A method of creating ice crossing
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to letterlike and can be used when creating the ice terminal for cargo transportation. The invention is directed to increasing the carrying capacity of the ice crossing. This technical result is achieved by numerazione under ice cover ice pillars. To do this in ice are drilled through holes, through which a vertically lower tube with welded bottom end, which rests in the bottom of the pool. The upper end of the pipe leaves above the ice cover. Cold air entering inside the pipe, causing icing of the latest and formation of ice pillars. 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of hladotehnika and can be used when creating the ice terminal for cargo transportation.Known technical solution (1. I. S. Peschansky. Lagoudera and hladotehnika. L.: Sea transport. - 1963. - 345 C.), in which a method of creating ice crossing is constructed on ice add-ons. When used together, add-ins and ice load ice can be increased up to a certain limit set by the ratio between OUTSTA influence of the superstructure on the capacity of the ice thickness of the ice cover over 0.5 mThe task of the claimed invention is to provide an ice crossing with a high degree of reliability.Technical result achieved when the task is to reduce the deflection of the ice, resulting in ice when it loads.The essential features characterizing the invention.Restrictive: ice crossing create by building on ice add-ons.Distinctive: the add-in form through steel pipes, lowered vertically on the bottom of the pool through the through-hole formed in the ice cover at both ends of the crossing along its entire length, and the bottom end of the tube is welded, and the upper end is above the ice surface.It is known (2. Bogdanov, C. B., Tronin C. A., Sandakov Y. A. operating Experience icebreaker-lithocolletinae console type PL-18. - Best practices and new technology. The scientific. technology.sat. M, Transport, 1980, S. 7) that at low temperatures on steel structures in contact with water, is icing, i.e. namerzanie ice. Using this phenomenon, it is possible for ice to numerosity ice support, operahouses the ü deformation and Flexural stresses in the ice cover, arising from the movement of it goods, i.e., to increase the reliability of the ice crossing.The method is as follows.In ice cover on both sides of the intended path of transportation are drilled a series of holes. Through them under the ice vertically down the tube with welded bottom ends and rests them in the bottom of the pool. The length of the pipe must be sufficient so that its upper end above the surface of the ice cover. To prevent the possible emergence of pipes temporarily fix. Then, the thus prepared ice crossing is exposed to negative temperatures. Cold air is heavier, flows inside the tubes, causing namerzanie ice along their entire outer surface. After a time sufficient for reliable primerzanie upper and lower pipes respectively to the bottom of the pool and ice cover and freezing on the surfaces of the pipes of the ice layer of the required thickness, ice crossing is ready for operation. In the spring for closing operation of the terminal with the aim of dismantling pipes enough into the pipe to apply the warm air. After the little ice layer in contact with the surface is danoy terminal.In ice cover 1 on both sides of the intended path of transportation 2 are drilled a series of holes 3. Through them vertically down the pipe 4 with welded bottom ends and rests in the bottom of the pool 5. Cold air (t<0C) doing the inside of the pipes, causing namerzanie on the surfaces of the pipes of the ice layer 6. After a time sufficient to freeze on the surface of the tubes 4 of the ice layer of the required thickness h, the ice crossing is ready for operation. The way to create icy crossing, aim to build on ice, add-ons, characterized in that the superstructure is formed by a steel pipe, is lowered vertically to the bottom of the pool through the through-hole formed in the ice cover at both ends of the crossing along its entire length, and the bottom end of the tube is welded, and its upper end is above the ice surface.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct temporary roads across lakes and other water obstacles.
SUBSTANCE: ice bridge includes cooling plant, pipelines connected to cooling plant. Pipelines are submersed in water and suspended by wire ropes. Cooling plant has reducers for pressure reduction, 10 MPa gaseous nitrogen cylinders and liquid nitrogen cylinders adapted to fill pipelines with liquid and gaseous nitrogen mixture. The pipelines include several coiled sections or formed as straight and finned pipes. The pipelines are arranged in several rows and extend in vertical or horizontal directions. The pipelines are submersed for 0.1-5 m depth and are connected by wire ropes to balloons floating at water surface or to finned pipes driven in ground of river bottom and connected one to another by diaphragms. The cooling plant provides water freezing within 3-5 km range and obtains ice having thickness of 3 m or more.
EFFECT: increased water freezing rate.
FIELD: movable or portable bridges, floating bridges adapted to convey loads over ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: method to transport vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover over ice involves moving vehicle having weight not exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover at resonance speed; moving vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying capacity to ice cover line when above vehicle having lesser weight has moved away from ice cover line for distance equal to 2/3 of resonance bending-gravity wave length; initiating above vehicle having larger weight movement with above resonance speed. Resonance bending-gravity wave length is determined from where D is cylindrical stiffness of ice plate, ρ and h - ice density and thickness, g - gravity, H - water body depth.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of ice cover.
FIELD: floating bridges, for instance temporary bridges for load transportation over ice.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes ice blanket in which vertical holes are drilled for the full bridge structure length so that the holes are located from both bridge sides. Reinforced concrete blocks connected to ropes are inserted through the holes so that the blocks are located under the ice blanket. Discs having diameters exceeding hole diameters are connected to upper block ends. Rope lengths are selected to prevent ice blanket movement in upward direction with respect to initial ice position if flexural-gravity waves are generated in ice blanket.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity.
FIELD: bridge crossing equipment; ferries and floating bridges.
SUBSTANCE: proposed motor unit includes displacement hull with joints in sides, engine mounted inside hull and water-jet propeller, two hinged pontoons which are articulated with hull and mechanism for opening and folding the pontoons. Each hinged pontoon is provided with torsion-loaded swivel hydrostatic shield on external side which is articulated with hinged pontoon in area of its bottom; hinged pontoons are also provided with mechanism for turning the shield; this mechanism is made in form of hydraulic cylinder with rod secured in hull of hinged pontoon. Thrust roller secured on end of rod is received by guide of hydrostatic shield.
EFFECT: reduced resistance of shuttle ferry due to improved streamlining of projecting lower part of motor unit.
FIELD: bridge construction, particularly floating bridges, for example, pontoon bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method involves unloading land-based and river-based pontoon sections on ice, expanding the pontoon sections in temporary bridge location area; sealing pontoons of each pontoon section by means of top and bottom jointing means; moving each pontoon section to temporary bridge construction site over ice; serially jointing pontoon sections with each other along temporary bridge length and breaking ice by blasting charges spaced from bridge axis. Longitudinal grooves are created in ice from each bridge side with the use of ice-cutters so that ice thickness in groove bottom area is not more than 10 cm. After that elongated charges including several detonating fuse strings are laid in the grooves. The grooves are filled with wet snow or water and elongated charges are blasted to break ice in each groove. After that ice under bridge sections is broken by vehicle movement over the bridge.
EFFECT: decreased time and increased safety of temporary bridge construction.