Method of producing demineralized water

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to water treatment systems and water heating. The technical result, which can be obtained by carrying out the invention, is to reduce energy and material costs for the desalination of water to be treated through the use of electrolysis products for the regeneration of ion exchange filters, and heating the treated water. To achieve this, the technical result of the processed water is heated by combustion gases are then subjected to processing in the diaphragm electrolyzer and filtered through an ion-exchange filters. The resulting electrolysis gases are directed into the combustion chamber for heating water, and formed in the anode and cathode chambers of the electrolyte is directed to the regeneration of those ion-exchange filters, ion exchange capacity which is exhausted. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to water treatment systems and water heating and can be used in those areas of technology where you want to reduce the total salt content of the water used.

The known method of ion exchange desalination, consisting in the sequential transmission of IP is water soluble organic acid, the second polymer is insoluble in water base. Upon contact of the water with H-type cation exchange resin or filtration through a layer of granulated H-type cation exchange resin in the exchange of dissolved salts on the H-ions, dissolved salts are converted to corresponding acid. When contact or filtration through a granular anion exchange resin (in particular, through the OH-anion exchange resin) water, passed through H-cationite filter is sorption strong acid anion exchanger. Carbon dioxide is removed from the water pre (aeration after cationization). However, this method is useful when the salinity of the source water is not more than 3 g/l [1].

Also known method [1] desalination or desalting water by electroosmosis. It is based on the fact that the electric field of a positively charged cations of salts dissolved in water are moving towards immersed in sea water to the cathode and negatively charged anions to the anode. Thus, by passing a constant electric current between the anode and cathode immersed in the vessel c water, divided permeable to cations and anions partitions-diaphragms into three parts - cathode, working and anode, gradually a significant portion of the cations of rest the camera. In the working space of the vessel-water electrolyzer will presnets. This method is useful for desalination and desalination of water with a salt content of more than 3 g/L.

Closest to the technical nature of the claimed solution should be considered as a method of obtaining globalisasyon water [2], namely, that obessolivaniju water in the process is heated to a temperature of 40-60oC, subjected to magnetic treatment, filtered through ion-exchange compounds, and then treated in electrodeionization.

In water treatment, in this way the treated water after heating, magnetic processing and filtering through the ion exchange filters has a low electrical resistance, which leads to an increase of energy consumption by EDI.

When heated treated water decreases the value of the solubility product of the majority of low-solubility compounds and increases the probability of them in the sediment. Magnetic treatment of water contributes to the formation of crystallization centers and increases the rate of crystal formation of poorly soluble salts, which upon filtration removed from the treated water. Total concentration is its salinity decreases. However, the precipitation of poorly soluble salts on the granules of ion exchangers reduces the time of operation of ion-exchange filters, through which the filtered water after magnetic treatment. Almost demineralized water is processed in deionization, in which there is a further reduction of the concentrations of salts in obessolivanie water. However, the high ohmic resistance of treated water due to the low concentrations of cations and anions leads to unnecessary overestimation of the specific energy cost of removing dissolved salts from water. The necessary additional material costs in the regeneration of ion-exchange filters.

The technical result, which can be obtained by carrying out the invention, is to reduce energy and material costs for the desalination of water to be treated through the use of electrolysis products for the regeneration of ion exchange filters, and heating the treated water.

To achieve this, the technical result of the processed water is heated by combustion gases, then before being filtered through ion exchange filters are processed in the diaphragm electrolyzer, while obrazowatel cells the electrolyte is directed to the regeneration of those ion-exchange filters, ion-exchange capacity which exhausted.

An example of producing demineralized water. For example, it is necessary to reduce the salt content of the water chloride class calcium group. The treated water is fed into the heater-exchanger and is heated by burning combustible gases. As a result of heating water increases the activity of the solute decreases the solubility product of poorly soluble salts and improve the conditions of process water treatment. The heated water is sent for processing in the three-chamber or multi-chamber electrolyzer conductor and subjected to deionization under the action of a constant electric current. Under the action of the electric field strength cations move to the cathode of deionization, and the anion in the anode chamber. In the anode chamber is an increase in the concentration of the chloride ions, and in the working chamber is reduced concentrations of chloride ions. In the cathode chamber increases the concentration of calcium ions, and in the working chamber - reducing the concentration of calcium ions. In the electrode reaction at the cathode is the formation of molecular hydrogen and the accumulation of hydroxyl ions and the anode is the formation of molecular oxygen and hydronium ions that mo is decreasing concentration of dissolved salts in proportion to the skipped through it to electricity. As a result of electrolysis in the electrode spaces of the cell are formed acid and alkali to be used for regeneration of ion-exchange filters after exhausting their ion exchange capacity. Formed in the electrode chambers combustible gases are directed into the heater-exchanger for combustion and heating water.

After deionization partially desalted water is routed to filter on ion exchange cation and anonimowy filters. Upon contact of the water with H-type cation exchange resin or filtration through a layer of granulated H-type cation exchange resin in the exchange of dissolved salts on the H-ions dissolved salts are converted to corresponding acid. When contact or filtration through a granular anion exchange resin (in particular, through the OH-anion exchange resin) water, passed through H-cationite filter is sorption strong acid resin, which leads to a decrease in the concentration of salts dissolved in water. Due to the fact that the treated water was subjected to deionization in multi-chamber electrolyzer, filtering the treated water through the ion exchange filters before exhausting their ionoobmennoi capacity increases. Accordingly increases egregarious electrolytes, formed on the electrode spaces. Can be similarly treated water sulfate class.

The invention can be implemented in water treatment at the facility, structural diagram of which is shown in the drawing.

The plant consists of a boiler-heat exchanger 1 is connected by piping with diaphragm electrolyzer 2 c cation 3 and anionically 4 membranes separating chamber desalting 5 from the cathode chamber 6 and the anode chamber 7. Luggage desalting piped c successively installed H-cationite 8 and OH-Uniontown 9 ion exchange filters. The cathode chamber 6 connected to the recovery pipe 10 and OH-Uniontown filter 9 and a gas exhaust pipe 11 with the boiler heat exchanger 1. The anode chamber 7 is connected regenerational pipeline with H-cationite filter 8 and exhaust piping to the boiler-heat exchanger 1.

The device operates as follows.

The source water enters the boiler heat exchanger 1, where it is heated in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen. The heated water enters the chamber desalting 5 cell 2. Under the influence of an electric field, the cations move the partially treated water is directed to the processing in cation-exchange filter 8, and then anion exchange filter 9, after which the desalinated water is supplied to consumers.

In the course of the electrode reaction in the cathode chamber 6 of the cell 2 are formed OH-ions and molecular hydrogen in the anode chamber 5 - hydrogen ions and molecular oxygen. On the exhaust pipes 11 gases are discharged into the boiler, where it is mixing and combustion. Produced water is mixed with water for processing, or may be used for other purposes.

Electrolytes formed in the electrode chambers are sent to the recovery pipes 10 by ion-exchange filters 8 and 9 for their regeneration after exhausting their ion exchange capacity. After completion of the regeneration process of the ion exchange filter circuits of the cathode and anode chambers are filled with source water and the cycle repeats.

Depending on the chemical composition of the treated water can be used anonimowy filters of two types: basic and strong. Weakly basic anion exchange resin capable of exchanging ions in their active groups on the anions of strong acids only in acid solutions. Therefore, to guarantee the removal of anions of strong acids which controls the water before being filtered on anion-exchange filter loaded weakly basic electrolyte, and are subjected to electrodialysis, and the electrolyte from the cathode chamber of the electrolytic cell to be directed to the regeneration of anion-exchange filter, and the electrolyte from the anode chamber to mix with the treated water supplied to the anion-exchange filter. In this case, after filtering the water through a cation exchange filter and electrochemical processing in the anode chamber of the electrolyzer bicarbonate water will be acidic, which will provide an efficient ion exchange treated water and weakly basic anion exchange resin.

Sources of information

1. Klyachko C. A., Apelcin I. E. water treatment for industrial and municipal water supply. -M.: Stroiizdat, 1962.

2. Auth.St. USSR N 565883. The method of obtaining globalisasyon water.

1. Method of producing demineralized water by heating, sequential filtration of water through cation-exchange and anion-exchange filters, characterized in that the treated water before being filtered is subjected to electrodialysis, and the products of electrolysis accumulated in the near-electrode spaces of the cell, sent for regeneration of ion-exchange filters and water heating.

2. The method of obtaining will obespechirvaet the electrodialysis, and the electrolyte from the cathode chamber of the electrolytic cell is directed to the regeneration of anion-exchange filter, and the electrolyte from the anode chamber is mixed with the treated water supplied by anion-exchange filter.

 

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