How to restore soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and other substances bioraznolikost
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the recovery of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. The method consists in the following: in the contaminated soil contribute nutrient for aerobic microbes N/P-type in the oleophilic form, then add the straw and hydrophilic nutrient (N/P or N/P/K-type and mechanically stirred. Oleophilic nutrient preferably used in the form of a microemulsion solution of N/P is a fat-soluble salts in hydrocarbon solvent. Hydrophilic substance N/P/K is used in the form of granules, protected anti-diffusion layer, having a size providing 100-200 pellets/g nutrients. Granules are brightly colored. In the biological process, the content of hydrocarbons in the soil falls below 500 mg/kg in a few months. 9 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab. The invention relates to the remediation of contaminated soils. In particular, the invention relates to a method of processing production sites contaminated with hydrocarbons and other organic bioraznolikost connections.Removing hydrocarbons from soils provide natural aerobic bacteria source uglevodorodnaya, the speed depends on several factors as the concentration of the hydrocarbon and the peculiarities of its structure, as well as other nutrients required by the microorganisms.At contaminated sites, in which the excess amount is carbon, bacteria consume in the process of aerobic fermentation in 15-30 times more carbon than nitrogen, depending on the ability to biretrosteel hydrocarbon (if it is more or less able to birthrates). Factors that limit biretrosteel is a lack of nutrients, especially nitrogen, then phosphorus among secondary elements, and to a lesser extent, sulfur and potassium. You can limit the role of insufficient elements in order to restore optimal functioning of the bacteria, if the weight ratio will be C/N = 20-70; N/P = 2-10; C/P = 75-150; C/S = 100-300.Nutrients set needed for the invention is what is used in agriculture with the usual chemical fertilizers. It should also be noted that a complete fertilizer, commercially available or in similar structures, used for biological treatment and used as a normal fertilizer. As the fracture angle is taniah, the preference should be given slow-acting fertilizers.Known way to restore soils contaminated with hydrocarbons, in which the activity of the endogenous microbial flora that can destroy hydrocarbons, stimulated by adding nutrients, which is not enough compared to the ideal value required for bacterial growth C/N/P 100/20/1, (international application WO 91/19039 Grace-Sierra Hort. Prod. Co. ). However, the effectiveness of this method is limited because the contamination consists of hydrocarbon, unevenly distributed in the contaminated soil, and since the distribution of secondary nutrients added to the hydrophilic form with a slow acting fertilizer that is not fully characterized by the conditions necessary for full biological destruction.An object of the invention is the creation of highly effective way to restore soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and other bioraznolikost substances.This is achieved by the fact that in the process of restoration of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons, in which the activity of the endogenous microbial flora that can destroy hydrocarbons, stimulated by dozvite bacteria C/N/P 100/20/1, in the treated soil making
nutrient (N/P-type in the oleophilic form,
nutrient NP or N/P/K-type hydrophilic form,
structuring agent for aeration.Oleophilic nutrient (N/P may be a microemulsion-type: solution N/P-salts in fat-soluble hydrocarbon solvent.Hydrophilic substance N/P/K can be used in the form of granules, protected anti-diffusion layer.Can be used granules having a size providing 100-200 pellets in 1 g nutrients.Used granules can be brightly colored.Structuring agent for aeration can be straw.You can spray oleophilic nutrients on the surface of the treated soil, then
the distribution of the structuring agent and hydrophilic nutrients, and then
mixing the treated soil to obtain a fine mixture of all components. The distribution of the structuring agent and hydrophilic nutrients can conduct over a period of time not longer than 7 days.The treated soil can remain in place to help reduce the concentration of the hydrocarbon to the desired level.A secondary source of nutrients for microorganisms, oleophilic form microemulsions are nutrients (N/P-type in an aqueous solution, an external phase which comprises an organic solvent, dissolving fats. Such microemulsions are described in the French patent N 8020178, published under the number 2490672 (S. N. E. A. R.) and its additional Certificate N 8116626, published under the number 2512057.A source of secondary nutrients in hydrophilic form is fertilizer N/P/K-type, or more simply, N/P/O-type, as well as the introduction potassium is usually not necessary for the desired conditions birthrate. In order to apply the invention more easily, in accordance with the principles set forth below, it is preferable to have at least two composition, such as one 18/1/0 and other 15/7/0. This fertilizer is applied slowly evolved form in order to avoid too rapid washout in precipitation. Only natural diffusion of nutrients provides the ideal setting conditions of the local distribution of secondary nutrients to the point of deposition of hydrocarbon contamination. It is also desirable to achieve the best uniform distribution of grains guy is. While conventional fertilizers contain 30 pellets per gram of hydrophilic nutrients present invention have 100-200 pellets 1, moreover, they should be brightly colored in order to make their distribution visible during distribution in the treated soil.Agent aeration of the soil to facilitate the removal of contamination by aerobic bacteria. To do this, use wood chips or sawdust, the core piece of corn or straw. Straw, especially straw of cereal crops, particularly interesting because it is a hydrophobic material, and this property is used to make thatched roofs. It is noted that if the straw to mix with soil contaminated with hydrocarbons, it stabilizes a portion of the hydrocarbons under conditions favorable for aerobic birthrate, namely in the cavities of the straw tubes. The mechanism probably improved in the presence of surfactants, made with microemulsion nutrients in hydrophobic form. The speed and the end result of the method of removing impurities, thus, significantly improving.For implementing the method, the first necessary condition is the presence matched tlaut counting bacteria in a solid aerobic medium in a Petri dish. Then spend the soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus and quickly analyze the presence of hydrocarbons, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons, the decomposition which occurs relatively quickly (within 6 months) and aromatic hydrocarbons, the decomposition of which lasts longer (8-12 months for aromatic and 16 months for polycyclic hydrocarbons). From these data to determine the dosage of oleophilic and hydrophilic nutrients to achieve the total content in the soil C/N/P the optimal value is approximately equal to 100/20/1. As the initial value using the distribution of the oleophilic nutrient/hydrophilic nutrient 10/90. The longer the hydrocarbon contains aromatic and/or polycyclic hydrocarbons, the higher the ratio.For cultivation first served by a flexible sleeve or develop oleophilic nutrient, preferably in concentrated form. If carbohydrate pollution significantly, the plot leave until the initial black color of the soil will not become brown or yellow-brown. Usually this change requires two to seven days. Then come back to the site and put a straw in Coliseo at a specific dosage. Followed by intensive mixing any conventional machine, agricultural or industrial. In the case of moderately contaminated soils distribution oleophilic nutrients and straw together with hydrophilic nutrients is carried out at the same time.You can leave the soil fallow or dig it and save it in rolls, depending on how you will use the site. Biological process occurs over a different period of time, usually from 6 to 18 months depending on severity of pollution and the nature of the contaminating hydrocarbons. The development of biological contamination is monitored by taking samples and measuring the amount of hydrocarbon. Land is considered unpolluted, if the level of hydrocarbons is below 500 mg/kg according to the standard AFNOR NFT 90114 (level data may vary depending on requirements).Example 1. The site is contaminated with engine grease and pour out the oil. The average dose of hydrocarbons was 62 g per kg of soil. A test for the presence of aerobic bacteria is considered to be positive if the soil generally contains 4 x 10 bacteria per gram of soil. Used the following conditions:
Oleophilic nutrient, p is the gathering of 100 g/m2;
straw is distributed in quantities of 1% by volume;
hydrophilic nutrient composition of N/P/K 15/7/0 from the company CECA S. A. under the name of INIPOL SP2 in the form of dark green clumps (200 pellets/g), protected anti-diffusion layer, the flow rate of 1000 g/m2.Oleophilic nutrient distribute the spray over the surface of the soil and place left fallow for 8 days. Then manually distribute Sodom (1% by volume) and grain hydrophilic nutrients. Mixing with the earth hold the cultivator for three consecutive times to obtain a homogeneous mixture.The material is then removed and placed in rolls of 5 m wide, 25 m long and 1.5 m high, is established on an area protected developed. Determine the change in the content of hydrocarbons (see table. 1).After 8 months restored the earth return to the place.Example 2. The treated soil was contaminated with solvents for paints. After the first treatment space oleophilic drum (French patent N 2528412) for removing hydrocarbons from the surface, the average content of carbon in the soil was 965 mg/kg, of which 57 mg/kg was toluene. Bacterial test identified the presence aerobody were as follows:
the dispersion of oleophilic nutrients INIPOL EAP22 in the amount of 100 g/m2;
the addition of hydrophilic nutrients composition of N/P/K 18/1/10 from the company CECA S. A. under the name of INIPOL SP1 in the amount of 500 g/m3;
all digging soil.The processed material is removed and placed in 10 rolls of 5 m width, 50 m length and 1.5 m height, created on the water area. Several perforated pipes placed in the middle of the roll for ventilation material. The changes were as follows (see tab. 2).After 6 months the soil is considered contaminated, has been used over and scattered across the land.The method can be applied for processing of the earth, where the presence of bacteria capable of biretrosteel, it is not obvious. The method is also applicable to sterile contaminated soils, which must first be seeded with bacteria.The method of restoring soil is also suitable for removing chemical contaminants, for example, paints or other birthrelease compounds. 1. How to restore soils contaminated with hydrocarbons, in which the activity of the endogenous microbial flora that can destroy hydrocarbons, stimulated by dobavite bacteria C/N/P, 100/20/1, characterized in that the treated soil making nutrient (N/P-type in the oleophilic form, nutrient (N/P or N/P/K-type hydrophilic form, structuring agent for aeration.2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the oleophilic nutrient (N/P is a microemulsion-type solution of N/P is a fat-soluble salts in hydrocarbon solvent.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the hydrophilic substance N/P/K is used in the form of granules, protected anti-diffusion layer.4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the use of granules having a size providing 100 - 200 pellets per 1 g of the nutrients.5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the granules are brightly colored.6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the structuring agent for aeration is straw.7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that conduct (a) a dispersion of oleophilic nutrients on the surface of the treated soil, then (b) distribute structuring agent and hydrophilic nutrient, then (c) mix the treated soil to obtain a fine mixture of all components.8. The method according to p. 7, otlichayuschimisya fact, that the treated soil is left in place to reduce the concentration of the hydrocarbon to the desired level.10. The method according to p. 7 or 8, characterized in that the soil removed and leave the rolls to reduce the concentration of the hydrocarbon to the desired level.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves introducing into soil contaminated with oil or oil products ameliorant, such as complex of aluminosilicate mineral and nitrogen-phosphate fertilizer; plowing soil to depth of at least 25-30 cm.
EFFECT: reduced soil recultivation time and decreased consumption nitrogen-phosphate additives.
FIELD: environmental pollution control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial process of detoxifying sea and lagoon sediments or grounds polluted by stable organic trace pollutants (e.g., dioxins and furans, polychlorobiphenyls, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons) and inorganic trace pollutants (e.g., Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, etc.). Detoxification process comprises following stages: (i) thermal desorption of organic pollutants in trace amounts from mud or ground and removal of volatile metals from furnace operated at 300 to 700єC to form first gaseous stream containing removed organic pollutants and volatile metals and stream consisting of remaining solids; and (ii) extracting heavy metals from the stream of remaining solids with the aid of inorganic acids or chelating compounds, in one or more steps, to produce chemically dissolved above-indicated heavy metals and essentially detoxified mud or ground having characteristics allowing thus treated mud or ground to be returned to their original place.
EFFECT: achieved complete detoxification with minimum environmental harm.
16 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: decontamination of technological spillage of liquids containing highly toxic component of rocket propellant-1,1 dimethyl hydrozine.
SUBSTANCE: layer of schungite material is poured on floor or site where spillage is expected to occur. Used as schungite material is material obtained from schungite rock of III kind at mass content of carbon of 25-35% and dispersity of 0.5-5.0 mm; schungite material is poured in layer of 10-25 cm.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of decontamination; facilitated procedure.
2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: war materiel and chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on use of sorbent-catalyst whose base is made from cereals husk with oxidizing agents in form of metallurgical sludge in solution of ortho-phosphoric acid applied over husk.
EFFECT: enhanced ecological situation; enhanced efficiency of detoxicant of soils and water media contaminated with spilled heptyl.
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises oxidizing metallic surfaces contaminated by toxic agents by means of oxidizing reagents. The oxidizing reagents are made of solutions of nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide with a concentration of 4-5% by mass.
EFFECT: enhanced safety and quality of cleaning.
6 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: environmental protection; all branches of industry; methods of cleaning of the ground from oil pollutions.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the environmental protection and may be used for cleaning the soils or the ground from the oil products pollutions in all branches of industry dealt with processing, transportation or the oil and oil products storage, and also at elimination of effects of accidents or catastrophes. The ground is introduced with the additive stimulating the growth of the present in the ground oil oxidizing micro-organisms. In the capacity of the additive use the synthetic washing substance (SWS) containing 10-20 % of the surface-active substance (SAS), 30-40 % of phosphates. At that the concentration of SAS compounds 0.1-1 g/kg of the ground. The additive may additionally contain a complex mineral fertilizer with concentration of 0.7 g/kg of the ground, and-or the molasses solution up to the final concentration of sugars of 3-5 g/kg of the ground, and-or the crude oil in the concentration of 0.5 g/kg of the ground. The technical result of the invention is - acceleration of the process of the ground cleaning from the aged pollution, which is present in the surrounding medium of no less than 12 months, with the concentration of the oil products of 30-400 g/kg of the ground at maintaining the efficiency of the cleaning, simplification of the method and reduction of expenditure on the bioremediation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures acceleration of the process of the ground cleaning from the pollutions present in the ground of no less than 12 months and having concentration of 30-400 g/kg of the ground; maintaining the efficiency of the cleaning, simplification of the method and reduction of expenditure on the bioremediation.
5 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: environmental protection; methods of reprocessing of the oil-sludge.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of environmental protection of the natural shelf from the petroleum spills, predominantly on the ground and-or the reservoirs. Prepared in the area of transportation oil-sludge is preheated up to the temperature of 22-47°С by the superheated steam fed under the pressure from 0.3 up to 0.5 MPa with the consumption velocity of from 80 up to 300 kg/h at the working temperature of the steam from 105 up to 170°С. The mechanical impurities are crushed and the oil-sludge is separated from them by the primary filter. Exercise the oil-sludge feeding in the process tank (tanks) with velocity of 8-32 m3/h. From the heated and settled oil-sludge separate the uncommercial water containing 17-40 mg/l of he oil products and 0.1-0.05 volumetric % of the mechanical impurities. The heated oil-sludge is routed in the mixer, where using the batching device saturate it with the reactants in amount of 2.5-3.75 kg/m3. From the mixer the prepared oil-sludge discharged in the technological tank, conduct its heating, the barbotage, demineralization, removal of the mechanical impurities. The accumulated water route to the heated tank for purification from the mechanical impurities, collect the oil-sludge with the contents of 5-10 % of water, 250 mg/l of chloric salts and 0.1 % of the mechanical impurities. Realize the decontamination of the oil-sludge wastes in the form of the damp polluted layer of the cake in the bulk inert substance; from bottom sludge and the oil-polluted soil produce the boiler oil (Ml00) and the purified soil with the residual content of the boiler oil (Ml00) of no more than 1 %. The technical result of the invention is purification of the earth and the water surface with production of the separator oil and technologically suitable water.
EFFECT: the invention ensures purification of the earth and the water surface with production of the separator oil and technologically suitable water.