The support for underground structures
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the fastening of underground structures. It is aimed at solving the problem of creating lining (lining) underground structures of the underground type high-strength, ensuring their long-term and safe operation in extreme conditions, including shrinkage of these structures in unstable rocks (quicksand), with significant seismic impacts as a result of earthquakes and other occasions. The support for underground structures of the underground type contains tubing, joints which have a sealing gasket and tightened by bolts around the entire circumference of tubing evenly. Between the strips in joints of tubing added composite ring having the I-shaped cross-section, the outer shelf which overlaps the joint from the outside. Along the lining with additional longitudinal beams in the form of I-beams or rails, which are connected in areas of joints with internal shelves composite rings. 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of construction, namely the creation of walling - lining (lining) special underground structures, mainly of the underground type.Izvesntiya [1, 2 and 3]. However, in the conditions of unstable and water-saturated rocks on the support is exposed to significant tensile forces, which are formed when sediment underground structures (tunnels) and transmitted ultimately to the clamping screws cross-section which is much smaller cross-section tubing, they are contractible.The disadvantages of the known constructions lining sufficiently identified in the accident at the St. Petersburg subway between stations "Forest" and "Ploschad Muzhestva" in December 1985, when there was a thawing of the soil in the place of quicksand.The closest solution to the claimed invention is a support for underground structures, described in .Device  includes a combined double lining, consisting of tubing, connected in a full ring with Botova joints, the joints of the tubing is sealed with a sealing gasket and tightened with bolts evenly over the entire circumference of the joint.The disadvantage of this solution is a weak strength and tightness of the joints, especially in the conditions of unstable saturated soils. At upsetting underground structures arise tensile forces acting on beach, which leads to the removal of quicksand and water infiltration inside the tunnel, causing the process of self-destruction underground structures, ending with a tear in the liner.To increase the strength of the lining and increase due to this security and integrity of underground facilities offered support for an underground tunnel, including tubing, joints are sealed with sealing gaskets on each side of the tubing and tightened by bolts around the entire circumference of tubing, and between the strips in joints of tubing added composite ring having the I-shaped cross-section, the outer shelf which overlaps the junction of the outside and lining along with additional longitudinal beams in the form of I-beams or rails, which are connected to the inner compound of the rings.New in the invention is the introduction of a bolted connection tubing between the sealing gaskets composite rings, for example steel half-rings, I-beam and the longitudinal beams in the form of I-beams or rails. Interconnected these elements form a single frame lining of the tunnel. The execution of the composite ring in the form of, for example, two half-rings of I-beam section will provide the Aki not identified the current level of technology, that allows to make a conclusion on the compliance of the claimed invention, the criterion of "inventive step".These new signs in the aggregate will increase the tightness of the joints of the tubing due to the perception of tensile bending stress, the longitudinal axis of the tunnel, caused by his local draft, this greatly reduces the load acting on the connecting bolts liners.The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig. 1 shows the support is in the junction of the tubing of Fig. 2 shows the cross-section of the tunnel, equipped with the inventive lining.The shield contains the tubing 1, the junction between which sealing strips are introduced symmetrically located steel Polkowice 2 I-beam section, drawn together by bolts 3 and nuts 4, on the inner shelf of semirings 2 fixed beams 5 by bolts 6 and nuts 7 (node A: figures 1 and 2).The inventive support works as follows. When sealing the Foundation, caused by different reasons, including thawing previously frozen quicksand, in the structure formed deformation, causing tensile stress in the lower and upper part of segment 1 of the tunnel. This effort distributes the crime in the work of the beams 5. This will lead to a significant reduction of the load on the bolts 3 segment 1 and, therefore, protects the joints of tubing 1 from penetration of water and sand inside the tunnels, the conditions accident-free work.List of sources:
1. Nasonov I. D. , Fedyukin C. A., Shoplik M. "The technology of construction of underground structures", part 3. M., Nedra, 1983, page 163, Fig. 426.2. The same, page 164, Fig. 4.28 and p. 163, Fig. 4.26 a.3. Application N 96105997/03(009955) from 27.03.96,, publ. 20.04.98 on which a decision on granting a patent for invention N 2105099, publ. 20.02.98. The support for underground structures of the underground type, containing tubing, joints are provided with sealing gaskets and tightened by bolts around the entire circumference of tubing evenly, characterized in that between the strips in joints of tubing added composite ring having the I-shaped cross-section, the outer shelf which overlaps the junction of the outside and lining along with additional longitudinal beams in the form of I-beams or rails, which are connected in areas of joints with internal shelves composite rings.
FIELD: transport building, in particular concrete block for lining of highway constructions, preferably headings.
SUBSTANCE: claimed block is formed from concrete mixture containing (kg/m3 concrete mixture): cement - 300-370; granite chip of grade 5-10 mm and 10-20 mm in ratio of 1:1.8-2.35, respectively, - 1100-1210; quartz sand of grade from 0.16 to 5 mm containing the next total knocking (mass %) 2.5 mm - 3.2-6.0; 1.2 mm - 12.8-16.2; 0.6 mm - 35.8-54.1; 0.3 mm - 70.4-89.3; 0.16 mm - 100 - 650-750; granite sand from screening with particle size up to 5 mm - 60-75; milled quartz sand with specific surface of 2200-3500 cm2/g as filler - 30-100; water - 125-143.3; and superplasticizer - 0.8-1.0 % calculated as cement mass.
EFFECT: block of improved strength, freeze-resistance, water impermeability, and crack resistance.