Method and device for temperature control (options) and method for catalytic dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: chemical reactors. In the reactor and method for communicating through the wall of the flow of reagent (a) flow (B) use the design of the wavy heat exchanger baffles to control the temperature conditions by changing the number and/or installation of the waviness on the walls. Reactor and method of the invention can be used to operate the reactor under isothermal or other conditions of controlled temperature. Variation during installation waviness within one heat transfer section is very useful for maintaining a desired temperature profile in the installation, having a cross flow of coolant toward reagents. Installation waviness eliminates or minimizes the typical stepwise approximation to isothermal conditions. 5 C. and 29 C. p. F.-ly, 16 ill., table 1.

The invention relates to chemical reactors for the conversion of the reaction liquid at the heat transfer through the wall with the coolant.

In many industries, such as petrochemical and chemical industry, in technology use reactors, in which the pressure. In most of these reactions is generated or absorbed heat in varying degrees and, therefore, they are exothermic or intra-uterine reactions. Heating or cooling associated with exothermic or endothermic reactions, can have a positive or negative impact on the operation in the reaction zone. Negative impacts may include, among other things: low product yield, the deactivation of the catalysts, the formation of undesirable by-products and, in extreme cases, damage to the reaction vessel and associated piping. More common unwanted effects associated with changes of temperature will reduce the selectivity or the entry of products in the reaction zone.

One solution to control the temperature associated with thermal effects of various reactions is to work in several adiabatic reaction zones with intermediate heating or cooling between the different reaction zones. Each adiabatic reaction stage all the heat released or absorbed during the reaction, goes directly into the reaction liquid and the reactor properties. The number of the heat and valid is such installations. Each zone or adiabatic phase reactions contribute significantly to the total cost of such a process because of the expensive equipment additional piping and heaters or refrigerators for intermediate stages of heat transfer to the reactant, which passes through the reaction zone. Therefore, the number of adiabatic stages is limited and these systems are at best offer a progressive approach to isothermal or other controlled temperature conditions. In addition, the separation of the reaction zone on the battery of reactors is particularly inconvenient for reaction systems with continuous input and output of the catalyst from the reaction zone.

Other solutions to the problem of temperature control under the influence of various thermal effects reactions use direct heating or cooling or heating or cooling through the wall inside the reaction zone. Direct heating or cooling uses a compensating reaction directly with another heat demand, which occurs simultaneously with the main reaction. The compensating reaction compensates for the heat generation or absorption of heat in the primary reaction. One of the simplest forms of such installation is Enya.

Another solution consists in heating the reagents and/or catalysts through the wall inside the reaction zone with a heating or cooling medium. The most well-known catalytic reactors of this type are tubular device with a fixed or moving bed of catalyst. The geometry of the tubular reactor causes the problem to the compact arrangement, which requires large reactor or limited performance.

Heat transfer through the wall is also carried out with the use of thin walls defining channels which are alternately hold the catalyst and the reactant between the heating medium for heating or cooling the reactants and catalyst through the wall. Partitions for heat transfer in these reactors, heat transfer through the wall can be flat or curved and may have such variations in the surface waviness, to improve heat transfer between fluids and reagents and catalysts. Although thin walls to transfer heat to some extent can compensate for changes in temperature caused by thermal effect of the reaction, the installation of heat transfer through the wall can not provide the full temperature control, cawthorne.

Many processes for the conversion of hydrocarbons, it is advisable to carry out while maintaining a temperature profile that differs from that generated by thermal effect of the reaction. For many reactions the most favorable temperature profile will be obtained by virtually isothermal conditions. In some cases, the temperature profile, the opposite changes in temperature associated with thermal effect of reaction will be to provide the most favorable conditions. An example of such situation is the reaction of dehydrogenation, in which the selectivity and conversion of the endothermic process is improved in the presence of rising temperature profile or a reverse temperature gradient along the reaction zone.

Reverse temperature gradient for the purposes of the present description means a condition in which the temperature change during the reaction zone opposite to that which develops due to the heat of reaction. In an endothermic reaction the reverse temperature gradient will mean that the average temperature of the reactants in the direction of the exit from the reaction zone has a higher value than the average temperature of the reactants at the entrance to the reactions the agents at the entrance to the reactor have a higher average temperature, than the reactants at the outlet of the reaction zone.

The known method and device for temperature control, containing the reaction vessel, flow channels, partitions and waviness variable length depth or slope, which is the closest analogues of the proposed (WO 92/08941 A, 29.05.92).

There is a method for catalytic dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons (US 4411869 A, 25.10.83), including the use of contact materials consisting of paraffins with a dehydrogenation catalyst at dehydrogenation conditions. This method is the closest to the claimed method dehydrogenation.

The objective of the invention is to develop a reactor that provides better temperature control reagents when the heat transfer through the wall for heating or cooling the reaction flow through the fluid within the reaction zone.

Another object of the invention is to develop a method and a device that uses heat transfer through the wall of the reaction flow and the coolant flow to control the temperature profile along the reaction zone.

Another object of the invention is to develop a method that uses the heat transfer through the wall from the downstream reactor.

Another object of the invention is to develop reaction setup and methods that will facilitate the continuous transfer of catalyst through the reaction zone, in which the flow of reagents in contact with the coolant through the wall.

The invention relates to a chemical reactor and method using a chemical reactor, which is used with the installation of the heat transfer walls, inside the reactor, which will maintain the temperature inside the reactor at the desired intervals during the reaction. In fashion and reactionary installation of the invention vary two parameters of the installation of partitions. Partitions used in the reactor device will have waviness created along the length of the walls to improve heat transfer through the walls. One of the parameters of the partitions, made according to the invention, is the relative geometry of the cobbles in different parts of the partitions. Another option is controlled in accordance with the invention, is to change the number of channels, also expressed as the distance between the heat exchanger baffles along the length of the heat exchange zone in the reactor. When you change one or both parameters, the applicants have found that in the same ri inverse temperature gradients.

The invention will provide the desired temperature control during the reaction zone. Preferably with the aid of the invention it is possible to maintain the desired temperature at the inlet and outlet within the interval 10oF (5,56oC), and more preferably within the interval 5oF (2,78oC), the desired temperature difference. When the desired isometric conditions, the temperature at the inlet and outlet are equal so that one requirement is almost isometric conditions described in the invention lies in the fact that the average temperature at the input and output differ by no more than 10oF (5,56oC), and preferably not more than 5oF (2,78oC).

Method and catalytic reactor, which uses the invention can use one or many of the reaction zone inside the reaction vessel. The advantage of the invention lies in the fact that in the reaction vessel can provide the desired temperature gradient without intermediate removal or recyclization reagent or fluid between the inlet and outlet of the reactor. Many of the reaction zone inside the reaction vessel can be used by creating variations in the depth and angle of the cobbles teploobmennaja.

Therefore, in the variant of the device the invention relates to a reactor to control the temperature profile in the reaction zone. The reactor has multiple spatially separated partitions, each partition has a long length and defines the boundary of the flow channel for the fluid from one side of the partition and the boundary of the reaction flow channel on the opposite side of the wall. Each partition is determined by the cobbles, having the first depth and the first angle in the first part of the septum, and is the second cobbles in the second part of the septum. The first part of the septum is separated from the second portion along the length of the septum. Second waviness have a second depth and a second tilt angle, and at least one second depths and angles of inclination different from the first depth and angle. The device includes means for passing the reaction liquid in the first flow path through many of the reaction flow channels defined by the partitions. The device also includes means for contacting the reaction liquid with the catalyst. The invention also includes means for passing a coolant through a lot of reaction the control of the invention, which ensures that each individual reaction zone at or near the desired temperature profile is changing the angle of the cobbles. Enhancement of heat transfer provided by the cobbles on thin partitions increases, when waviness refuse across the coolant flow. For example, in the case of endothermic reactions installation of cobbles more parallel to the coolant inlet into the reaction zone and more across in the direction of the exit from the reaction zone will provide less heat transfer from the coolant intake side than on the output side of the reaction zone. Thus, the increase of heat transfer to the cobbles in the direction of the exit from the reaction zone compensates for the loss of temperature of the fluid in its passage through the reaction zone. The angle of the cobbles can also be changed to compensate for any increased demands on the heat required for the reaction within the reaction zone. Thus, the change in the slope of cobbles allows to maintain the desired temperature profile in a single pass of the coolant, despite any loss of temperature of the fluid in its passage through klonoa zone when the depth of the cobbles. However, the simplest and most primary means of temperature control within the reaction zone is the change in the angle of the cobbles from more parallel to more transverse with respect to the flow of coolant.

Temperature change of the coolant, in addition, can be compensated by changing the number of flow channels in different sections of the reactions of a single reaction setup with a heat exchange walls. For a given cross-sectional area of the flow increasing the number of flow channels reduces the distance or gap between the partitions, increasing the number of partitions and improves heat transfer. When the number of flow channels, the surface area of heat transfer partitions increases in relation to the other sections of the reaction, providing a more complete approximation to the maximum temperature. The application changes the number of flow channels to the endothermic reaction will ensure the passage of the coolant in the reactor and in the first reaction section having walls defining a first number of flow channels. For the purposes of the present description of the reaction section, means the layout of the partitions, predelli reaction to the collector re-distribution, and then the second reaction section having a large number of partitions, which defines a greater number of flow channels for coolant and reagents. With this arrangement, the combination of the changes of the tilt angle in each cobbles reaction section to maintain the desired temperature profile within each of the reaction sections and the increase in the number of baffles or flow channels is to keep average temperatures from one of the reaction section to another within a single system of reaction sections. Both of these effects will provide the temperature conditions of the method, which is convenient to control.

Therefore, in a variant of the method, the present invention relates to a method of temperature control of the flow of reactants in a chemical reaction when heat transfer through the wall with coolant through many walls. In the way that the coolant passes from the entrance to area heat before exiting the heat exchange zone through a first group of elongated channels formed by the first side walls. In the way the flow of reagents passes from the entrance to the reaction zone prior to exiting through the second group of channels formed by the second side walls. Stream Rea the coolant and the flow of the reactants in contact, at least reagent or heat cobbles formed by the partitions and having the tilt angle or the depth of the undulation near the input of reagents or input fluid, which is different from a tilt angle of slope or depth of waviness near the conclusion of the coolant or of the conclusion of the reactants.

The method can be useful for a large variety of catalytic reactions. The most beneficial present invention is applicable to the process of catalytic conversion, having a large heat of reaction. Typical reactions of this type are the reactions of conversion (transformation) of hydrocarbons, which include the aromatization of hydrocarbons, the reforming of hydrocarbons, the dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons and the alkylation of hydrocarbons. Typical processes for the conversion of hydrocarbons to which the present invention is applicable, include the catalytic dehydrogenation of paraffins, the reforming of naphtha, the aromatization of light hydrocarbons and the alkylation of aromatic hydrocarbons.

In the reaction zones of the method of the invention can be contact of reagents coolant through the wall in any relative direction. Thus, the flow channels and the input and outputs of react the media. In a preferred embodiment, the composition in the practical implementation of the invention, the reagents will be held in the transverse direction to the flow of coolant. The transverse flow of reagents is generally preferable to minimize the pressure losses associated with the passage of the reactants through the reactor. For this reason, linking with the cross-flow direction can be used to provide the shortest path for the reactants passing through the reaction zone.

A shorter flow path, particularly in the case of flow of the reactants in contact with a heterogeneous catalyst, reduces the overall pressure drop of the reactants during their passage through the reactor. Lower pressure drop can have a twofold advantage in the processing of many reactionary threads. Increased resistance to flow, i.e., the pressure drop may increase the total working pressure of the process. In many cases, the product yield or selectivity are improved with a lower operating pressure, so to minimize the loss of pressure will provide a higher yield of the target products. In addition, higher pressure losses increase total service and value provide channel for the reagent alternated with a channel for coolant. Possible configurations of the reaction section can put two or more channel for coolant between each channel for the reagents to reduce the loss of pressure fluid. When used for this purpose, the partition separating adjacent the coolant channels may have holes.

Additional options for the layout and features of the invention will be described in the following detailed description of the invention.

In Fig. 1 schematically presents the catalytic reaction section of the present invention, showing the preferred direction of circulation of the fluid and the catalyst.

In Fig. 2 schematically shows a front view of the partition which forms a part of the channels in the catalytic reaction section of the present invention.

In Fig. 3 schematically presents a three-dimensional image with the disintegration of the elements of the catalytic reactor, collected in accordance with the present invention.

In Fig. 4 shows a cross-section of 4 - 4 of Fig. 3.

In Fig. 5 schematically shows a General view of a catalytic reactor of the present invention with the layout of the reactor tubes in the form of stars.

, 7 presents a cross section of an alternative internal arrangement of the reactor of Fig. 5.

In Fig. 8 schematically shows a longitudinal cross section of a typical catalytic reaction tubes forming composition in the form of a star in Fig. 5.

In Fig. 9 presents a cross section along the length 6 - 6 of Fig. 8.

In Fig. 10 schematically presents a perspective view of a catalytic reactor of the present invention with the arrangement of the reaction tubes polygonal shape.

In Fig. 11 shows a cross section along the line 11 - 11 of Fig. 10.

In Fig. 12 presents a cross section along the line 12 - 12 of Fig. 10.

In Fig. 13 shows schematically a partial longitudinal section of an alternative arrangement of the reaction tubes according to the invention.

In Fig. 14 presents a cross-section on the line 14 14 of Fig. 13.

In Fig. 15 shows a cross section of another polygonal layout of the reactor according to the invention.

In Fig. 16 presents a flow diagram of a method of dehydrogenation according to the invention.

In accordance with his design of the reactor according to the invention has the advantage that it can be supported prostitutor, during the passage of the reactants through the reactor with coolant.

In the method and reactor device can be used homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts are typically liquid catalysts, which are used for the reaction channels together with reagents and separated to retrieve and recyclization outside the reaction zone. The design of the reactor provides special advantages for heterogeneous catalysts, which are usually held inside the reaction channels with wavy walls and permeable areas that hold the catalyst, but allow the flow of reagents to pass through them. In most cases, the heterogeneous catalyst is a material in the form of particles held between the partitions, and the reactor can be designed in such a way as to ensure continuous supply and drainage of the particles when the reactor is in operation.

Type and details of the reactor design under consideration in the practice of the invention will be better understood with reference to the drawings.

In Fig. 1 shows schematically the cross-section of a catalytic reactor, designed for holding kataliticheskaya temperature of the reaction during the passage of liquid reagent through the reaction section. For this purpose, the section of the catalytic reaction is the star of the parallel walls 10 of the type shown in Fig. 2. Each wall 10 has a Central portion 12, which forms a sloping waviness 13. Preferably, each baffle 10 also contains a homogeneous edges 11, which facilitates the Union of the set of partitions in the channels. Again referring to Fig. 1, each partition 10 is superimposed on the adjacent walls 10 to form two circulation systems, the first system A - for completion of the reaction liquid and the second system B for the passage of the auxiliary liquid. Together Fig. 1 and 2 define a special circulation system A and B, in which the reaction liquid and the liquid coolant respectively flow in the transverse direction, i.e. perpendicular to and through alternate channels formed between adjacent partition walls 10.

Suitable partitions for the invention will be any of the partitions, providing a high rate of heat transfer and which is easy to fold into a stable wavy pattern. Partitions can be formed in a curved or other configuration, but flat partitions are usually preferred the key is usually made of iron or non-ferrous alloys, such as stainless steel.

Referring again to Fig. 2, the variation of the undulating link is the preferred method of control of the temperature profile. The layout of the partitions of Fig. 2 is a typical illustration of waviness for exothermic and endothermic process. To maintain almost isothermal or increasing the temperature profile in this preferred arrangement, the coolant flows down through the folds on one side of the partition, and the flow of the reagent flows horizontally across from the opposite side of the septum. The upper inlet end of the pitch angle of the cobbles is small, i.e. the main direction of cobbles approaching parallel orientation with the flow of the liquid coolant. On the lower end of the partition, where it leaves the heat-transfer fluid, the angle of the cobbles is wide to increase the relative heat transfer, i.e. the main direction of cobbles approaching perpendicular or transverse with respect to the flow of coolant. The angles of inclination of the waviness can be in the range of from greater than 0oto less than 90o. Typically, the angle waviness from the inlet to the outlet secene 15 to 60o. In a preferred embodiment, the layout of the partitions will have an angle of less than 30othe inlet end of the partition and the angle of the 35oat the outlet end of the partition. Variable waviness can be formed in a continuous partition walls or partition walls of the type shown in Fig. 2, may be made of multiple partitions having waviness with different angles of inclination.

Wavy walls can be separated by spaces or are against neighboring partitions with the formation of alternating channels for streams. The narrow gaps between the partitions are preferred to obtain maximum surface heat transfer. Preferably wavy pattern must be rotated in the reverse direction between adjacent partition walls in the section of the reactor. Thus, the usual pattern herringbone on the front surfaces of the opposite wavy walls will extend in opposite directions and opposite surfaces of the partition walls can be brought into contact with each other to form channels for streams and providing structural support for partitions partitions.

Preferably A is Aligator usually are granules of small size. The particles can have any shape, but usually they are small spheres or cylinders.

In addition, for the purpose of loading and unloading of the catalyst, the catalytic reactor may contain a means for promoting catalyst channels for reagents. In Fig. 1 shows such means 31, is represented schematically, for distribution of the catalyst in the channels A and in its lower part, means 32, represented schematically, for collecting catalyst during move operations.

In Fig. 3 and 4 is a very schematic representation of the layout of the reactor of the invention, showing the General layout of the partitions, United in alternate channels (to simplify the drawing waviness not shown). For this purpose, as shown in Fig. 3, is attached in a suitable manner such as welding, spacers 14 along the sides of the walls 10 to form channels 20, which are open from opposite vertical sides of the reactor plant for the flow of liquid reagent, as shown by the arrow A (system A), and channels 30 which are open at the top and bottom parts of the reactor for flow of liquid coolant, as shown by arrows B (system B).

When the flow through the particles, ahogadas and absorption of heat. The function of the heat carrier circulating in the system B, is the transfer of heat that must be supplied to or removed from the liquid reagent to maintain a favourable reaction conditions.

Such conditions can include isothermal conditions during the circulation of the above-mentioned liquid reagent in the catalytic reactor or reverse temperature gradient. Liquid coolant is either gas or liquid, depending on the specific operating conditions of each process. The characteristic ratio of heat transfer to the heat exchange baffles installed the fundamental equation expressing the transfer of heat between two fluids. This ratio is the following:

P=hSLMTD,

where P is the number of heat exchange;

h is a local or overall coefficient of heat transfer;

S is the area of heat transfer between the liquids;

LMTD logarithmic average temperature difference.

Logarithmic mean temperature difference can easily be determined by the desired temperature difference at any point along the walls.

For a series of wavy walls defining alternating channels for catalyst particles and liquid eplerenone:

h=f(a, e, dp),

where a is the angle cobbles;

e is the distance between the two partitions 10;

dp is the equivalent diameter of the catalyst particles.

The corresponding value of h can be established by modeling or computer processing using known correlations to establish the coefficients of heat transfer in wavy surfaces and, when available, through the layer of particles. The correlation for the localized heat transfer through the layer of particles can be found in Lera, Ind. Eng. Chem., 42, 2498 (1950). Correlations for heat transfer along the cobbles presented in AIChE Symposium Series No. 29 Heat Transfer Atlanta (1993).

The area of exchange between the liquid reagent and the auxiliary liquid can be calculated using the equation:

S = nlL,

where is the factor correlation to extend partitions, resulting cobbles; n equals the number of partitions in contact with both heating and reacting liquids;

l is the width of the septum;

L is the length of the partition.

Using the number of partitions and characteristics of waviness, especially the angle of the waviness, the invention provides means is shown in the variant of Fig. 3, controls, and temperature conditions is the presence of separate sections 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a...4b, 4c of the heat exchange between the liquid reagent circulating in the system A, and the coolant circulating in the system B. In Fig. 3 separate sections of the heat exchange 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a...4b, 4c are distributed in the direction of flow of the liquid reagent in the direction of flow of the liquid coolant so as to form rows 1, 3, 3, and 4 and columns a, b and c. Other configurations of the present invention, these separate sections of the heat can be distributed only in the direction of flow of liquid reagent or only in the direction of flow of the liquid coolant. The total number of individual reaction of partitions defined for the entire catalytic reactor of Fig. 3, is obtained by multiplying the number of rows 1, 2, 3 and 4 on the number of columns a, b and c. All sections of heat exchange with a particular set have the same vertical height and all sections of the heat exchange specific columns have the same horizontal width.

Varying the number of partitions 10, as shown in Fig. 3 and 4, increasing the heat exchange with a larger number of rows or fewer letters columns by adding the area of the I-change heat transfer within section 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 2b...4b, 4c, the present invention modifies each of these sections preferably by changing the angle of inclination of the cobbles. As is shown in Fig. 2, the angle of the cobbles 13 may be more parallel with respect to the direction of flow of the reagent, when you want high efficiency, and more transverse to the direction of fluid flow in the heat transfer surfaces that require low efficiency.

The number of partitions 10 may be increased or decreased from the entrance to the exit of the liquid reagent. In Fig. 4 shows, for example, changes to sections of the heat transfer from a large number to a small number of partitions 10 along the flow path of the liquid reagent.

When used in the invention, the heterogeneous catalyst of the catalytic reactor comprises a means for feeding catalyst 15 in the channels 20 of the system A circulation of liquid reagent. As shown in Fig. 3 and 4, the means containing the catalyst can consist of gratings 16, is placed on one side or the other of the channels 20 in each heat exchange surface 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a... 4b, 4c. These screens 16 cover the entire width of the channel 20, and the cell size of each grid is smaller than the granules of the catalyst 15.

In addition to MENA (1a, 1b, 1c, 2a...4b, 4c), provide the means for mixing and distributing the liquid reactant and / or coolant. As shown in Fig. 4, these means consist of gaps between the switch 21 located between the above-mentioned areas of heat transfer.

In Fig. 5 and 6 schematically shows a more typical case of full reactor mounted in accordance with the present invention, the reactor contains a number of reaction tubes, each tube there are many reactionary sections. In the reactor spend catalytic reaction horizontally current liquid reagent at a controlled temperature by contact through the wall of the vertical flow of the liquid coolant, while the movement of catalyst through the reaction tubes.

The reactor consists of a vessel of circular cross-section, indicated generally by the reference 31 and is shown by dash-dotted lines in Fig. 5. The receptacle 31 includes a top plate 32, for example, a hemispherical shape, a nozzle 33 for supplying the coolant, and the bottom plate 34, for example, a hemispherical shape, a nozzle 35 for draining the coolant.

As shown in Fig. 6, Catala is which set of reaction tubes 36. Reaction tubes 36 are vertical and are distributed according to the configuration of the stars between the walls 31a and 31b of the vessel 31. In Fig. 7 shows the variation of Fig. 6, in which the vessel 31 consists of an outer wall 31a. The number of reaction tubes 36 is preferably an even number, and in Fig. 5 to 7 is six.

The side walls of the reaction tubes 36 define part zones power 37a, 37c and 37e installed alternate between pipes 36 for distribution of liquid reagent and a portion of the extraction zones 37b, 37d and 37f installed alternate between the pipes for the removal of liquid reagent. The upper zones 37a, 37b. . . 37f bonded horizontal walls 38, each installed between the reaction tubes 36, and the lower zones 37a, 37b...37f fixed horizontal partitions 39, each installed between the reaction tubes 36. Installation in the form of a star gives each zone 37a, 37b...37f shape of a triangular prism with one vertex, oriented to the inside of the vessel 31. In other embodiments, not shown, each zone 37a...37f may be separated by a vertical wall into two polozani with the subdivided parts of the zones, providing one zone and one zone of the extract.

Nutrition zone 37a, 37c and 37e are connected by means of supply redcrosse this liquid reagent, which in one form are pipe 41.

As shown in Fig. 8 and 9, each reaction tube 36 contains many parallel walls 40. Partition 40 is installed perpendicular to the radius of the vessel 31 and are at the bottom of each of the reaction tubes 36. Each wall 40 forms together with the adjacent partitions 40 previously described circulation contours A and b Channels 43 contain horizontal flow through A circuit for the passage of liquid reagent, and the channels 44 have a vertical flow through the path B for the passage of the liquid coolant. The A circuit for circulation of liquid reagent also contains catalyst particles 45. The reactor includes means for passage of a catalyst in a circuit of each of the reaction tubes 36 and means for removal of catalyst from A circuit of each of the reaction tubes 36. As shown in a characteristic arrangement of Fig. 5, a pipe for feeding catalyst 46, the number of which is equal to half the number of reaction tubes 36, supplied with fresh catalyst particles. Each tube 46 is divided into two potreby 46a and 46b, which serves the catalyst particles in the upper part of the reaction tube 20.

Many pipe 47 for discharging catalyst each connected with the lower part of each is based catalyst can be removed from the reactor or periodically or continuously and returned to the reactor after regeneration.

In Fig. 5 and 8 shows the diffuser 48 in the upper part of each of the reaction tubes for distribution of the catalyst in the circuit A and the collector 50 in the lower part of the pipe 36 for removal of the catalyst. The diffuser 48 may be provided with internal baffles, or cobbles 13 for the distribution of the catalyst. Each collector 50 includes internal partitions or waviness 51 for controlling the flow of a specified catalyst in the pipe 47.

Each reaction tube 36 includes at its upper part at least one inlet opening for entry of the liquid coolant in the circuit B. the Inlet may be just a hole. Figure 5 and 8 shows the reaction tube 36 having an inlet opening in the form of two lateral openings in the shape of a bowl 52, each arranged on opposite sides of the respective reaction tubes 36. The inlet 52 is open to the inside of the vessel 31, which contains the heat transfer fluid from the nozzle 33. Liquid coolant is introduced into the circuit B through the inlet 52 through the distribution zone 52a.

Each reaction tube 36 typically has in its lower part, at least one collector for collecting the liquid coolant from the exhaust hole of the circuit B. In Fig. 5 and 8 shows the pipe 36 for collecting the liquid coolant from the extraction zone 53a, which is connected with the channels 44. The collectors are connected through the open portion of the vessel 31 below the partition 39 and the outlet nozzle 35 for discharging the liquid coolant.

The variant shown in Fig. 5 - 9, shows each reaction tube 36, divided into many reactionary sections 36a, 36b, 36c and 36d, which are connected together by an intermediate connecting zone 54. Connecting zones 30 serve as a reservoir for re-distribution to provide separate passage of the liquid coolant and catalyst between the various reactionary sections 36a, 36b 36c and 36d.

In a typical operation pass the liquid reagent, the liquid coolant and possibly the catalyst through the reactor 31. The liquid reagent is fed into the reactor 31 through pipes 42, through the power zone, 37A, 37c and 37e, then pass horizontally through the two connection reaction tubes 36 through path A and is directed to the extraction zone 37b, 37d and 37f. The liquid reagent is sequentially output through the pipes 41. Liquid coolant is introduced into the upper part of the vessel 31 through the nozzle 33, is passed into the reaction tube 36 through the area of the inlet 52 and zone distribution 52a. Liquid coolant passes vertically through the reaction tube 36 by path B in and out is osuda 31 and exits through the nozzle 35. The catalyst 45 is served in a circuit of each of the reaction tubes 36 through pipes 46, pipes 46a and 46b and through the diffuser 48, where the liquid reagent in contact with the catalyst in the circuit A. Through the reservoir 50 and the pipe 47 is periodically or continuously remove the catalyst from the bottom of the reaction tube 36.

To maintain the desired temperature profile during the passage of liquid reagent through each reaction section 36a, 36b, 36c and 36d in each section vary the angle waviness, defined by the partitions 40. The number of partitions in each successively descending down the reaction section 36(a-d) is increased to gradually add the surface area of heat exchange between the liquid reagent and the liquid coolant down the length of each of the reaction tubes 36.

Preferably the reaction tube 36 is kept under pressure inside the vessel 31 through the liquid coolant, the working pressure of the liquid coolant usually adjusted to a value slightly greater than the pressure of the liquid reagent. For this purpose, the liquid coolant is usually served in a vessel 31 and surround them with the reaction tube 36.

In the reaction vessel 31 of the reaction tube 36 can be mounted in different ways. With odci 40 almost parallel to the radius of the vessel 55. The layout of the partitions 40 parallel to the radius of the vessel 55 provides a generally polygonal configuration of the reaction tubes. Reaction tubes forming almost a circle inside the reaction vessel 55.

In Fig. 10 - 12 pipeline system and the location of the channels for the supply and extraction of liquid reagents, liquid coolants and catalysts essentially similar to those described for the composition of the reactor of Fig. 5 to 9, and all the details of the reaction tubes is also essentially similar to those described. The catalyst particles is introduced into the reactor 10 through the nozzle 56. Diffusers 48' at the top of the reaction tubes 36' carry the catalyst into the reaction tube through the upper cylinder 58. Nozzle 57 remove the catalyst from the reaction tubes 36' through the collector of the previously described type and through the bottom of the cylinder 59. Liquid coolant is introduced into the reactor 55 through the nozzle and fill with it the inner part of the vessel 55. Liquid coolant enters the reaction tube 36' through the inlet 52 and passes through the adjacent reaction section by the connecting zones 54'. Collectors at the bottom of the reaction tubes unload the heat-transfer fluid in the collector Assembly 61. Of the collector 61 of the liquid coolant discharged through the pipes 62. The pipeline is whether the collector 61 and pipe 62 and 63 shown in Fig. 12. The liquid reagent flows through the vessel 55 from the inlet nozzle 64 to the exhaust nozzle 65. The nozzle 64 distributes the liquid reagent and a lot of distribution nozzles 66. Each distribution pipe 66 leads the liquid reagent in the distribution chamber 67. Each distributing chamber 67 covers the side of each reaction tube 36' so that its front surface facing the inside of the vessel 55. Distribution chamber 67 have a closed bottom, which increases the flow of liquid reagent through each reaction tube 36' and into the reservoir 68 which closes the opposite front side of each reaction tube 36'. The upper part of each collector 68 is closed to direct the output stream of liquid reagent in the pipeline 69 for collecting and discharging through the nozzle 65.

In another embodiment, shown in Fig. 13 and 14, the reaction tube 36' is connected in almost polygonal shape and placed in the reaction vessel 55. The partitions 70, shown in Fig. 14, define an inner distance distribution 71 of liquid reagent. As shown in Fig. 13, the upper wall 72 and bottom wall 73 to form upper and lower bounds of space for distribution 71. The liquid reagent is introduced into the space for distribution 71 in the outer space collection 74. Outer space to collect 74 eliminates the need for the collector pipe and the liquid reagent is released from the vessel directly through the open nozzle 65 (not shown). In contrast to the previously described configurations of the reactor variant of Fig. 13 and 14 shows a liquid reagent, surrounding the reaction tube 36'. The partition 35 together with the partition wall 33 isolate the upper part of the vessel 55 with the formation of a distributed camera for feeding the liquid coolant in the inlet 52' of the previously described manner. The heat transfer fluid is again released from the reaction tubes 36' through the manifold and the piping system is almost the same as shown in Fig. 10 - 12. Any catalyst stream in the variant of Fig. 13 and 14 is almost the same as described earlier.

In Fig. 15 shows the arrangement of the reaction tubes 35', which combines the inlet distribution space Fig. 13 and 14 with collectors partitions shown in Fig. 10 - 12. In the layout shown in Fig. 15, any catalyst stream again is the same as previously described. As for the liquid reagent flows into the Central chamber 71, as shown in Fig. 13 and 14, and is collected and removed from the reaction tubes 36', as shown in Fig. 10 - 12. When com is to use two different layouts of piping and partitions. The incoming liquid coolant may surround the reaction tube 36' and fill the inside of the vessel 55, while the collector system similar to the one shown in Fig. 10 - 12, displays the flow of the liquid coolant. In another arrangement of the partitions, such as shown in Fig. 13 and 14, block upper volume of the vessel 55 to distribute the incoming liquid coolant in the inlet 52', while the liquid coolant surrounds the reaction tube 36' and is removed from the open lower volume without using any manifold or piping system.

Catalytic reforming is a well studied process of conversion of hydrocarbons, used in oil industry for improving the octane quality of hydrocarbons, the main product of the reformer is motor gasoline. The technology of catalytic reforming is well known and does not require a detailed description. Briefly, when the catalytic reforming feedstock is mixed with recyclization stream containing hydrogen and in contact with the catalyst in the reaction zone. The usual feedstock for catalytic reforming is a petroleum fraction known as Naftalan and ilusiones catalytic reforming is particularly applicable to the treatment of gasoline direct race, containing relatively large amounts of naphthenic and paraffinic hydrocarbons with almost straight chain, which is subjected to aromatization through dehydrogenation reaction and/or cyclization. Reforming can be defined as the total effect is obtained by dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol and dehydroisomerization of alkylcyclopentanes getting aromatics, dehydrogenation of paraffins to obtain olefins, dehydrocyclization paraffins and olefins with obtaining aromatics, isomerization of n-paraffins, isomerization of alkylcyclopentanes with getting cyclohexanol, isomerization of substituted aromatics, and hydrocracking of paraffins. Additional information about the processes of reforming can be found, for example, in U.S. patents 4 119 526 /Peters et. al./, 4 095 409 /Peters/b 4 440 626 /Winter et. al/, the content of which is given here as prior art.

The reaction of catalytic reforming is usually carried out in the presence of catalyst particles comprised of one or more favorable metals of Group VIII (e.g., platinum, iridium, rhodium, palladium) and a halogen, United on a porous carrier such as a refractory inorganic oxide. Halogen is typically chlorine. As the media usually use, gamma and ETA-alumina giving best results. An important property related to the performance characteristics of the catalyst is the surface area of the carrier. Preferably, the carrier must have a surface area of from 100 to about 500 m2/, Particles are generally spherical and have a diameter of from about 1/16 to about 1/8 inch (1.5 to 3.1 mm), though they can be as large as 1/4 inch (6.35 mm). Preferably the diameter of the catalyst particles is 1/6 inch (3.1 mm). During the reaction of the reforming catalyst particles are deactivated as a result of such mechanisms as the deposition of coke on the particles, i.e. after a certain period of time using the ability of the catalyst particles promote the reforming reaction is reduced to a level at which the catalyst is no longer useful. The catalyst should be re-conditioned or regenerated before its next use in the reforming process.

In preferred form in the operation of the reformer is used the reaction zone with a moving layer and a regeneration zone. The present invention is applicable to areas with moving bed and fixed bed. In operation with a moving bed of particles is actionnow zone and transported to a regeneration zone, where to use the multi-stage regeneration process for re-conditioning of the catalyst to restore its capacity and promote the reaction. The catalyst is held under the action of gravity through the various stages of regeneration, and then removed from the regeneration zone and is fed into the reaction zone. The movement of catalyst through the area often referred to as continuous, although in practice it is semi-continuous. Under semi-continuous movement understand the repeated transfer of relatively small amounts of catalyst in closely spaced points in time. System moving layer has the advantage of saving performance when removing, or mixing the catalyst.

Another preferred process for the conversion of hydrocarbons is the alkylation of aromatic hydrocarbons. When the alkylation of aromatics suitable aromatic hydrocarbon raw material for the present invention are aromatic substrates. Such substrates can be benzene or alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons, such as toluene. Acyclic hydrocarbon or an alkylating agent which can be used in the area of the alkylation reaction, the s, polyolefins, acetylenic hydrocarbons, and other substituted hydrocarbons, but preferably they are C2-C4- monoolefins.

In the area of the alkylation reaction can be used in a wide range of catalysts. The preferred catalyst for use in the present invention is a zeolite catalyst. The catalyst of the present invention is usually used in combination with a binder of the refractory inorganic oxide. Preferred binders are alumina and silica. The preferred alkylation catalysts are zeolite type Y having a matrix of aluminum oxide or silicon oxide, or betazole having a matrix of aluminum oxide or silicon oxide. The zeolite is present in an amount of at least 50 wt.% catalyst, and more preferably in the amount of at least 70 wt.% a catalyst.

Area alkylation reaction can operate in a wide range of operating conditions. Temperatures are typically in the range from 100 to 325oC, preferred is the range from 150 to 275oC. the Pressure can vary in a wide range from about 1 to 130 ATM. Because reactionary reagents in this phase, and it usually is in the range from 10 to 50 ATM. The reagents usually pass through the alkylation zone with a mass velocity sufficient to obtain hourly volume velocity of the fluid from 0.5 to 50 h-1and especially 1 to 10 h-1.

Area alkylation usually works in such a way as to obtain essentially complete conversion of the alkylating agent in monoalkyl, polyalkyl. To achieve this effect in the reaction zone usually download additional aromatic substrate. Thus, the feed mixture is introduced into the reaction zone at a constant speed and at a molar ratio from about 1:1 to 20:1 aromatic substrate to alkylating agent, preferred is a ratio from about 2:1 to 10:1. In the result of the addition product will usually have a significant quantity of unreacted aromatic substrate, which is removed from the product stream from the reaction zone alkylation. Additional details of the process of alkylation of aromatics can be found in U.S. patent 5 177 285, the content of which is here shown as prior art.

Catalytic dehydrogenation is another example of an endothermic process in which it is advisable to use the method and apparatus of the present invention. KRA is insituut with the catalyst in the reaction zone. Raw material for catalytic dehydrogenation are usually oil fraction containing paraffins having 3 to 18 carbon atoms. Specific raw materials will typically contain light or heavy paraffins. For example, the usual raw material for production of heavy products of the dehydrogenation will contain paraffins having 10 or more carbon atoms. The process of catalytic dehydrogenation is particularly applicable to the processing of hydrocarbon raw material containing essentially paraffinic hydrocarbons, which are subjected to a dehydrogenation reaction, resulting in the olefinic hydrocarbon compounds.

The reaction of catalytic dehydrogenation is usually carried out in the presence of catalyst particles containing noble metals of Group VIII (e.g., platinum, iridium, rhodium, palladium), combined with a porous carrier such as a refractory inorganic oxide. Usually as media use aluminum oxide. Preferred materials are aluminum oxide known as gamma, ETA and theta-oxides of aluminum, gamma and ETA-alumina giving best results. Preferably, the carrier will have a surface area of from 100 to about 500 m2/, Particles are generally spherical and have a diameter of from PCI catalyst have a chloride concentration between 0.5 and 3 wt.%. During the reaction of dehydrogenation catalyst particles are deactivated as the result of coke deposition and require regeneration similar to that described for the process of reforming: therefore, in the preferred form of the process of dehydrogenation again will apply the reaction zone with a moving layer and a regeneration zone.

The dehydrogenation conditions include a temperature from about 400oC to about 900oC, a pressure from about 0.01 to 10 atmospheres, and clock surround the liquid velocity (LHSV) from about 0.1 to 100 HR-1. Usually for normal paraffins for comparable conversions require higher temperatures for lower molecular masses. The pressure in the dehydrogenation zone support as low as possible, to comply with the limits of the equipment, to maximize the benefits of chemical equilibrium. The preferred dehydrogenation conditions in the method of the present invention include a temperature of from about 400 - 700oC, a pressure from about 0.1 to 5 ATM and hour space velocity of the liquid is from about 0.1 to 100 HR-1.

The stream leaving the dehydrogenation zone will generally contain neprevyshenie daydreamy hydrocarbons, hydrogen and protoni to separate the enriched hydrogen vapour phase from the enriched hydrocarbon liquid phase. Typically enriched hydrocarbon liquid phase is further separated using or a suitable selective adsorbent, selective solvent, selective reaction or reactions, or by using a suitable fractionation scheme, neprevyshenie daydreamy hydrocarbons is recovered and they can be recicladora in the dehydrogenation zone. The products of the reactions of dehydrogenation extract and in the form of finished products or as intermediates for other compounds.

Daydreamy hydrocarbons can be mixed with gaseous diluent before, during or after passing the dehydrogenation zone. The diluent material may be hydrogen, steam, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, etc. and mixtures thereof. Preferably the diluent is hydrogen. Typically, when used as a diluent gaseous diluent, it can be used in a quantity sufficient to ensure a molar ratio of gaseous diluent to hydrocarbon of from about 0.1 to about 20, best results are obtained when the molar ratio is in the range from about 0.5 to 10. Dilution stream of hydrogen that passes the dehydrogenation zone, usually recyclist, hydrogen OTDELA is which decomposes at dehydrogenation conditions with formation water, such as alcohol, aldehyde, simple ester or ketone, for example, can be added to the dehydrogenation zone or continuously or intermittently in such amount to provide, considering on the basis of equivalent water, about 1 to 20000 million-1flow of hydrocarbons. Add about 1 - 10000 million-1water gives the best results for the dehydrogenation of paraffins having from 6 to 30 carbon atoms. Additional information related to operation of the dehydrogenation, the catalyst, operating conditions and equipment of the method can be found in U.S. patent 4 677 327, 4 880 764 and 5 087792, the content of which is given here as the level of technology.

Example. Studied the effect of the use of the method and the reaction of the installation of the present invention to maintain isothermal conditions in the conversion of hydrocarbons to the dehydrogenation of paraffins. Modeling, based on the ability of the present invention to maintain isothermal conditions was conducted with the raw material having the composition shown in the table. Isothermal conditions, which was the result of the present invention, were simulated in the dehydrogenation process, as shown in Fig. 16.

In the heater 101, in which the temperature of the raw material increase from approximately 600oF (316oC) to 850oF (454oC). At the same time, the coolant having the same relative composition as the raw material is 100 serves on line 102 to the heater 103. The heater 103 raises the temperature of the coolant to approximately 890oF (477oC).

On line 104 serves heated raw material into the reactor 105, which sends raw material in a tubular heat exchanger 106, constructed in accordance with the present invention. Reactor 105 is designed to skip the raw material through a circuit containing a typical dehydrogenation catalyst consisting of a plate on a carrier of alumina. On line 107 serves the coolant from the heater 103 to the reactor 105, in which the coolant passes down through the tubular heat exchanger 106, as previously described in relation to circuit B. simulation of a tubular reactor 106 based on the use of tubular heat exchanger 106 having three layers of catalyst, the vertical height of approximately 1.5 m and a width of about 100 mm Walls that define the channels that are interleaved between the catalyst and the raw material and the liquid coolant, have a thickness of about 1.2 mm waviness with a depth of about 10 mm and a width of about 270 mm of Perehara in contact. The reactor operates at an average pressure of about 20 lb/in2/ 1,406 kg/cm2in both circuits A and B. the Total pressure drop in the system for the liquid reagent is about 2 lb/in2/0,141 kg/cm2. Heat transfer through the wall of the liquid reagent with the fluid provides the average exit temperature of about 850oF (454oC).

The process transformed the reagent and the flow of the coolant is removed from the process. The product stream 108 having the composition shown in the table, removed from the reactor at a temperature of about 850oF (454oC). On line 109 serves coolant from the reactor with a temperature of about 870oF (466oC). Comparison of flows 100 and 108 shows the conversion of C10-C14- paraffins to the corresponding olefins.

1. The catalytic reactor to control the temperature profile in the reaction zone, including many separated by intervals of partitions with cobbles and flow channels, wherein each partition has a long length and defines the boundary of the flow channel of the coolant from one side of the partition and the boundary of the channel of the reaction stream from the opposite side of partitions, and each partition defines lane waviness in the second part of the septum, parts are located along the length of the partition, the second undulation have a second depth and a second tilt angle, and at least one of the second depth and the second angle have a value different from the first depth and angle, and in addition, the reactor comprises means for passing liquid reagent through a variety of channels for flow of the reagent is defined by partition walls along the first flow path, and means for passing a coolant through a lot of the reaction flow channels defined by partition walls along the second flow path.

2. The catalytic reactor under item 1, characterized in that the first flow path is perpendicular to the second flow path.

3. The catalytic reactor under item 1, characterized in that the partitions are intermittent and the first part consists of sections of the first partition and the second part consists of a section of the second partition.

4. The catalytic reactor under item 1, characterized in that the partitions are continuous and the angle of the cobbles varies along the length of each partition.

5. The catalytic reactor under item 4, characterized in that the angle of the cobbles in relation to the direction of flow of liquid taloned.

6. The catalytic reactor under item 1, characterized in that the reactor includes means for retaining the catalyst in the flow channels of the reactant.

7. The catalytic reactor under item 1, characterized in that the walls are parallel.

8. The catalytic reactor under item 1, characterized in that the baffles in the reactor determine the channel for the reagent on one side and a channel for coolant on the opposite side.

9. The catalytic reactor under item 1, characterized in that each channel for the coolant is divided by a partition having an extended length.

10. The catalytic reactor to control the temperature profile in the reaction zone, including the separation between partitions with cobbles and flow channels, wherein the reactor comprises a first set of spatially separated partitions, with a long length, each partition defines the boundaries of the flow channels in its opposite sides to define a first set of flow channels and each partition defines waviness having a first angle in the first part of the partitions and the second angle in the second part of the partitions, and the first and the exhibitions are divided partitions, with a long length, each partition defines the boundaries of the flow channels on their opposite sides to define a second set of flow channels, which is different in number from the first set of flow channels, and each partition defines waviness having a first angle in the first part of the second set of partitions and the second angle in the second part of the second set of partitions, and the first and second parts separated by a gap along the length of the second set of partitions, means for holding the catalyst and the transmittance of the liquid reagent through the first group of flow channels consisting of the first half of the flow channels in the first and second set of flow channels, and means for passing the liquid coolant through the second group of flow channels comprising the second half of the flow channels in the first and second set of flow channels.

11. The catalytic reactor under item 10, wherein the means for passing liquid reagent share of liquid reagent between the first and second set are separated by intervals of partitions for parallel flow through the first group of flow channels and among the second group of flow channels.

12. The catalytic reactor under item 10, wherein the means for passing liquid coolant share of liquid coolant between the first and second set are separated by intervals of partitions for parallel flow through the second group of flow channels, and means for passing liquid reagent pass the liquid reagent sequentially through the first group of flow channels.

13. The catalytic reactor to control the temperature profile in the reaction zone, including the reaction vessel, separated by intervals of a partition with cobbles and flow channels, wherein the reactor comprises at least two vertically arranged reaction tubes, placed in a vessel containing at least one reaction section, the reaction section consists of many parallel partitions having directed vertically the length and spaced from each other to limit the edges of the flow channels on their opposite sides to define a set of horizontal flow channels for horizontal flow of the liquid reagent and the vertical flow channels for vertical flow of the liquid coolant, each partition defined the Torah portion of the partitions, the first and second parts are separated from each other along the length of the multiple partitions, means for distributing the liquid coolant in the vertical flow channels in each reaction tube and collecting the liquid coolant from each of the reaction tubes, means for distributing the liquid reagent in the horizontal flow channels in each reaction tube and collection of liquid reagent from each of the reaction tubes, means for holding catalyst in the horizontal channels.

14. The catalytic reactor under item 13, characterized in that the reaction tube consists of the upper reaction section and the bottom of the reaction section, located directly below the top of the reaction section, the top of the reaction section and the lower reaction section containing a different number of partitions and the reaction tube includes a connecting channel for messages of vertical flow channels between the top and bottom of the reaction sections.

15. The catalytic reactor under item 14, characterized in that the connecting channel is equipped with means for communication of catalyst particles from the horizontal flow channels in the upper reaction section with a horizontal flow channels separated by at least three reaction tube and the reaction tube is divided by partitions, parallel to the radius of the vessel, with the formation of polygonal configuration.

17. The catalytic reactor under item 16, characterized in that the reaction tube is surrounded by the inner volume of the reactor to determine at least part of the distributor to ensure that at least partially funds for distribution of liquid reagent in the horizontal flow channels.

18. The catalytic reactor under item 13, wherein the reactor contains at least three reaction tube and the reaction tube is divided by partitions in each pipe, perpendicular to the radius of the vessel, with the formation of the configuration of the stars.

19. The catalytic reactor under item 18, characterized in that at least two adjacent reaction tubes define two sides of a triangular prism volume and volume provides at least part of the means for distributing the liquid reagent in the horizontal flow channels in each reaction tube and the collection of liquid reagent in the horizontal flow channels of each of the reaction tubes.

20. The method of controlling the temperature of the reaction stream in a chemical reactor with heat exchange through the wall of the liquid coolant through many PE is mennica to the outlet of the heat exchanger through the first group of elongated channels, formed on the first side of the baffles, pass the flow of reagent from the inlet of the reagent to the outlet of the reagent through the second group of channels formed on the other side of the partitions, and conduct heat exchange between the liquid coolant and the flow of the reagent in contact with at least one of the reagents and the liquid coolant with cobbles formed by partitions, with the angle or depth of cobbles near at least one of the entrance holes for the reagent or liquid coolant, the value of which is different from the angle of slope or depth of cobbles near the outlet of the coolant or the outlet of the reagent.

21. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the reactor hold heterogeneous catalyst between the partitions.

22. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the liquid coolant is passed through the septum in the transverse direction of the flow relative to the flow of the reagent.

23. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that at the outlet of the heat exchanger pass the liquid coolant to the second group of elongated channels, and the second group of elongated Canale the flow of reagents consists of hydrocarbons.

25. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the flow of coolant is hydrogen.

26. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the average temperature of the flow of the reagent inlet of the reagent is in the range of 10oF (5,56oC) from the average temperature of the flow of the reagent at the outlet of the reagent.

27. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the catalytic reaction is endothermic and the average temperature of the flow of the reagent inlet reagent is lower than the average temperature of the flow of the reagent at the outlet of the reagent.

28. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the catalytic reaction is exothermic and the average temperature of the flow of the reagent when the reagent is higher than the average temperature of the reagent at the outlet of the reagent.

29. The method according to p. 19, characterized in that the catalytic reaction is a reaction of reforming, aromatization reaction or by the reaction of alkylation of aromatics.

30. Method for catalytic dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons with the use of contact materials consisting of paraffins with a dehydrogenation catalyst at dehydrogenation conditions, characterized in that the flow fluid from the first inlet of the first heat exchanger to the first is her least partially the first side of the first group of partitions, miss raw materials, consisting of paraffins, the inlet for raw material with the conditions of dehydrogenation and carry out the contacting of the feedstock with the catalyst in the dehydrogenation in the second group of channels formed by the second side of the first group of partitions, heated raw material is cooled during the contacting of the feedstock and heat cobbles formed by the partitions and mounted with the possibility of formation of an angle of inclination with respect to the coolant flow is greater at the outlet of the first heat exchanger than at the inlet of the first heat exchanger, collecting the first stream coming from the stage dehydrogenation comprising dehydrogenated hydrocarbons from the second group of channels from the outlet of the first exit stream, removing a product stream comprising at least partially dehydrogenated hydrocarbon.

31. The method according to p. 30, wherein the first stream coming from the stage dehydrogenation, skip to the second intermediate the inlet opening in the conditions of dehydrogenation and provide contact with the dehydrogenation catalyst in the third group of channels formed by the first side of the second group of partitions, talonite is through a fourth group of elongated channels, formed at least in part the second side of the second group of partitions, the first stream coming from the stage dehydrogenation heat the coolant in contact with cobbles formed the second group of partitions and mounted so that the angle of inclination with respect to the coolant flow is greater at the outlet of the second heat exchanger than at the inlet of the second heat exchanger.

32. The method according to p. 30, wherein the dehydrogenation conditions include a temperature in the first inlet hole of the first filing in excess of the temperature at the outlet of first filing not more than 10oF (5,56oC).

33. The method according to p. 30, characterized in that the temperature at the outlet of the first supply equal to or higher than the temperature at the inlet of first filing.

34. The method according to p. 30, characterized in that the raw material stream comprises paraffins having at least 10 carbon atoms.

Priority points:

05.07.93 on PP.1, 10, 13, 20, 30;

13.08.93 all dependent items.

 

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