Reactor and method of water treatment
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to processes for the preparation of water for drinking and technical water supply, wastewater treatment, disinfection and water activation. The main technical task of the invention is the reduction of energy consumption. The reactor consists of a casing in the upper part of which is placed the site create a gas mixture, the electrode system located under the node creation-gas mixture, and site drainage-gas mixture, placed under the electrode system. Site creation-gas mixture includes aerator, ejector, a pipe for supplying water and exhaust air and gases. To the electrode system is connected to the high-voltage pulse generator. Water treatment exercise barrier discharges for the duration of the positive and (or) negative high-frequency pulses less than 0,510-6with respect to the amplitude of the pulse voltage to the distance between the electrodes in the range (2-10)10-3In/mm, high voltage Pulses are served with some frequency. The technical result consists in increasing the effectiveness of mining water and reduce energy consumption. 2 C. and 8 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab., 2 Il. The invention relates to processes and water. The invention can be used for the synthesis of chemical compounds, activation of liquid and powdery materials, for cleaning, disinfection and treatment of various surfaces.The known method of water purification and device for its implementation (RF patent N 2004500, CL 02 F 1/46, 03 5/00, publ. 15.12.93, BI N 45-46). According to this method, the water is treated with a high-voltage pulse voltage when the rate of rise of voltage is not more than 2106In/s and the decay rate of the voltage of at least 2104, The voltage select within (7 - 30)103C. the water treatment Device includes a camera for the treated fluid, high-voltage energy source, high-voltage and grounded electrodes. High-voltage electrodes are designed with lateral projections, directed to one side. To improve speed cleaning by creating intense circulation of water in the device is grounded electrode is made partitioned with directional one-way ledges on the side surface of each partition.The disadvantages of this method of water treatment are the high energy costs associated with large losses on dzhoulevo heating at specified times of the impact pulse is IU, processed: not all water, but only a part adjacent to the discharge channel, which reduces the effect of processing.The drawbacks are a limited number of discharge channels and, as a consequence, the processing is subjected not all water, but only a part adjacent to the discharge channels, which reduces the effect of processing; low resource isolation and electrodes.The closest in technical essence to the proposed solutions is the method and the device described in the article: N. Ryazanov.D., The Minenkov C. R. "study of the effectiveness of water purification and disinfection by plasma arc AC in water-air mixture" in Proc. "water and wastewater". Tomsk, 1994, S. 19-23. This method involves the treatment of water in water-air environment of high-voltage electrical discharges.The disadvantages of this method are: the formation of the constricted spark channels and, as a consequence, high specific energy consumption for water treatment, as well as low productivity due to insufficient processing zones surrounding the discharge channel, because the processing is not all water, but only a part adjacent to the discharge channel. Another disadvantage of this method is the increase in conc the housing, the electrode system, nozzles and output water pipe entry posted on the cover of the housing, the nozzle output on its bottom, in the upper part of the body is horizontal perforated partition intended for dispersing the flow of water.The disadvantage of this reactor is the complexity of the device, high energy consumption, low resource isolation electrode systems and electrodes.The main technical task, which directed the inventive method and device is to improve the quality of water by increasing the efficiency of water treatment that allows you to brighten and purify the water (to the level of the requirements of GOST 2874-82 "drinking Water"), and the reduction of energy consumption in the process. The effectiveness of water treatment electrical discharges is determined by the size of the area occupied by the channels of electrical discharges in comparison with the volumes of treated water, the intensity of UV radiation, ozone concentration and other active particles generated in the discharge. When handling water discharges by the method proposed in the prototype, the water is subjected to a spark discharge occurring between two metal electrodes. Sa in the interelectrode gap in the form of sprays and drops, formed a special partition with holes. In this case, the discharge channel is divided into several parts, burning in the gas gap between the water jets and along streams in the gap. Although this solution makes it possible to significantly expand the area occupied by the discharge, it is still quite limited. Because the water remains liquid, well conducting electric current, and to protect the insulation, located in the reactor, water is not possible, the resource of this isolation remains low and there are significant energy losses associated with leakage on the water and wet surfaces. Cost of electricity for water treatment prototype in the best case amount of 0.12 kWh/m3. In our proposed technical solution, the pulse parameters of electric energy supplied to the electrode system, chosen so that the conductivity of the water in these conditions is sharply reduced, the water becomes liquid, poorly conducting electric current. This leads to reduced losses associated with the conductivity of the water, and dramatically increases the service life of the insulation. In the proposed design of the electrode system occurs barrier discharge, comprising the ski volume. Moreover, the processing is subjected to the entire flow of water, every drop and every element of any jet. This leads to the fact that, compared with the prototype increases the efficiency of water treatment and more than 2 times lower energy consumption for water treatment.The specified technical task is achieved by the fact that in the reactor for water treatment, including housing, in the upper part of which is placed the site create a gas mixture, the electrode system located under the node creation-gas mixture, site drainage-gas mixture located under the electrode system, as well as connections for inlet and water outlet, according to the invention the electrode system is made in the form of two combs, one of the electrodes are located at a distance of 1-15 mm from the other electrodes, and the electrodes are supplied with electric barriers.Suitable electric barriers run of solid insulating material, such as glass, ceramic, or a liquid such as water oils.In addition, the thickness of the electric barrier should be no more than 0.5 of the distance between the electrodes.Electric barrier it is advisable to position from the electrode at a distance of not more than 0.5 S-d, gdate electric barriers of quartz tubes, sealed at one end and fitted on the rod electrodes.It is advisable to node create-gas mixture to provide an aerator and / or ejector.Appropriate site drainage-gas mixture to provide an ejector.It is also advisable electrode system to perform in the form of two combs containing at least one electrode.To achieve the above technical problem in the way of water treatment, including the treatment gas mixture electrical discharges, according to the invention the processing gas mixture implement barrier discharges for the duration of the positive and (or) negative pulse width tandno more 0,510-6with the steepness of the front of the pulse is not less than 109In/s and the ratio of the amplitude of the voltage pulse to the distance between the electrodes in the range (2 - 10)of 103In/mmAppropriate high voltage pulses serve with frequency not less than 50 pulses/with selectable from the conditions f50 v/h, where v is the velocity of flow of the gas mixture in the zone of location of the electrodes, m/s, h is the working height of the electrode system, mConducted by the applicant's analysis of the level of technology has allowed to establish that the analogues, the nature of the method of water treatment no. Therefore, each of the claimed invention meets the condition of patentability "novelty."Search results known solutions in this and related areas of technology in order to identify characteristics that match the distinctive features of prototypes signs of each of the claimed invention, have shown that they do not follow explicitly from the prior art. Of certain of applicant's prior art there have been no known impact provided the essential features of each of the claimed inventions transformations to achieve a technical result. Therefore, each of the claimed invention meets the condition of patentability "inventive step".In the present application for patent complied with the requirement of unity of invention, since the apparatus and method are intended for water treatment. The claimed invention solves the same problem - increasing the efficiency of water treatment and reduction of energy consumption.In Fig. 1 shows a reactor for water treatment; Fig. 2 - electrode system of the reactor.The reactor consists of a housing 1, in the upper part of which is placed the site create a gas mixture 2, e is placed under the electrode system 3. Site creation-gas mixture 2 includes aerator 5, the ejector 6, the nozzles supplying water 7 and exhaust air and gases 8. Aerator 5 is connected to the fan 9. Site drainage-gas mixture 4 includes a camera dragirovaniya 10, the output of which is mounted an ejector 11 and outlet 12. To the electrode system 3 connected to the high-voltage pulse generator 13.The reactor operates in the following way. The treated water is supplied to the ejector 6, is atomized into droplets and mixed with air. The resulting air stream enters the aerator 5, where it is additionally mixed with the air supplied to the aerator 5 by the fan 9. The water flows through the grids of the aerator from the top down and the air is fed from the bottom up. This provides a better mixing of the water with oxygen. Thus oxidize oxidizable impurities (e.g., partially oxidized Fe, Mn), is the removal of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane and other gases, improve the organoleptic characteristics of water. The thus prepared water-air stream enters the location area of the electrodes 3, where it is processed electrical discharges with the given parameters. Power to the electrodes is supplied by a generator vysokogorii, many active particles. All this contributes to a deeper oxidation of impurities, decomposition of some organic compounds (phenol, methanol, ... ) to CO2and water, decontamination water. Completely removed the odor, the water becomes transparent and good taste. Water treated with electric discharge, into the chamber of dragirovaniya 10. Camera dragirovaniya similar to the aerator 5 full bars (chordates nozzles) to increase contact time and better mixing of the water with ozone. The iron is oxidized in the aeration system, passing through the electrode system 3, is activated and acquires properties of highly effective adsorbent on which many are sorbed contamination. Subsequently, these impurities along with the iron easily captured by the filter. For additional mixing water with ozone, enhance coagulation of oxidized impurities at the outlet of the chamber dragirovaniya installed the ejector 11. Further processed in the described manner the water through the outlet 12 enters the filtration system for clarification.In Fig. 2 shows a variant of the arrangement of the electrode system 3. The electrode system is made of several electrodes 14 collected in the form of d is another 16 - earthed. The electrodes were worn insulating barriers 17 in the form of quartz glass tubes. In the comb electrodes can be horizontal or vertical position and to be on the same (as in Fig. 2) or multiple levels in the vertical. The distance between high-voltage and grounded electrodes is set in the range 1-15 mm With an interelectrode gaps smaller than 1 mm is complicated by the design of the electrode system, decreases the reliability of its work and decreases the performance of the reactor. At intervals of more than 15 mm required operating voltages above 50103In that complicates the design of the electrode system, decreases the reliability of the equipment. In addition, increasing the thickness of the water layer, resulting in reduced treatment efficacy. The optimum distance between the electrodes 4-10 mm Electrodes can be razlichnuyu form. Experiments have shown that the most effective cylindrical and plate (flat) electrodes. All electrodes are supplied with electric barriers. The barrier is a layer of insulating material of a certain thickness d deposited on the electrode surface, or located on nekotorom which depends on the performance of the reactor, and on the basis of these considerations, the thickness of the barrier should be minimal. However, the reliability of the electrode system requires mechanical and electrical strength of the barrier, which leads to an increase in the thickness of the barrier. In real conditions the thickness of the barrier is determined experimentally, but in any case it will be less than half of the interelectrode distance. The distance between the barrier and the electrode should be as low as possible. However, in all conditions, this distance should be less than 0.5 S-d, where S is the interelectrode distance, in mm, d is the thickness of the electric barrier, mmIn the reactor for water treatment by the proposed method were treated water containing a variety of contaminants. The reactor had dimensions in the cross section of 400 x 500 mm Height of the reactor 3500 mm Electrode system was made of stainless steel wire with a diameter of 1.5 mm, the Distance between the electrodes was 7 mm electrodes were wearing insulating barriers in the form of quartz glass tubes. Outer pipe diameter 5 mm, wall thickness 1.5 mm Distance between the barrier and the electrode was in the range of 0 to 0.25 mm Electrodes were located on two levels vertically in each level was ustanovka 1 m/s The processing conditions were as follows. Processing was subjected to water containing E. coli to a concentration of 105cells/l phenol in the amount of 0.2 mg/l of trichloroethylene in the amount of 0.03 mg/l, manganese in the amount of 0.25 mg/l, lead in an amount of 0.1 mg/l copper in the amount of 2.0 mg/l, aluminum in the amount of 2.5 mg/l treatment was applied to 10 m3of water per hour. The electrodes were applied voltage pulses of varying amplitude, duration and repetition rate. While the steepness of the front of the pulse was not less than 109In/sec. At a lower steepness of the wavefront dramatically increase the cost of electricity associated with a high conductivity water. When the ratio of the amplitude of the pulse voltage to the distance between the electrodes is less than 2103In/mm discharge between the electrodes does not illuminate, and the water is not treated. And with respect to the amplitude of the pulse voltage to the distance between the electrodes is greater 10103In/mm is complicated by the device generator and transmission line. Decreases the reliability of the equipment and increases the power consumption.The treated water was supplied to the filter with sand and gravel loading, where he Svetlanas. Analysis samples were taken of the treated water after the react is found results, obtained at a repetition frequency high-voltage pulses equal to 1000 imp./C. the Frequency was chosen from the condition f 50 v/h, where v is the velocity of flow of the gas mixture in the area of the electrodes, v = 1 m/s, h is the height of the electrode system, h = 50 mm, Then f = 1000 imp./C.From table. 1 shows that the duration of high-voltage pulses less than 0,510-6with the energy consumption for water treatment and decrease the efficiency of water purification on the main components improves.In table. 2 shows the results on the content of impurities (mg/l) in the treated water depending on the repetition rate of the pulses in the pulse duration tand= 0,210-6C.From table. 2 it follows that the content of impurities in the treated water is reduced when the pulse frequency is not less than 50 pulses/C. 1. Reactor for water treatment, including housing, in the upper part of which is placed the site create a gas mixture, the electrode system located under the node creation-gas mixture, site drainage-gas mixture located under the electrode system, as well as connections for inlet and water outlet, wherein the electrode system is made in the form of two combs, one of the electrodes.2. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that the electric barriers are made of solid insulating material, such as ceramic, glass, or liquid such as water, oils.3. The reactor under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the thickness of the electric barrier is not more than 0.5 of the distance between the electrodes.4. Reactor PP.1, 2 or 3, characterized in that the barrier is from the electrode at a distance of not more than 0.5 s - d, where s is the distance between the electrodes, mm, d is the thickness of the electric barrier, mm5. Reactor PP. 1, 2, 3 or 4, characterized in that the electric barriers are made in the form of a quartz tube, sealed at one end and fitted on the rod electrodes.6. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that the node creation-gas mixture is supplied with aerator and / or ejector.7. The reactor under item 1 or 6, characterized in that the site drainage-gas mixture is supplied by the ejector.8. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that the electrode system is made in the form of two combs containing at least one electrode.9. The method of water treatment, including the treatment gas mixture of the electric charges, wherein obrabotki.nehvatajet pulses is not more than 0.5 10-6with the steepness of the front of the pulse is not less than 109In/s and the ratio of the amplitude of the pulse voltage to the distance between the electrodes in the range (2-10) 103In/mm10. The method of water treatment on p. 9, characterized in that the high voltage pulses are served with a frequency f of at least 50 CPS, select from the condition f 50 v/h, where v is the velocity of flow of the gas mixture between the electrodes of the electrode system, m/s, h is the working height of the electrode system, m
FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.