Method of isomerization of n-pentane
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to chemical technology, in particular to a method of isomerization of n-alkanovykh hydrocarbons, and can be used in the refining and petrochemical industries. The invention solves the problem of increasing the stability of plataformarentzako catalyst isomerization of n-pentane. In accordance with the proposed method, n-pentalateral faction before contact with latinamericanism catalyst is mixed with a hydrogen-containing gas containing less than 10 ppm of hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans and fed to the mixing tee with blocks reforming working on polymetallic catalysts. The invention relates to chemical technology, in particular to a method of isomerization of n-alkanovykh hydrocarbons, and can be used in the refining and petrochemical industries.There is a method of isomerization of n-alkanovykh hydrocarbon, C4-C7in the presence of hydrogen and of a catalyst containing Pt and Cl aluminum oxide, at a temperature of 40 to 250oC, a pressure of 0.1 - 10 MPa, the space velocity of the raw material of 0.5 to 5.0 h-1(EN 2012395, class C 07 C 5/22, 15.05.94). Raw materials will precede the odes.The disadvantage of this method is the need for prior removal of sulfur compounds and moisture of the raw materials, which are catalytic poisons the isomerization of n-alkanovykh hydrocarbons.The closest solution to the technical essence and the achieved effect is a method of isomerization of n-alkanovykh hydrocarbon, C4-C5in the presence of plataformarentzako catalyst at a temperature of 360 - 430oC and a pressure of hydrogen gas (hydrogen-rich) 3,2 - 3,6 MPa (Handbook of refiners. /Under. editor, A. Lastovka, L.: Chemistry, 1986, S. 186 - 190).The disadvantage of the method adopted for the prototype is that as fresh use everything with the installation of reforming of the plant, which contains a large number of sulfur-containing compounds (>1000 ppm) and reduces the stability plataformarentzako catalyst.The present invention can improve the stability plataformarentzako catalyst isomerization of n-pentane.In accordance with the inventive method n-pentalateral faction before contact with the catalyst is mixed with a hydrogen-containing gas containing less than 10 ppm H2A distinctive feature of the proposed method is the use of all supplied to the mixing tee, bypassing the factory line everything directly with blocks reforming working on polymetallic catalysts.Thus, the claimed method meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty."In accordance with the proposed method, n-pentane is mixed with the circulating SIV and after heating in the heat exchanger and the furnace is sent to the reactor, where flows the isomerization of n-pentane at elevated temperature 360 - 430oC and a pressure of circulating SIV 3.0 to 3.5 MPa.In a reactor loaded platinochloride catalyst. In the high pressure separator from vasoprotective mixture is separated circulating SIV return on mixing with the raw material. As the hydrogen feed use fresh everything, coming to the isomerization unit, bypassing the factory lines directly from the reforming unit operating on polymetallic catalyst.This all contains almost no hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans, as well as moisture that is associated with the peculiarities of the technology of the process of reforming in the presence of polymetallic Catalina own Hydrotreating block rectangular gasoline fractions - raw material of the reformer unit and only after that everything without cleaning shed with installation in factory line everything.In that case, when out of factory lines take everything to feed the isomerization of n-pentane, it contains 2000 - 4000 ppm of hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans and 2000 - 5000 ppm moisture, which are poisons the platinum-containing isomerization catalysts. To protect against moisture in the composition of the isomerization unit enters the adsorber drier for cleaning everything from the water. Practically the only method of protection against sulfur-containing compounds on the isomerization unit is otbw circulating SIV and recharge everything fresh from the factory lines.Thus, the feeding of the reactor unit for isomerization of n-pentane everything fresh from the factory line not only solves the problem of reducing the sulfur content in Gutseriev mixture in contact with latinamericanism catalyst, but also contributes additionally to the existing significant number of H2S and mercaptans. This reduces the activity and stability of the isomerization catalyst, leads to accumulation of excess sulfur in the catalyst during mezhregionalnogo cycle and to partial deactivation of the catalyst after regenerat the technical solutions according to the methods of isomerization of n-alkanovykh hydrocarbon, C4-C7allows to make a conclusion about the absence of these symptoms that are similar to the essential distinctive features of the claimed process, i.e. the compliance of the proposed method to the requirement of inventive step.Example 1. Isomerization of n-pentane is carried out in the presence of a catalyst of FE-62 m containing 0.5 wt.% platinum and 3.5 wt.% fluorine in the oxide carrier. N-pentane is mixed with the circulating SIV and after heating in the furnace is sent to the reactor, where it takes isomerization in isopentane at a temperature of 380oC, a pressure of 3.2 MPa, space velocity of n-pentane 1,5 h-1.In the separator from vasoprotective mixture is separated circulating SIV and return it to the mixture of raw materials.For feed use fresh everything from the reforming unit, taken directly from the reforming unit. In the last reforming process is performed on polymetallic catalyst CU-108 and SIVs circulating the hydrogen sulfide content not to exceed about 0.001 wt.%, and moisture content of 0.003% vol.In the beginning of the cycle the output of isopentane per pass was to 52.1 wt.% after 11 months of operation of the installation exit isopentane amounted to 48.6 wt.%.Example 2 (comparative). Isomerization of n-Penta is Rashi 0.2 wt.% hydrogen sulfide and 0.1 vol.% the moisture.In the beginning of the cycle obtained isopentane with the release of 51.6 wt.% for passage, after 11 months of his output was 42.3 wt.%.Thus, the process of isomerization of n-pentane according to the proposed method (example 1) allows you to save the activity lomopererabotchika catalyst during the entire cycle. At the same time, according to the present method, the catalyst activity during the cycle falls due to deactivation of the catalyst with hydrogen sulfide and moisture contained in the hydrogen-containing gas taken from the factory line.Sources of information
1. RF patent N 2012395, class B 01 J 23/42, C 07 C 5/22, publ. 15.04.94.2. Handbook for refiners /Under. editor, A. Lastovka and other L.: Chemistry, 1986, S. 186 - 190. Method of isomerization of n-pentane in the presence of plataformarentzako catalyst at elevated temperature and pressure hydrogen-containing gas, characterized in that the n-pentalateral faction before contact with the catalyst is mixed with a hydrogen-containing gas containing less than 10 ppm H2and mercaptans and fed to the mixing tee with blocks reforming working on polymetallics catalysts.
FIELD: petroleum processing catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides reforming catalyst containing Pt and Re on oxide carrier, in particular Al2O3, wherein content of Na, Fe, and Ti oxides are limited to 5 (Na2O), 20 (Fe2O3), and 2000 ppm (TiO2) and Pt is present in catalyst in reduced metallic state and in the form of platinum chloride at Pt/PtCl2 molar ratio between 9:1 and 1:1. Contents of components, wt %: Pt 0.13-0.29, PtCl2 0.18-0.04, Re 0.26-0.56, and Al2O3 99.43-99.11. Preparation of catalyst comprises impregnation of alumina with common solution containing H2PtCl6, NH4ReO4, AcOH, and HCl followed by drying and calcination involving simultaneous reduction of 50-90% platinum within the temperature range 150-550оС, while temperature was raised from 160 to 280оС during 30-60 min, these calcination conditions resulting in creation of reductive atmosphere owing to fast decomposition of ammonium acetate formed during preparation of indicated common solution.
EFFECT: increased catalytic activity.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: petrochemical process catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst contains, wt %: group VIII metal 0.01-2.0, group IVA metal 0.01-5.0, europium 0.01-10.0, cerium 0.10-10.0, halogen 0.10-10.0m and refractory inorganic oxide 63.00-99.86.
EFFECT: enabled preparation of catalyst with relatively high activity and selectivity, low carbon sedimentation velocity, and prolonged lifetime in naphtha reforming processes.
11 cl, 6 dwg, 4 tbl
FIELD: industrial organic synthesis and petrochemistry.
SUBSTANCE: isoamylenes are subjected to dehydrogenation in presence of overheated water steam and catalyst containing, wt %: potassium oxide and/or lithium oxide, and/or rubidium oxide, and/or cesium oxide, 10-40; cerium(IV) oxide 2-20; magnesium oxide 2-10; calcium carbonate 2-10; sulfur 0.2-5; and ferric oxide - the rest.
EFFECT: increased isoamylene dehydrogenation degree due to increased catalyst selectivity with regard to isoprene and prolonged service time of catalyst.
2 tbl, 22 ex
FIELD: organic synthesis catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst includes Cu and Mg compounds deposited on alumina as carrier and has copper compounds, expressed as Cu, from 2 to 8%, Mg/Cu atomic ratio ranging from 1.2 to 2.5, wherein concentration of copper atoms is higher in the interior of catalyst particle than on the surface (layer 20-30 Å thick) thereof and concentration of magnesium atoms prevails on the surface of catalyst particle, while specific surface of catalyst ranged from 30 to 130 m2/g. Oxychlorination of ethylene is carried out under fluidized bed conditions using air and/or oxygen as oxidants in presence of above-defined catalyst. Catalyst is prepared by impregnating alumina with aqueous Cu and Mg solutions acidified with hydrochloric acid solution or other strong acids using volume of solution equal or lesser than porosity of alumina.
EFFECT: increased activity of catalyst at high temperatures and avoided adhesion of catalyst particles and loss of active components.
8 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: hydrogenation-dehydrogenation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalytic compositions palladium/silver on carrier, to methods for preparation thereof, and to unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrogenation processes. catalytic composition containing platinum, silver, and iodine component (options) is described as well as methods for preparation thereof comprising interaction of composition containing palladium, silver, and carrier with liquid composition containing iodine component followed by calcination. Alternatively, carrier is brought into consecutive interaction with palladium component, silver component, and iodine component using intervals for intermediate calcination after each interaction. Hydrocarbon hydrogenation process is also described, in particular selective hydrocarbon of acetylene into ethylene, in presence of above-defined catalytic composition.
EFFECT: increased hydrogenation process selectivity and reduced degree of catalyst deactivation.
52 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: isomerization and disproportionation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crystalline α-chromium oxide, chromium-containing catalytic compositions, methods for preparation thereof, and to a process of fluorine distribution in hydrocarbon and/or halogenated hydrocarbon in presence of indicated catalytic compositions. Claimed crystalline α-chromium oxide, wherein about 0.05 to about 6 atomic % chromium in the lattice of α-chromium oxide is substituted by trivalent cobalt (Co+3) atoms is via coprecipitation of solid substance by introducing ammonium hydroxide, this method being supplemented by introducing an excess of ammonium nitrate into precipitated mixture before dehydration step and calcination step at 375 to 1000°C in presence of oxygen. Chromium-containing catalytic compositions containing crystalline cobalt-substituted α-chromium oxide as chromium-containing component optionally treated with fluorination agent are also claimed. Composition preparation procedure comprises: (a) coprecipitation of solid substance by introducing ammonium hydroxide into aqueous solution of soluble cobalt salt and soluble trivalent chromium salt, wherein solution contains at least three moles nitrate per mole chromium and has concentration of cobalt from about 0.05 to about 6 mol % based on total content of cobalt and chromium in solution, followed by introducing into solution at least three moles ammonium per mole chromium; (b) collecting coprecipitated solid substance obtained in step (a); (c) drying collected solid substance; and (d) calcination of dried solid substance at 375 to 1000°C in presence of oxygen.
EFFECT: increased activity of catalytic composition in above-indicated processes.
15 cl, 8 dwg, 13 ex
FIELD: isomerization and disproportionation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crystalline α-chromium oxide, chromium-containing catalytic compositions, method for preparation thereof, and to a process of fluorine distribution in hydrocarbon and/or halogenated hydrocarbon in presence of indicated catalytic compositions. In claimed α-chromium oxide, about 0.05 to about 2 atomic % chromium in the lattice of α-chromium oxide is substituted by nickel atoms and, optionally, further chromium atoms in the lattice are substituted by trivalent cobalt atoms, the total amount of nickel and trivalent cobalt atoms in the α-chromium oxide lattice not exceeding 6 atomic %. Claimed α-chromium oxide is prepared via coprecipitation of solid substance by introducing ammonium hydroxide, this method being supplemented by introducing an excess of ammonium nitrate into precipitated mixture before dehydration step and calcination step at 375 to 1000°C in presence of oxygen. Chromium-containing catalytic compositions containing crystalline nickel-substituted α-chromium oxide as chromium-containing component optionally treated with fluorination agent are also claimed. Composition preparation procedure comprises: (a) coprecipitation of solid substance by introducing ammonium hydroxide into aqueous solution of soluble bivalent nickel salt, soluble trivalent chromium salt, and optionally soluble bi- or trivalent cobalt salt, wherein solution contains at least three moles nitrate per mole chromium and has concentration of nickel from about 0.05 to about 2 mol % based on total content of nickel, chromium, and cobalt (if present) in solution and total concentration of nickel and cobalt (if present) not higher than 6 mol % on the same basis; (b) collecting coprecipitated solid substance obtained in step (a); (c) drying collected solid substance; and (d) calcination of dried solid substance at 375 to 1000°C in presence of oxygen.
EFFECT: increased activity of catalytic composition in above-indicated processes.
15 cl, 8 dwg, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: thiophen and its homologues are used in chemical industry and pharmacology for synthesis of polyorganosiloxanes, herbicides, physiologically active substances and aroma materials. Two catalyst types for thiophen preparation from sulfur-containing substances and C4-hydrocarbons are described. First type catalysts contain magnesium chromate and/or cupric chromate, aluminium oxide and probably magnesium and/or potassium and/or lanthanum oxides; second type catalysts have general formula tMg1-nCunCr2O4-xMgO-yK2O-zLa2O3/Al2O3, where t =5-25 Wt%; n=0-1 Wt%; x = 0-3.2 Wt%; y = 0-2 Wt%; z =0-10 Wt%; Al2O3 - the rest. Process is carried out at volume rate 400-1800 hr-1 and temperature 400-600°C, organic disulphides were used as sulfur-containing substances.
EFFECT: high yield of thiophen.
7 cl, 39 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to organometallic chemistry, specifically to a method of producing ruthenium carbene complex and a method of metathesis polymerisation of dicyclopentadiene. The catalyst for metathesis polymerisation of dicyclopentadiene is(1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2-imidazolidinylidene)dichloro(o-N,N-dimethylamino-methylphenylmethylene)ruthenium of formula The method of producing the said catalyst involves reacting a second generation Grubbs catalyst with 2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyl)styrene in toluene while heating in an inert atmosphere. In another version of the said method, a first generation Grubbs catalyst is successively reacted with 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2-trichloromethylimidazolidine and 2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyl)styrene in a single reactor in toluene while heating in an inert atmosphere. The method of metathesis polymerisation of dicyclopentadiene is characterised by that, polymerisation is carried out using the proposed catalyst with ratio monomer: catalyst ranging from 75000:1 to 100000:1.
EFFECT: invention allows for obtaining a polymer with good mechanical properties at low expenses due to reduced catalyst consumption.
4 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a catalyst which contains a tungstate of an alkali metal containing at least one halide, where the alkali metal component is selected from a group comprising Cs, Rb or the alkali metal component implies a combination of two bonded alkali metals selected from a group comprising a) potassium and caesium, b) sodium and caesium, c) rubidium and caesium, in ratio not equal to 1:1. Also disclosed is a method of preparing a supported catalyst containing a tungstate of an alkali metal and a method of producing alkylmercaptans.
EFFECT: catalyst has high activity and selectivity which increases output of alkylmercaptans and economical effectiveness of their synthesis process.
28 cl, 9 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: basic organic synthesis, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the improved method for isomerization reaction of pentane-hexane fraction with aim for preparing high-octane additive for gasoline. Pentane-hexane fraction is subjected for isomerization reaction in reaction-rectifying process using a low-temperature platinum-alumina catalyst. The parent raw is subjected for preliminary separation for pentane and hexane fractions. These fractions are subjected for separate isomerization that is carried out in vapor phase in reaction zone in bottom of reaction-rectifying column. Catalyst is placed under plates of zone and pressure in reaction zone in maintained in the range from 0.6 to 3.6 MPa, temperature - from 110.0oC to 200.0oC in the mole ratio hydrogen : hydrocarbons at inlet into column from 0.03:1 to 4:1. Method provides enhancing conversion of n-pentane, n-hexane and methylpentanes to high-octane isomers, elevating octane number of isomerizate and constructive simplifying the process.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
1 dwg, 1 ex