of the recess. Thus the residence time of the gas mixture in the field of combustion is sufficient to sustain a flame, as it is in the back of the deepening begins the return current, and the trapped gas goes all the way from the back of the recess to the front. The use of spherical recesses for the stabilization of the flame leads to decrease the hydraulic resistance of the gas-air flow duct compared with traditional methods of burning gas and stabilization of the flame and the spherical recess from the burning gas and the convex surface of the fluid substantially intensify the heat transfer at the wall compared with a smooth surface.

In p the STI, on the opposite side of the wall is leaking coolant, such as water. The process of burning fuel, such as natural gas, is arranged in the first flow concavity, this results in intense heating of the wall. Natural gas is supplied to the rear (in the direction of primary air flow) region of the concavity. The coefficient of excess air must be = 1.3 to 1.5, which provides a high level of temperature and other parameter values that are close to optimal. Thus, a first stage of combustion. Subsequent rows of concavity without burning intended for intensification of heat exchange of the combustion products with the wall. If necessary, the further heating of the surface will organize the second and subsequent stages of the fire, summing up the gas in a series of concavity in series flow, alternating between the combustion zone with a heat exchange zones. In each zone of the combustion support air excess factor = 1.3 to 1.5.

The heat exchange surface can be collected in a package, in which every two surfaces facing concavity to each other. Between them is the process of burning, and by convexity flows of the heated coolant. The number of sections in the heat exchanger depends on t is authorized surface can be used not only as a highly effective intensifiers heat transfer but for the improvement of the combustion gas. The presence of recirculation return currents and low values of the flow velocity in the recesses promote sustainable stabilization of the flame. And properties such as an increased rate of heat transfer in spherical cavities and reducing the hydraulic resistance of the streamlined surfaces with spherical recesses allow you to create a compact high-performance heat exchangers.

In Fig.1 shows a heat exchange surface with one row of spherical holes, provided with a fuel injector.

In Fig. 2 shows the heat exchange surface with several rows of spherical holes, provided with a fuel injector, alternating with a spherical hole without them.

In Fig.3 shows a section of a coil arrangement of the rows of spherical holes with the fuel injectors on the opposite surfaces against each other.

In Fig.4 shows a section of a coil arrangement of the rows of spherical holes with the fuel injectors on the opposite surfaces offset relative to each other.

Heat exchange surface (Fig.1) represents the wall 1. in concavity, on the other bumps. From the concavity of the wall 1 which surrounds the air, and from the convexity - carrier such as water. Spherical holes 2, for example, the first row is supplied to the fuel injectors 3, which are located at the rear of the hole in the flow direction and is communicated with the reservoir for supplying fuel, such as natural gas. Installed the igniter 4, for example, the spark plug. On the surface between the spherical hole 2 and the fuel injectors 3 are grooves 5 for the organization of plasmapheresis. Wells 2 fuel injector 3 is made with a ratio h/d is not less than 0.2, where h is the depth, and d is the diameter of the hole 2.

Heat exchange surface (Fig. 2) differs from the heat exchange surface (Fig.1) the fact that the spherical hole 2 several rows provided with a fuel injector 3, located at the rear of the hole 2 in the flow and in communication with the manifold for supplying fuel, such as natural gas. The first row of holes 2 fuel injector 3 is equipped with a pilot light 4, for example, by a spark plug. The rows of holes 2 with the fuel injectors 3 are alternated with rows of holes without them. For the organization of plasmapheresis between wells 2 fuel injector 3 of each row are made grooves 5 and croeconomic 3 is the ratio h/d is not less than 0.2. The number of rows of holes 2 fuel injector 3 is determined by the specified capacity of the heat exchange device, and the distance between the rows with the fuel injectors, i.e. the number of rows of holes 2 without fuel injectors is determined by the heat capacity of the coolant.

Does the heat exchange surface in the following way. From spherical holes 2 on the surface of a breaker air flow. On the opposite side, i.e. from the side of the convexity, passes a flow of coolant, such as water. In the fuel injector 3 is fed with natural gas and ignited by the igniter 4. Plasmapheresis is carried out by the grooves 5, which ensures stable combustion over the entire width of the surface. When the airflow surface of the hole 2 is self-organization of large-scale vortex structures. Vortex structures in turn are released into the external incoming flow. Through these vortices and intense release of heat and mass from the wells. Studies have shown that inside the hole in the back direction of the main stream is formed, the area of air leaks into the hole 2. Because in the back of the wells 2 starts the return period, then the trapped gas goes all the way from the back of h which is stable combustion and reliable stabilization of the flame, since the residence time of the gas mixture in the field of combustion is sufficient to sustain a flame. When fuel is in the first row of holes 2 nozzles 3 a first stage of combustion. Located next series of holes 2 without injectors intensify the heat transfer process. If you need further heating fluid, organized the following stages of combustion, i.e., the natural gas is supplied in the subsequent rows of holes 2 with the fuel injectors 3, which alternate with rows of holes 2 without injectors 3. To maintain stable combustion plasmapheresis is carried out through grooves 6. This provided sufficient for the subsequent stages of combustion, the oxygen content in the stream.

We offer heat transfer surfaces used in the heat exchange device in the form of a package of such surfaces. The proposed section of the heat exchanger (Fig.3) includes a package of heat exchanger surfaces. Every two heat transfer surfaces facing each other by spherical hole 2. Spherical holes 2 with the fuel injectors 3 opposite surfaces are against each other. In the space between the surfaces facing holes to each other, is formed on channel 7, to provide the wall in the coolant flow, flowing channel 7 from both sides. The location of the fuel injector against each other in the channel 6 allows you to create a stable combustion zone with high completeness of combustion. This scheme is used to generate heat exchanger installed at a higher power.

In the section of the heat exchanger (Fig. 4) fuel injector 3 are located in the first row of holes 2 one surface, and each subsequent row of holes 2 fuel injector 3 is located in alternating sequence on the opposite surfaces, i.e., the rows of spherical hole fuel injectors opposite surfaces are offset relative to each other. This scheme can be used in high-efficiency heat exchange units, while ensuring the reduction of thermonutrient walls due to more uniform heat supply. In addition, this setup is cheaper due to the use of less heat-resistant, heat-resistant materials.

The layout of the fuel injectors 3 heat transfer surface inside the channel 7 is determined by the specific task and depends on the purpose of the heat exchange device, its power and size.

Thus, the proposed method organization is aout to create high heat transfer device, in which simultaneously combines stable combustion and reliable stabilization of the flame and intense heat transfer to the coolant, through the use of spherical hole - vortex generators, not only as highly of intensification of heat transfer, but also for improving the combustion gas.

1. The way the organization combustion and flame stabilization on heat transfer surface having a three-dimensional relief, made in the form of concavity, including air flow along the surface with concavity and coolant from bumps, education in each concavity in the back direction of the main flow area of the suction air stream, characterized in that in the area of air leaks in the concavity down the fuel and create a local zone of combustion, and the combustion organize in one stage or in several stages in series flow, alternating between the combustion zone with a heat exchange zones.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the combustion process in local zones of combustion in the first stage of combustion, and subsequent, arrange when the air excess factor = 1.3 to 1.5.

3. Heat exchange surface containing spaced parallel rows of the nozzles, located in the rear holes on the stream, and after each series of spherical hole fuel injectors are the rows of holes without them.

4. Heat exchange surface on p. 3, characterized in that on the surface between the spherical holes with the fuel nozzles of each row are made grooves.

5. Heat exchange surface under item 3 or 4, characterized in that on the surface between the rows of spherical hole fuel injectors performed longitudinal grooves.

6. Heat exchange surface under item 3 or 4, characterized in that the spherical hole fuel injectors are made with a ratio h/d is not less than 0.2, where h is the depth of the hole, d is the diameter of the hole.

7. Section a heat exchanger comprising a package of heat exchange surfaces, wherein every two of the heat exchange surface is made under item 3, facing spherical holes to each other, the rows of spherical hole fuel injectors opposite surfaces are against each other or offset relative to each other.

 

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FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.

EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).

2 cl, 1 dwg

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