Method of lubricating and cooling the cutting blades of the tool and/or workpiece during metal cutting and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention can be used for metal cutting. On the workpiece or on the working cutting edge tool served by separate supply lines, at least two immiscible liquids. Use the liquid to reduce friction between the cutting tool and the workpiece or chips and liquid means for cooling the cutting tool, workpiece, tool holder of the cutting tool and the chip. Tools are stored and prepared separately from one another in separate tanks. When relative movement of the cutting tool and the workpiece in the direction of the place of cutting first nabryzgivajut tool to reduce friction with the formation of the lubricant film. Then on the prepared film nabryzgivajut means for cooling. The number of means for cooling choose from a condition of providing its evaporation during processing. As a result, the means for reducing friction nabryzgivajut for free from the means for cooling the surface with the formation of well-sticking to her lubricant film. The device includes two separate and cumulative intake capacity, connected by separate Lin Mentioned bodies are located at different distances from the site of cutting, moreover, the authority for applying the means for reducing friction is at a greater distance from the site of cutting. The result is a higher quality of treatment and reduce tool wear. 2 C. and 8 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The invention relates to a method and apparatus for lubricating and cooling the cutters and/or workpieces during metallurgical processing, whereby the cutters or the workpiece serves at least two different immiscible with one another liquid using liquid environment to reduce the friction between the cutter and the workpiece or shavings; a fluid for cooling the cutting blades, blanks, tool holder, and, if necessary, chip; each of the two environments (a, b) accumulate or are treated separately from each other in a suitable container; every Wednesday (a, b) supplied from a suitable container through a separate pipeline to the body (3, 4) and from him to the workpiece being machined (15) or used cutting blade.

In the textbook "Dubbel", Handbook on mechanical engineering, 13th edition, volume 2, publisher Springer Berlin-Heidelberg-new York, 1974, pp. 675-676 in Chapter 4 lubrication and Cooling" among other things said:

- fluid cutting tools Metalloobrabotka (improving the shape of the surface and wash away the removed chips.

Next, on this occasion said: by cooling at the same speeds can be extended tool life or with the same service life of the cutting blades is increased, the processing speed is on average up to 40%.

Then there is: from fluid to the cutting tool requires that they, along with increased effect of lubrication and cooling ability had a low viscosity during processing did not change, did not osmolality or not thickened, or simply do not lose their qualities; to protect from rusting, not foamed, if possible, be transparent, so that you can observe the process and, finally, that they had no harmful effects on the human body.

As fluids for cutting tools are different emulsion of the type oil-in-water. However, they do not have optimally no effect lubrication or cooling effect. Depending on the quality of the emulsion separate oil particles comprise several microns within the aqueous phase and in contact with the cutter they are unable to form adherent lubricant film with a high capacity for adhesion and resistance immediately. The effect of lubrication it also significantly decreases the emulsion is Soaps, etc. Moreover, a liquid of organic origin with a particularly high effect of lubrication is difficult emulsified, which for the production of stable emulsions are used, at least, oils with a relatively small effect lubrication. However, the emulsified phase fluid to the cutting tool resulted in a strong reduction of the cooling effect, as the share of oil compared with the share of water has a significantly higher evaporation temperature and a lower heat of vaporization. Moreover, each of the emulsion prone to bacterial decomposition and due to the different use of the two phase water/oil changes its consistency and thus its specific effect.

From the patent Switzerland CH-543344 known method of cooling and lubricating the cutting blades of the tools in which they serve at least two immiscible with each other liquids with different properties lubrication and cooling. Fluid discharged from the cutting tool and forming an unstable emulsion, collected in one total capacity, it is sent to the separator, in which they must be separated from one another, after which the liquid is again fed to the cutting tool. To separate the different phases as we need the cops, emulsions due to differences in the application of their texture varies negatively and therefore requires periodic processing. Because besides really clean separation of the different phases in the circulation mode is not achieved, and lubricant for reasons of ability to emulsification has only very limited resistance immediately and the ability to adhesion, and the cooling effect, and in particular the effect of lubricant supplied in rigid frames. The emulsion is not possible to the same intermediate the variation of the components of the phases.

From German application DK-9116481.8 a device for cooling and lubrication, with which you can just apply a very small dose in the prescribed areas in cooled or lubricated the cutting zone. In the mixing chamber under pressure, the liquid stream is broken up into tiny droplets, well mixed with the gas flow from the mixing chamber purposefully injected at least two focused jets to the area of cutting. This also provides that when necessary the liquid, especially suitable for cooling and lubrication, can separately be supplied to a mixing chamber or in the gas stream. So Obrestad. On the other hand, focused gas flow simultaneously present different fluid, distributed in the smallest form, as aerosols, which leads to the fact that their actions in relation to each other will be largely flawed. Therefore, the plot of metallovedenie will not follow the education of the whole, able to grip and durable shear film lubrication, and on the other hand, will be reduced by the cooling effect due to the tiny droplets of oil that are made together in the liquid stream.

In the German patent DE-361916 describes a device with a liquid pump for tool machines, driven by an electric motor. Thus the supply of coolant to the saw blade is adjusted depending on the heat of the cutting tool, while the corresponding degree of heat driving force directly regulates the number of revolutions of the pump motor.

From German patent DE 930790 known method of cooling and lubricating the cutting edge of metal-cutting tools. The invention provides for the injection of cooling liquid in the form of a jet into the cavity between the tool and the workpiece to the blade. For this purpose, the jet is supplied from a nozzle use under pressure 52 m/S. The known method is especially suitable for cooling and lubrication in turning and milling operations.

In the application of the Federal Republic of Germany DE-3338739 A1 describes a device for feeding fluid to the cutting tool, which takes on a drill bit or other cutting tool pulsating stream of liquid under high pressure using a piston pump, the frequency of the ripple in the supply liquid can be calculated to a predetermined value, namely, regardless of the flow resistance on the output side. This makes it possible to obtain the desired cooling of the cutting tool, the chip, the resistance of the cutter and precision machined surface even when the diameter of the hole for the fluid in the tool becomes small.

In the European patent EP 0448944 A1 describes a method and apparatus for intermittent spraying of a liquid, in particular lubricating suspension. It is sprayed through nozzles at intervals with high frequency under high pressure. The spray nozzle is functioning according to the type of pressure reducing valve, while it opens automatically when exceeding the threshold value of the input pressure suspension and automatically closes when the lower threshold is m graphite, as well as polymers and excipients, such as suspended in water, the stabilizers, which is supplied to the spray nozzle under very high pressure within 50-12 bar and special purposes - up to 250 bar with the speed of flow within 20-120 m/s Method requires very high energy costs and equipment.

Posted by the application of Federal Republic of Germany DE-OS-3429965 A1 describes a grinding machine, in particular a grinding machine with the guide, head of the grinding wheel, with equipment on it, at least one output nozzle for lubrication and cooling and their perimeter, which contains the capacity for cooling the lubricant, and the line for supplying lubricant from the reservoir to the outlet nozzle, a return line for cooling lubricant and a pump to maintain circulation, and the invention lies in the fact that during the feeding lubricant of the pipeline is provided a device for controlling its temperature by a given amount. However, when grinding we are not talking about "cutting process with removing" in the sense of the invention and are not available cutting blades.

Proceeding from this prior art, the basis of the invention lies the task to develop a method according to the main idea of paragraph 1 of formula Sobranie effect lubrication and cooling compared with the corresponding known methods and devices, and within a narrow economic boundaries remain necessary tools and materials, energy and equipment.

Due to the greater effect of lubrication and cooling should significantly increase the service life of the cutting tool while increasing the cutting speed should be optimized the quality of the processed surfaces.

The solution of the problem in the way specified in the restrictive part of paragraph 1 of the claims, it is possible by means of signs contained in the characterizing part of the formula 1. Using the invention in the processes of metal-cutting processing occurs a number of unexpected advantages.

By separately coating fluid for lubrication and cooling in some parts of the cutting tool and due to the formation of a liquid film lubricant with an extremely high capacity for adhesion and tensile shear, which is thus formed on the tool or cutting blade ensure that the friction with the workpiece, the cutting tool and the chip, reduced due to significantly better the effect of lubrication, there is less heat friction. Hence, during more favorable cooling conditions at the same time improving the quality of the flax increases tool life and all this together with a significantly increased cutting speed. Under comparable conditions of handling and similar material increase service life and processing speed is achieved within factors of 2 to 5, and in extreme cases up to 10.

The implementation of the method provides that the lubricating liquid (fluid medium) in an amount commensurate with the expense in the process, is made in such a way that excess lubricating means is eliminated, and consequently does not require recycling or re-training grease.

This measure saves necessary for the recycling of resources and energy; products and chips remain clean and for further proceedings not require costly rework; minimum lubricant consumption at the optimum effect of the lubricant and the working machine and the workplace, and the environment, remain in good condition is cleanliness and hygiene.

Another implementation provides that when cutting with a circular or band saw blade coolant served in accordance with the required cooling of the workpiece or blade in such estimated amount, so that it is in the process spontaneously evaporated, so that the separately applied lubricant W the rim from the coolant dry the surface of the canvas with the formation of the lubricant film, well adheres to the surface of the canvas. By this operation reach optimal effect as cooling and lubrication, and by counter interaction of various means of improving overall effect, similar to the peak.

Execution of further stipulates that moving relative to the workpiece cutter, saw blades or cutters fluid for lubrication when viewed in the direction of the translational or cutting motion is used on the site prior to site cutting, and the liquid-refrigerant - on-site cutting, and the coolant is fed to the film of lubricant applied to the tool before.

This is essential for the invention, the operation results in both tools to maximize the achievement of their separate, and cumulative effect.

Further, the execution of the method provides that the lubricating fluid serves as a spray directed spray jet with the formation of a very thin film with high adhesion boundary surface and the strength of the slice thickness in Predela-150 microns, mostly 10-50 μm and particularly preferably 5-20 microns.

And at strong coupling thin film with granick the enhanced stabilizing additives, give at least small amounts of grease the highest coefficient of lubricity and thereby a significant reduction of friction or friction heat in the process.

Another form of execution of the method according to the invention provides that the lubricating liquid is sprayed by means of heated compressed air. If the lubricating fluid in many applications is to spray the air with the ambient temperature, for special purposes, however, it is impossible not to mention the previously entered operation with the use of heated air. Thus, for example, unconditionally sprayed liquid with a relatively high viscosity and is particularly good stabilizing properties.

Further, the method provides that, as a lubricant, mainly used liquid without mineral oil, which may contain esters of fatty acids and additives, such as graphite or molybdenum sulfide.

The cooling liquid to reduce the surface tension may very well contain additives as surfactants, metal Soaps, higher alcohols derivatives thereof. Sledge increases capillary effect, improving the distribution of the refrigerant at the site of the clutch, and pressure of steam is advantageously reduced.

Regulation of boot rules of one or the other, or both liquids agents can be produced according to another proposal of the invention, as the power consumption of the machine in the process. Based on this adjustment filing separate liquids are not complex and robust.

Device for lubricating and cooling the cutters and/or blanks in the processes of metal-cutting machining, in particular for implementing the method according to the invention has the features specified in the characterizing part of paragraph 9 of the claims. Another form of execution provided in accordance with paragraph 10.

Schematically the invention shown in the drawings in the preferred form of execution, and from the drawings it is possible to draw a conclusion about the other advantages of the invention.

In Fig. 1 shows a block diagram of a device with a partial top view of the saw table; Fig. 2 - device according to Fig. 1, a side view, Fig. 3 - device according to Fig. 1, front view; Fig. 4 - spray head (nozzle) for spraying under pressure without gas; Fig. 5 - spray head for spraying under pressure ASS="ptx2">

The device shown in the block diagram of Fig. 1, contains the intake capacity 2 liquid medium b for cooling the blades 27, shown in cross section in top view, and a second intake capacity 1 liquid vehicle "and" to reduce friction between the cutting blades band saw blades 27 and the workpiece 15.

Each of these liquids "a" and "b" is at least one separate device coating 3 or 4. In this example, the liquid "a" is only one body 3, while for liquid "b" is provided by two bodies 4a and 4b. Such an implementation is not required, each fluid "a" or "b" may be delivered via one, two or more bodies. Next, for each fluid "a" or "b" has a separate supply line 10 or 11. When this line (piping) 10 connects the suction container 1 for liquids "and" body 3, while the supply line 11 connects the liquid contents of intake capacity for 2 fluid "b" bodies 4a and 4b. In each supply line 10 or 11 as a feeder placed dosing pump 7 or 8.

Agencies applying liquid funds 3 or 4a, 4b are subject to the lubrication and cooling of the cutting blades, band saw blades 27 are set in a certain position and boots 35 or 36a, 36b. When this announcement and these authorities to the plot of cut between saw blade 27 and the workpiece 15 is performed so that the body 3, the spray of lubricating fluid "and" before the area of the cut is directed vertically and the teeth of the saw, while both the spray of cooling liquid "b" body 4a, 4b directly after the cutting is directed from the lateral inclined position on the profile of the teeth.

As shown further in Fig. 1, the device may have the device 48 with the signal line 47 to account for the power consumption of the machine in the working process. It affects the Adjuster unit 43 includes a setpoint adjustment 44 and a digital indicator 43. Next on the site of cutting the signal line 41 is connected to the motion detector 40. It disables a device for cooling and lubrication, as soon as the blade stops moving. Presents as an example, the adjusting device 40 to 48 sets on lines 45 and 46 in accordance with the previously specified parameter power metering pump in accordance with the productivity of the machine.

With this adjustment very well achieve with the fact that the respectively specified number of ustroystvo according to Fig. 1, in one case, is a side view, and another view in direction of arrow "A" in Fig. 2. From both it is clear that dealing grease "and" the body 3, when seen in the direction of the translational or the labour movement 28 of the saw blade 27) down to the site of application 16 in front of the workpiece 15. The liquid refrigerant, in contrast, serves on the already straightened film lubricant directly to the contact zone of the saw dense 27 with the workpiece 15.

Thus in Fig. 2 and 3, in addition to Fig. 4 clearly shows that the various liquid environments "a" and "b" razbrasivayutsya respectively from separate intake tanks 1 and 2 through a separate supply line 10 or 11 of separate bodies 3 or 4.

From the image in Fig. 3 also clear that the spray jet 30 of the body 3 can be aimed diagonally upwards, while jet 31a and 31b from the bodies 4a and 4b can be directed diagonally downward. Thus, as in particular and separate the lubricant "and" coolant "b", each of the various funds optimally effect where as interaction should be a specific task between the cutting blade of the tool 27 and the workpiece 15, and in each case, immediate first on Ann is so

It is evident from Fig. 4 and 5 it is seen that every body for applying liquid means is a spray head (nozzle) 20 or 21 with the means of education the spray, with great energy, mist jets 30 and 31 of compressed gas or without. Adjusting the direction of the spray jet 30 or 31 is, in fact, in a known manner and by known means. For applying different amounts or different conditions of their application (for example, ink-jet pressure) and you can also change the nozzle.

As shown in Fig. 5, at least one liquid funds "a" or "b" can be sprayed with compressed gas, compressed air or inert gas from a known fuel injection device in a relatively narrowly focused stream 31. The spray device has for this purpose a compressor 18 with a pressure tank 19.

It is possible accordingly to successfully use a warm air for evenly spraying a relatively high viscosity grease "and". For this purpose, the pipe leading to the nozzle 21, a heat exchanger 50.

In Fig. 6 shows an embodiment with use of the method and device for example a circular saw 27. It rotates in the direction of the arrow 51 and performs on zygotene indicated by the position 53. In Fig. 6 clearly shows that the grease "a" in the form of a spray jet 30 is applied from the body 3, and the stream 31 of the refrigerant "b" of the body 4, the direction of the cutting process 51 circular saw 27 relative to the workpiece 15 according to the invention it is essential that the spray lubricant stream 30 is fed ahead of the jet 31 of the refrigerant on the surface of the saw blade 27 is formed noted on the drawing points thin film lubrication 54 with high adhesion and resistance to shear. Only after that the spray jet on the film 54 is applied to the refrigerant b, namely, on-site cutting 53.

With the passage of the anti-chipping of teeth through the plot of cut 53 applied in accordance with the specified flow rate of the refrigerant b is evaporated, taken thereby the processing zone heat, cools the tool 27, the workpiece 15 and the resultant chips. Canvas 27 on its solid surface remains dry, and then it can again layering jet 30 new film lubrication 54.

The method according to the invention and the corresponding device in their application in the processes of metal cutting and other processes produced the following benefits: due to the cnih effects; by eliminating phase mixing every environment is "a" or "b" in the composition of the substance, consistency, viscosity, quantity, temperature is used, without exposure to a different environment; by maximum use of available power machines get better performance with a significant reduction of production costs; reduced wear of the cutting tool or smaller blocking with significantly extended the lifespan; provides better quality of the processed surface of the workpiece, and therefore, more strictly comply with tolerances; no expenses for nishing due purely removable chip; there are no problems of disposal of used emulsions, the workplace and the environment stay clean, the air does not contain harmful oily aerosols due to "dry machining"; significantly reduced the consumption of liquid environments "a" and "b".

Thus the invention optimally performs the first task.

1. Method of lubricating and cooling the cutting blades and/or blanks in the process of metal cutting, in which the workpiece or in the cutting work is the means, characterized in that use liquid to reduce friction between the cutting tool and the workpiece or chips and liquid means for cooling the cutting tool, workpiece, tool holder of the cutting tool and chip, both tools are stored and prepared separately from one another in separate tanks, one of which serves on the relevant authorities for the application of funds by nabryzgivaniya, when relative movement of the cutting tool and the workpiece in the direction of the place of cutting first nabryzgivajut tool to reduce friction with the formation of the lubricant film, and then on the prepared film nabryzgivajut means for cooling in accordance with the required cooling of the workpiece and/or the cutting blade, and nabryzgivanii means for cooling produce in such estimated amount that in the process it evaporates to provide treatment to reduce friction when it nabryzgivanii on the site of the cutting tool into the gap prior to site cutting free from liquid means for cooling the surface of the cutting tool with the formation of well-sticking to her lubricant film.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the coating is then no excessive tool and eliminates the need for recirculation and re-training.

3. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 and 2, characterized in that during the movement of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece, the means for reducing friction nabryzgivajut on the site prior to site cutting, and means for cooling, on-site cutting to ensure its application on previously prepared lubricating film on the instrument.

4. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that the means for reducing friction is applied in the form of a homogeneous spray directed spray jet to form a thin film having a high adhesion ability of the edge surface, high cutting strength and thickness from 10 to 150 μm, predominantly from 10 to 50 μm and preferably from 5 to 20 μm.

5. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-4, characterized in that the means for reducing friction nabryzgivajut aerosol stream using the heated compressed air.

6. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-5, characterized in that as a means to reduce friction is used mainly liquid without mineral oil, which contains esters of fatty acids and additives containing solid substances in the form of graphite or molybdenum sulfide.

7. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-6, is anyone Soaps, higher alcohols or their derivatives to reduce surface tension.

8. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-7, characterized in that regulate the rate of flow of the liquid as the power consumption of the machine in the process.

9. Device for lubricating and cooling the cutting blades of the tool and/or workpiece during metal cutting, containing cumulative and intake capacity of at least one body for applying one of a liquid medium and located separate from the at least one body for applying a second liquid medium, and a separate one for each liquid supply line from her and cumulative intake capacity to the authorities for the application, characterized in that it is provided with an additional and cumulative intake capacity, located separately from the main, the main cumulative and intake capacity, at least one body for applying one of a liquid medium and the line of its filing are intended for liquid funds to reduce friction, and the additional and cumulative intake capacity of at least one body for applying a second liquid medium and the line of its filing are intended for liquid means for cooling the bodies for the application of the LM is STCA cutting, moreover, the authority for the application of funds to reduce friction when considering in the direction of relative movement of the cutting tool to the workpiece is located at a greater distance from the site of cutting than the body for causing the means for cooling.

10. The device according to p. 9, characterized in that it is provided with a measuring element for metering the power consumption of the machine in the metal cutting, measuring and regulating unit for regulating provided in the supply lines, means submission to ensure transportation of liquid funds to reduce friction and cooling in accordance with the measured value and the signal line to turn on the signal values in the measuring and regulating unit.

 

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