Three-dimensional macroscopic assembly of disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers and composite materials containing such assembly

 

(57) Abstract:

Assemblies are designed for use as carriers of catalysts, electrodes, chromatography substances, etc., and also relates to composite structures containing such Assembly and the second material contained within the Assembly. The Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, has a relatively homogeneous physical properties of at least along one of its dimensional axis and a bulk density of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3. In the variants presented the Assembly with a relatively isotropic physical properties at least in one plane and above the density, and the Assembly is relatively isotropic physical properties and the same density. It also provides a composition material consisting of an Assembly of the above-mentioned carbon fibers having a bulk density of 0.001-0.5 g/cm3and composite material. The latter contains an Assembly of the same fibers and the second component of particles of solid or Elekta has a bulk density of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3, and the Assembly contains a second component of up to 50 parts per 1 part of the fibers. Another composite material contains an Assembly with the fibers having a C-axis, the density, and the second component is a metal or compound in an amount up to 50 parts per 1 part of the fibers. Methods of obtaining the Assembly of fibers and the second material includes dispersing fibers or fibers and material and separating the resulting Assembly from the environment, thus formed Assembly has a bulk density of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3. Method of forming a porous Mat or sheet comprises dispersing the above-mentioned fibers in water or an organic solvent to form a dispersion containing less than 10 wt.% fibers and filtration, while the sheet or Mat has a bulk density of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3. Another variant of the production method of Assembly includes the dispersion of the fibers and the allocation of the Assembly from the environment, while fibers have C-axis passing essentially an angle of less than direct to their cylindrical axis, and the Assembly has the same density. The invention provides a receiving Assembly with a low density, which is used as a substrate or substances for various industrial and scientific purposes. 12 C. and 10 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table. 1 Il.

The invention otomicroscopic assemblies oriented disordered carbon elementary fibers, having a bulk density of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3and to methods of making such assemblies. More specifically, the invention relates to assemblies intended for use as carriers of catalysts, electrodes, chromatographic substances and so on, as well as composite structures containing such Assembly and the second material contained within the Assembly.

Carbon elementary fibers are vermicular carbon deposits having diameters less than 500 nanometers. They exist in many forms, and they were received by the catalytic decomposition of different carbon-containing gases on metal surfaces.

Tennent (Tennent) in U.S. patent N 4663220, class B 32 B 9/00, 1987 submitted elemental carbon fibers that do not contain a continuous thermal carbon coating and have numerous graphite outer layers, which are essentially parallel to the axis of elementary fibers. As such, they can be characterized by the fact that they have a c-axis - axis, which is perpendicular to the tangent of the curved layers of graphite, essentially perpendicular to their cylindrical axis. They generally have diameters of not more than 0.1 nm and the ratio of the length to diameter of at least 5. Same is established carbon the resulting thermal cracking of gaseous cracking of the raw materials used for their production.

Hollow elementary fibers having graphitic layers that are essentially parallel to the axis of the microfibers have diameters in the range of 3.5-75,0 nm, revealed Tennent and others in the U.S. patent N 5165909, 1992 (New elemental carbon fiber, method for their production and compositions containing such fiber), Tennent and others in the U.S. patent N 5171560, 1992 (the"New elemental carbon fiber, method of production thereof and the catalyst is enclosed in a capsule), Snyder (Snyder) and others in the patent WO N 89/07163, 1989 ("elemental Carbon fiber"), Mandeville (Mandeville) and others in the patent WO N 90/14221, 1990 (surface Treatment of carbon microfibers"), and rights under all of these applications have been assigned to the assignee, owns rights in the present application, and are mentioned here for information.

Elementary fibers are widely used. For example, they can be used as reinforcing elements in reinforced fibre composite structures or hybrid composite structures (i.e., composite materials containing reinforcing elements type of continuous fibers in addition to elementary ox is about or in combination with each other. Examples of reinforcing matrix materials include inorganic and organic polymers, ceramic materials (containing, for example, lead or copper). When the binder material is an organic polymer, it may be thermosetting resin such as epoxy, bismaleimide or polyester resin, thermoplastic resin or a resin obtained by the reaction injection.

The closest analogue of the group of inventions is a technical solution for U.S. patent N 4663230, class B 32 B 9/00, 1987. In the known solution presents: the composition of the material, composite material, three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly, methods of obtaining three-dimensional macroscopic assemblies and methods of forming the porous Mat or sheet.

Known composition material and composite material are characterized by the fact that consist of three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many chaotic elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical c essentially constant diameter, having c-axes essentially perpendicular to their cylindrical axis, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm.

And the low carbon fibers, essentially, cylindrical c essentially constant diameter, having c-axes essentially perpendicular to their cylindrical axis, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm.

Known methods for producing three-dimensional macroscopic assemblies of forming a porous Mat or sheet include many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm.

A disadvantage of the known materials, assemblies, and methods is the inability to obtain build /sheet, Mat/ with relatively low bulk density.

The technical result of the invention is to develop a composition material containing elemental carbon fiber, and, in particular, the Assembly of disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers, which has a low bulk density and which can be used as substrates or substances for various industrial and scientific purposes.

Another techniquessecretarias Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers, having a low bulk density, in which you can add one or more functional secondary materials such active catalysts, electroactive substances, etc. in order to obtain composite materials with new industrial properties.

Another technical result of the invention is to develop a three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers having such isotropic physical properties, these compositions can ensure the reliability and interchangeability be used to achieve numerous industrial purposes.

Another technical result of the invention is to develop methods for such three-dimensional macroscopic assemblies elemental carbon fibers, effective and convenient for use in the process of obtaining compositions of low density.

And one more technical result of the invention is to develop advanced media catalyst, filter substances, chromatographic substances, compositions for protection against electromagnetic interference and other to the shown technical result is achieved by in the composition of the material, consisting, essentially, of three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, this Assembly has a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

In this material, the Assembly has two larger than 0.02 mm or has two larger than approximately 0.2 mm

This result is achieved by the fact that in the composite material containing the three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, the second component consisting of particles of solid material or electroactive material, or a catalytically active metal or metal-containing compounds, this Assembly has a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3when this Assembly contains the second component in an amount up to p is or has two larger than approximately 0.2 mm In the composite material electroactive component is a lead or a compound of lead, or manganese or a compound of manganese, and consisting of particles of the material is an aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, or silicon carbide, or consisting of solid particulate material is a catalyst.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical and essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, the Assembly has a relatively homogeneous physical properties of at least along one of its dimensional axis and a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

The same result is achieved by the fact that in the three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of 3.5-70,0 nm, the Assembly is ity in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

Assembly at least partially contains the second material.

This result is achieved in that the three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, the Assembly has a relatively isotropic physical properties and bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

This same result is achieved in that in the method of obtaining three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, having c-axes essentially perpendicular to their cylindrical axis, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, carry out the dispersion of the number of elementary fibres in some medium and separating the specified Assembly from the specified environment, and the Assembly has a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/m3.

In method variance s from the specified dispersion, through what remains of macroscopic Assembly.

In the method, the dispersion is converted into a gel or paste; heat the gel or paste in the pressure vessel to a temperature above the critical temperature of this liquid, removing the supercritical fluid from the specified pressure vessel, whereby receive a tube of porous carbon fibers, low density, and remove the mentioned porous tube from the pressure vessel. The same result is achieved by the fact that in the method of forming a porous Mat or sheet of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, carry out intensive dispersion of the number of elementary fibres in water or an organic solvent to form due to this dispersion, containing less than 10 wt.% elementary fibers, and filtering the dispersion to a porous Mat or sheet, Mat or sheet has a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

The above technical result is achieved in the JV is ementary fibers, essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, and the second material, in which the dispersion of a set of elementary fibers and the second material in a certain environment and the allocation of the obtained composite material of the specified environment education Assembly having a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.5 g/cm3. This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the composite material containing the three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, having c-axes essentially perpendicular to their cylindrical axis, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, and the second component is enclosed in the specified Assembly containing particles of solid material or electroactive material, or a catalytically active metal, or metallsoderjasimi connection, this Assembly has a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3and contains a title is I and the in the three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, having c-axes essentially perpendicular to their cylindrical axis, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, the Assembly has a relatively isotropic physical properties and bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

The same result is achieved in that in the method of obtaining three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, carry out the dispersion of the number of elementary fibres in a certain environment and the selection of the Assembly from the environment, while fibers have c-axis passing essentially an angle of less than direct to their cylindrical axis, and the Assembly has a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

The term "Assembly" refers to any configuration of mass of individual E. the Term "macroscopic" means, that Assembly can be of any size to achieve any industrial or scientific purposes.

The term "physical property" means a characteristic of the Assembly measurable property, such as resistivity.

The term "isotropic" means that all measurements of physical properties in the plane or the volume of the Assembly, regardless of the direction of measurement, and give a constant value. It is clear that the measurements of parameters such selective compositions should be conducted on a representative sample of the Assembly so that you can account for the average blank spaces.

The term "relative" means that 95% of the values of the parameters of physical properties, measured along the axis, in the plane or in the volume of the Assembly, if such a measurement takes place, will be in the range of 50% of the average value.

The term "essentially" means that 95% of the values of the parameters of physical properties, measured along the axis, in the plane or in the volume of the Assembly, if such a measurement takes place, will be in the range of 50% of the average value.

The term "relatively isotropic" and "essentially isotropic" corresponds to the ranges of values of physical parameters of swojo, in fact, of the three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, having c-axes essentially perpendicular to their cylindrical axis, essentially, not containing pyrolytic deposited carbon and having a diameter in the range of 3.5-70,0 nm, and this Assembly has a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

The above Assembly can be used with great advantage as a three-dimensional matrix materials for many industrial purposes. For example, such assemblies can be used as a filter substances as carriers of the catalyst, as electroactive materials used in the electrodes of fuel cells and batteries, and as chromatographic substances. Discovered that such assemblies are useful in the formation of composite materials that contain such an Assembly along with consisting of particles of solid material or electroactive component, or a catalytically active metal or metal-containing compound, and is also useful in compositions with polymers.

Also found that you can receive is having relatively uniform physical properties along a single axis, preferably two axes, most preferably three axes of a three-dimensional Assembly. Preferred compositions obtained in accordance with the proposed methods, have physical properties at least along a uniform axis and have a relatively isotropic physical properties in at least one plane of the Assembly, and most preferably are isotropic over the entire three-dimensional structure.

These preferred compositions can be obtained by dispersion of elementary fibers in aqueous or organic solid media and the subsequent filtering of elementary fibers. Low density of the composition is preferably obtained by forming a gel or paste elemental carbon fibers in a fluid environment, for example in an organic solvent, such as propane, and the subsequent heating of the gel or paste to a temperature exceeding the critical temperature of the environment, removal of the supercritical fluid and the final extraction of low density porous Mat or tube from the reactor in which the process.

The drawing is a copy micrograph of three-dimensional disordered Assembly directed the situations fibers.

Elementary fiber is produced by contact of the carbon-containing gas with a metal catalyst in the reactor over an appropriate period of time under proper pressure and temperature sufficient to obtain the elementary fibers with the above-mentioned morphology. The reaction temperature is mainly in the range of 400-850oC, preferably in the 600-750oC. Elementary fibers preferably receive continuously, bringing the reactor to the reaction temperature, adding particles of metal catalyst with subsequent continuous contact with the carbon-containing gas.

Examples of suitable gaseous cracking of raw materials, catalysts and reaction conditions are given in several of the above-mentioned patent applications.

Elementary fibers can be obtained such that at least part of these elementary fibers is in the form of aggregates. In the same sense that this term is given in the present description, the unit is defined as two or more interlaced fibers. Aggregates of elementary fibers usually have a macroscopic morfologiya, as determined using scanning electron microscopy, in which they neuporyadochennoi units, consisting of straight, slightly curved or twisted elemental carbon fibers having essentially the same relative orientation and appearance of combed yarn (SE), wherein the longitudinal axis of each elementary fiber, despite individual bends or loops, extends in the same direction as the longitudinal axis of the surrounding elementary fibers in bundles, or with the formation of aggregates consisting of straight, slightly curved or twisted elementary fibers that are intertwined with each other, forming the structure of the "open network" (OS). In the structure of the open net weave elementary fibers than in type units combed yarn (in which the individual fibers have essentially the same orientation), but less than in structures such as bird nests.

In addition to the elementary fibers disclosed in U.S. patent N 4663230 (Tennant), elementary fibers can be obtained such that they will have different micro-morphology, for example the so-called morphology "fish bones" (RK) disclosed in published application in the European patent N 198558 j.In. Geus (J. W. Geus) (published 22 October 1986). Elementary fibers with the so-called morphology of the fish is which is less direct, the cylindrical axes of the elementary fibers. The invention relates to such elementary fibers of the type of fish bones, as well as to elementary fibers, which revealed Tennent in U.S. patent N 4663230.

Carbon elementary fibers.

Carbon elementary fibers preferably include a combination of discrete elementary fibers and aggregates of elementary fibers. However, all the elementary fibers can be in the form of aggregates. The units, when they are present, generally have the morphology of bird nests, combed yarn or open net. The more "twisted" aggregates are present, the more processing is required in order to get the proper composition. This means that the choice of units, combed yarn or open net the most intertwined for most applications. However, it is often enough units such as bird nests.

Assembly.

In a broad sense the invention is a composition material consisting essentially of a three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, having c-axes at things and having a diameter in the range of 3.5-70,0 nm, moreover, this Assembly has a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3. Preferably, the Assembly has a relatively or substantially uniform physical properties at least along one dimensional axis and preferably has a relatively or substantially uniform physical properties in one or more planes of the Assembly, i.e., these assemblies have isotropic physical properties in this plane. In other embodiments, the entire Assembly is relatively or substantially isotropic relative to one or more of its physical properties.

Physical properties that can be easily measured and through which is determined by the homogeneity or isotropy include resistivity and optical density.

Composite materials, including Assembly.

In the broad sense of an Assembly of elementary fibers can be used for any purpose for which it is known the use of porous media. These include filtering, electrodes, carriers of catalysts, chromatographic substances, etc. in Addition, the assemblies have the usual form of disordered carbon elementary fibers, and therefore, they can be used for any world is, electrodes, etc.

In some applications such as protection from electromagnetic interference, filtering, and power collection you can use Assembly unmodified elementary fibers. In the case of other applications, the Assembly of elementary fibers is an integral part of a more complex material, for example, they can be part of a composite material. Examples of such composite materials are compounds for polymer molding, chromatographic materials, electrodes for fuel cells and batteries, a native of the catalyst on the basis of elementary fibers and ceramic composite materials, including bio-ceramic materials such as artificial bones.

In the case of some of these composite materials, such connection for molding and artificial bone, it is desirable that the pores of the Assembly of elementary fibers were filled, or substantially filled, fibrous components. In the case of other applications - type electrodes, catalysts and chromatographic materials - their usefulness depends on a composite material that fills at least some of the pores of the Assembly of elementary fibers.

Methods of obtaining elegantemente any fiber morphology, it is preferable to use the elementary fibers having the morphology of the parallel type, such as CC, DD, or CY.

Mats with a thickness of 0.02-0.50 mm have a density usually 0.20 g/cm3corresponding to the percentage of the pore volume of 0.90. Their electrical resistivity in the plane of the Mat is usually 0.02 Ohm/cm, and the resistivity in the plane perpendicular to the Mat, usually about 1 Ohm/see

The solid ingredients can be embedded in a Mat of elementary fibers by mixing with the dispersion of elementary fibers before forming the Mat. The content of other solids in the dry material can be made comprising 50 parts of solid particles on the part of the elementary fibers.

Elementary fibers from the synthesis reactor is dispersed with great power shift in providing greater strength shear mixer, such as "Waring Blender". The dispersion may contain a wide range of elementary fibers is from 0.01% to 10% in water, ethyl alcohol, white spirit, etc. This procedure adequately discloses the beams of elementary fibers, i.e., bundles of tightly intertwined elementary fibers, and provides the dispersion of the elementary fibers with the formation of independent mats after filtration and drying. Application Obata not free from aggregates.

If the procedure provides greater strength shear mixing should ultrasonic treatment, improves the dispersion. Ultrasound treatment helps dilution to a concentration of 0.1% or less. So, to further improve the dispersion can be subjected to 200 cm3a 0.1-percentage of elementary fibers ultrasonic treatment using an ultrasonic probe "Bronson Sonifier" (power consumption 450 W) for 5 minutes or more.

In order to achieve high degrees of dispersion, i.e., to obtain a dispersion containing no, or not actually containing aggregates of elementary fibers, it is necessary to carry out ultrasonic treatment, should be carried out either at a very low concentration in a compatible liquid, for example at a concentration of 0.001 to 0.01% in ethanol, or higher filtering.

In the dispersion of elementary fibers prior to the formation of mats you can type consisting of particulate materials, such as MnO2(for batteries) and Al2O3(for high temperature gaskets) in an amount up to 50 parts of materials consisting of solid particles, on one part of the elementary fibers.

In the process of formation you can embed reinforcing fabric and Nickel ion battery screen.

Ways to improve the stability of the Assembly.

To increase the stability of the assemblies of elementary fibers, it is possible to precipitate the polymer at the intersection of the Assembly. This can be done by filtering Assembly dilute solution of polymer cement and allow evaporation of the solution. Capillary efforts will be to ensure that the concentration of polymer at the intersection of elementary fibers. It is clear that to increase the rigidity and integrity of the Assembly it is necessary to coat only a small fraction of the intersections of elementary fibers.

Further, the invention disclosed in the following examples.

Example I. obtaining a porous Mat of elementary fibers.

For porous mats or sheets using a dilute dispersion of elementary fibers. Prepare a suspension of elementary fibers in water containing 0.5% of elementary fibers, using the mixer "Waring Blender". After dilution to 0.1% elementary advanced fiber is dispersed using an ultrasonic acoustic emitter probe. Then the dispersion is subjected to vacuum filtration with the formation of the Mat, which is then dried in an oven.

The Mat has a thickness of about 0.2 mm and protostat is about 0.02 Ohm/see The resistivity in the plane perpendicular to the Mat is 1 Ohm/see

Example II. Obtaining a porous Mat of elementary fibers.

Preparing a suspension of elementary fibers in ethanol containing 0.5% of elementary fibers, using the mixer "Waring Blender". After subsequent dilution to 0.1% elementary advanced fiber is dispersed using an ultrasonic acoustic emitter probe. Then give ethanol alcohol a chance to evaporate and form a Mat. The Mat has the same physical properties and characteristics as the Mat obtained in example I.

Example III. Getting low density porous tube of the elementary fibers.

Supercritical fluid environment, remote from the well-dispersed paste of elementary fibers, is used to produce low density forms. 50 cm3a 0.5% Dispersion in n-pentane is loaded into the pressure vessel somewhat larger capacity, equipped with a needle valve to ensure a slow pressure release. After heating the vessel to a temperature above the critical temperature of pentane (Tc=196,6oC) needle valve slowly plasma tube of elementary fibers, which has the form of the inner vessel has a density of 0.005 g/cm3corresponding to the percentage of the pore volume 0,997%. The resistivity is isotropic and is approximately 20 Ohms/see

Example IV. Obtain a screen to protect from electromagnetic interference.

The paper from the elementary fibers receive according to the procedures of example I. the following table indicates the parameters of the attenuation achieved by several thicknesses of paper.

Example V. Mat of elementary fibers obtained by the method indicated in example I, are used as electrode in electrochemiluminescent element, such as disclosed in the application 86/02734 and U.S. patents NN 5147806, 1992 and 5068088, 1991, When the voltage pulses in the presence of Trimeperidine ruthenium, there is electrochemiluminescence.

1. The composition of the material, consisting, essentially, of three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, characterized in that the specified Assembly has a bulk density in di is eat two sizes of 0.02 mm

3. The composition of the material under item 1, characterized in that the referenced Assembly has two larger than approximately 0.2 mm

4. Composite material containing a three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5 to 70 nm, the second component consisting of particles of solid material or electroactive material, or catalytically active material, or metal-containing compounds, characterized in that the specified Assembly has a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3when this Assembly contains the second component in an amount up to 50 parts per 1 part of elementary fibers.

5. Composite material under item 4, characterized in that the Assembly has two sizes of 0.02 mm

6. Composite material under item 4, characterized in that the referenced Assembly has two larger than approximately 0.2 mm

7. Composite material under item 4, wherein the electroactive component is a lead or a compound of lead, or mA the particle material is an aluminum oxide, the silicon oxide or silicon carbide.

9. Composite material under item 4, characterized in that it consists of particulate material is a catalyst.

10. Three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, characterized in that the referenced Assembly has a relatively homogeneous physical properties of at least along one of its dimensional axis and a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

11. Three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, characterized in that the referenced Assembly has a relatively isotropic physical properties at least in one plane, and a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

12. Three-dimensional Assembly under item 11, otlichayushiesya Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers, essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, characterized in that the referenced Assembly has a relatively isotropic physical properties and bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

14. A method of obtaining three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, having c-axes essentially perpendicular to their cylindrical axis, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, characterized in that carry out the dispersion of the number of elementary fibres in some medium and separating the specified Assembly from the specified environment, and the Assembly has a density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

15. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that the dispersion contains less than 10 wt.% fibers, and separating the Assembly from the environment reach, allowing the environment to evaporate from the specified dispersion, resulting macroscopic remains Assembly.

16. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that ctuise the critical temperature of this fluid, removing the supercritical fluid from the specified pressure vessel, in consequence of which receive a plug of porous carbon fibers, low density, and remove the mentioned porous tube from the pressure vessel.

17. Method of forming a porous Mat or sheet from a set of unordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, characterized in that conduct intensive dispersion of the number of elementary fibres in water or an organic solvent to form due to this dispersion, containing less than 10 wt.% elementary fibers, and filtering the dispersion to a porous Mat or sheet, Mat or sheet has a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

18. A method of obtaining three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of the situations fibers and the second material in a certain environment and the allocation of the obtained composite material of the specified environment with the formation of the Assembly, having a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

19. Composite material containing a three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially, having a c-axis essentially perpendicular to their cylindrical axis, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, and the second component is enclosed in the specified Assembly containing particles of solid material or electroactive material, or a catalytically active metal or metal-containing compound, characterized in that that said Assembly has a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3and contains a metal or compound in an amount up to 50 parts per 1 part of elementary fibers.

20. Three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, having C-axes essentially perpendicular to their cylindrical axis, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in Evista at least along one of its dimensional axis and a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

21. Three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, having C-axes essentially perpendicular to their cylindrical axis, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, characterized in that the referenced Assembly has a relatively isotropic physical properties and bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

22. A method of obtaining three-dimensional macroscopic Assembly of many disordered oriented elemental carbon fibers essentially cylindrical with essentially constant diameter, essentially free of deposited pyrolytic carbon and having a diameter in the range of about 3.5-70,0 nm, characterized in that carry out the dispersion of the number of elementary fibres in a certain environment and the selection of the Assembly from the environment, while fibers have C-axis passing essentially an angle of less than direct to their cylindrical axis, and the Assembly has a bulk density in the range of 0.001-0.50 g/cm3.

 

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FIELD: polymer materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composite materials based on high-molecular weight carbon-involving compounds and can be used for anodes of electrolytic condensers made from dielectric elastic film with current-conducting coating. Polyester-based film material has nano-sized metallic coating. A diamond-like layer 5-50 nm thick is disposed between modified surface of polyester base and metallic coating and, on the surface of metallic coating, spongy aluminum layer is deposited having surface development factor within a range of 80 to 400. Diamond-like nanolayer is characterized by sp3 hybridization of amorphous carbon atoms, amorphous carbon being deposited in vacuum from gas phase under action of ion-plasma source.

EFFECT: increased specific electrical capacity of condenser due to increased operation voltages and adhesion between high-developed surfaces of functional film coating nanolayers.

FIELD: chemical industry; production of the nanocomposite materials on the basis of the high-molecular compounds with application of carbon in the nanostucturized coatings.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the composite materials on he basis of the high-molecular compounds with usage of the carbon in the nanostructurized coatings including the additional devices and connections, and may be used as the anode of the electrolytic capacitor due to storage of the electrical potential in the current-carrying layers. The nanostructurized coating of the current-carrying basis is bound directly to the layer of the amorphous carbon sp3 - the hybridized state of the carbon atoms and additionally has the metal layer with the depth of 25-250 nanometers. The surface of the film basis has a flutings of 10-30 nanometers depth and-or is equipped with the pores of 0.2-6 microns and the total volume of 10-60 %. At that 1/5-1/3 part of the pores is through. The invention ensures the adhesion bond and improvement of the electro-physical performances of the material.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the adhesion bond and improvement of the electro-physical performances of the material.

1 dwg

FIELD: nanotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to means of forming a structure based on carbon nanotubes and can be used when making flexible optically transparent conducting coatings, flexible small-scale integration integrated circuits, test structures for a scanning probe microscope, resistive sensors etc. A drop of colloid solution of carbon nanotubes, containing a surface active substance in quantity, sufficient for stabilisation of the colloidal state of the solution, as well as 5-60 vol.% glycerine, sufficient for formation of a drop colloidal solution of a give size, are deposited on a given point on a substrate. For this purpose, the colloidal solution is put into the device, which transfers it to the printing head of a jet-printer. The device is in form of a catridge or a system for continuous supply of the colloidal solution. The substrate is moved using a system, in form of a paper-moving mechanism of a jet printer, or in form of a compact disc movement system. Removal of all components of the colloidal solution except carbon nanotubes, is achieved by evaporation and/or washing in a solvent. To obtain a composite film, carbon nanotubes are deposited on a substrate, in turns, with liquid components of a polymer or simultaneously with the liquid components of the polymer. The liquid components of the polymer are solidified while fusing their microdroplets, or under the effect of electromagnetic radiation, heating or as a result of evaporation of volatile components under atmospheric conditions. Viscosity of liquid components of the polymer corresponds to the microhydraulic system of the jet-printer. The liquid components of the polymer are deposited on the substrate by transferring them to the printing head of the jet printer. The method is characterised by high output and resolving power of depositing carbon nanotubes and composite films on a substrate and reduced cost.

EFFECT: highly productive and cheap method.

2 cl, 2 ex

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