Switching device for burning fuel (options), and the way acoustic agglomeration of microparticles (options)

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in the systems of energy production. The inventive offers improved apparatus and method for removing particles entrained in a gas stream. The method of removal involves the use of pulse combustion device to create waves of acoustic pressure to acoustic amplification sintering of solid particles that can be collected and removed using conventional separation devices. The device can be used in the form of direct combustion for improved performance driven by gas equipment such as gas turbine, or alternatively can be used as an additional subsystem for purification of exhaust gaseous products of combustion. In addition, the added particles may include a desiccant to absorb other impurities of the type of sulfur. The system can be made and various other solid particles that are designed to remove contaminants, such as reagents, catching alkali. 5 C. and 31 C.p. f-crystals, 11 ill.

The invention relates to pulse device for burning fuel and method of acoustic agglomeration of microparticles, obrazuyuscikh the ESD problem when using certain fuels, which are used in conventional systems of energy production, are particles generated by the combustion of fuel. These particles remain in the flow of the gaseous combustion products. Since the gas flow, resulting in the action of such systems has a negative effect on the service life of the turbine, the gas flow must be essentially freed from the solid particles. Although removal of some of the larger particles from the stream of gaseous products of combustion can be applied to conventional devices, such as cyclones, these devices typically do not allow to remove from the flow of smaller particles. Similar problems arise with many gas streams that contain suspended solids, non-combustion products.

The removal of solid particles from the gas stream is most important for improved systems of energy production, in which the fuel is coal. In particular, the possibility to achieve high thermodynamic efficiency of the gas turbine has direct combustion of coal, which is connected in series with advanced combustion of coal. However, the fuel based on coal makes efficient use and effectivetreatment clean, the highest quality petroleum distillates. In contrast, fuels based on coal gives ash and chemicals, for example, sulfur and associated with fuel nitrogen that is not present in appreciable quantities in the fuel based on oil. Such mineral content in fuels derived from coal can lead to a deterioration in the efficiency of the gas turbine, lower reliability, higher spending on maintenance and have a negative impact on the environment. There is also deterioration of the airfoil of a gas turbine with direct combustion of coal due to corrosion, deposition of layers and erosion caused by particles and other materials, which carries the gas flow.

Direct coal combustion in gas turbines requires devices to reduce or eliminate erosion of the turbine blades caused by the presence of fly ash and other particles in the gas stream. If such erosion is not to reduce the service life of the turbine blades is very short, of the order of 100 hours to settle so the economic advantages of gas turbines with direct combustion of coal.

Direct combustion of coal may also lead to selection, in addition to solid products of combustion, alkaline vapors and t causes the gas flow formation of emissions of nitrogen oxides (X). Although nitrogen oxides by themselves do not have a negative impact on the turbine blades, they represent contamination, exposure to the atmosphere is undesirable. To meet the requirements of pure air Act required methods or processes or reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides, or decomposing, or remove such pollutants from a stream of flue gases. Still not offered acceptable from an economic point of view, methods of removing contaminants from the exhaust turbine before the release of these emissions.

Many attempts were made to solve these and other problems in order to offer acceptable from an economic point of view and effective process of direct combustion of solid fuels in gas turbines. Also made attempts to offer a way to remove from the gas stream of small particles. For example, before the burning of coal was subjected svartmetall cleaning to reduce the content of impurities. This, of course, is associated with significant financial costs, and also slows down the use of fuel. In one case the coal is carefully cleaned, trying to remove from the fuel before combustion ash and sulfur. From tonkoizmelchennom fuel. This approach, of course, expensive, but allows you to get essentially like fuel in the form of pulp, made from coal, which requires a slight modification of the gas turbine engine. The cost of coal purification and preparation of the pulp, however, proved to be sufficiently high in order to from this approach, it was decided to almost completely abandoned.

Other attempts to obtain the net flow of the gaseous combustion products include the use of moderately clean fuels in combination with a cleaning system hot gas located in front of the gas turbine. Most devices regulating the content of solid particles are devices secondary or tertiary treatment, because for satisfactory purification filled with solid particles of the gas stream requires a multi-stage cleaning. In General, this approach is used to remove the main mass of the fly ash the concept of the combustion chamber with islamovedenie. Coal combustion chambers of gas turbines operate at a sufficiently high temperature by maintaining the amount of air for combustion at a level close to the stoichiometric adiabatic combustion chamber, so C the amount of residual fine particles (average size of 4 μm) in the gas stream, which is enough to damage the turbine blades.

In systems of combustion chambers with islamovedenie also often use high-temperature ceramic filters located behind the combustion chamber of the turbine and before the turbine, designed to detention of flyash particles before they reach the turbine or otherwise damage the turbine blades. Ceramic filters, however, allow only a very low superficial gas velocity, thus causing an unacceptable pressure drop in the filter. This leads to the fact that the amount of such ceramic filters become unacceptably large and very increased costs. In addition, the ceramic filters are unreliable because they are extremely fragile and sensitive to heat shock and related thermal stress. In addition, such filters tend to clog, which requires funds to maintain clean filters without the formation of a stable pressure drop in the filter as it will "fill in" fine particles.

Highest temperature at which to operate the combustion chamber with islamovedenie, increase the amount of nitrogen oxides formed in the combustion process. This is oncentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases flow.

High temperature combustion in combustion chambers with islamovedenie unacceptable for sulfur capture using dry sorbent, such as limestone or dolomite. The sulfur oxides formed during the burning of sulfur-containing coals must be removed from the flow of the combustion gases outside of the combustion chamber. Another by-product formed due to high temperature in the combustion chamber with islamovedenie are alkaline vapors in the gas stream, which also should be removed to reduce corrosion of the turbine blades.

Other designs that are not associated with islamovedenie, involve the use of a dry branch of the ash before the turbine. In such constructions sulfur capture using dry sorbents in the three-stage combustion chamber. Multi-stage modular design of the combustion chamber in this approach involves the use of a modified three-stage combustion chamber, adapted for separating ash and sulfur capture. Aerodynamic particle separator separates the ash wastes. Found that this system forms a solid precipitate on the surface of the ash quenching of the combustion chamber. Thus, in the zone of clearing is unintentional oshlakov the ameres combustion, what can cause system damage. For the combustion chamber is required to implement the additional gas purification and control of oxides of nitrogen.

To control emissions standard boiler economy applied to other systems using fabric filters. Fabric filters are, however, not applicable in systems for cleaning hot gases in gas turbines.

In General, an effective reduction of suspended solids in the gas stream formed during combustion, remains a serious problem associated with the lack of cost-effective system for the removal of particles, especially very small particles. The possibility of using existing systems for collection and removal of particles is limited by the operating conditions of the generator. Thus, new approaches are needed to provide a system in which generators, requiring the use of carefully purified gases can be applied to the fuel, the combustion of which are formed of solid particles. Any such new system should possess a number of characteristics, such as high combustion efficiency, high ability to capture sulfur, a high degree of removal of particulate fuel, nebolsine, the new system, with the above features, should be relatively inexpensive and should not require time-consuming preparation and pre-cleaning of the fuel used for combustion.

Acoustic sintering is a process in which sintering of the particles of submicron and micron size aerosol applied high-intensity sound. In essence, the sintering is the process of initial training aimed at increasing particle size distribution of captured or suspended particles in order to achieve a high degree of recovery and purification using a cyclone or other conventional traps. The acoustic waves cause the strengthening of the relative motion of solid particles and, consequently, increase the frequency of collisions. If the particles collide, they can stick together. In the acoustic impact of the particle size distribution of the particles in the aerosol quickly and largely shifted from smaller to larger. Larger particles can be more effectively filtered from the gas stream using conventional devices removal of solid particles, such as cyclones. The combination of camera acoustic agglomeration of microparticles with poochandi containing solid particles, gases, such as hot flue gases from combustion chamber pressure.

Acoustic agglomeration of fine particles in the hot gaseous products of combustion and other sources, carrying fine dust exhaust streams studied intermittently for many years. Existing methods of acoustic agglomeration, being effective to obtain particles of larger sizes (from 5 to 20 μm) for more efficient removal using conventional devices, is still not considered as a potential treatment devices due to the large energy consumption. So, for example, fine particles of fly ash (less than 5 µm) was specaly using high-intensity acoustic fields of high frequency, reaching the range from 1000 to 4000 Hz. These high frequency necessary to prevent the entrainment of fine particles and implement collision between them and, therefore, the sintering of small particles.

In existing devices, acoustic sintering of the acoustic field created sirens, air horns, electromagnetic horns, etc., the Generation of the received acoustic waves to sound sintering requires energy, which is estimated to range from 0.5 to 2 HP/GI, even if effective horns, sirens, etc., the efficiency of which is usually from 8 to 10%.

Sirens, air horns, etc., require auxiliary compressor to compress the air needed for their work. The required pressure is usually much higher than the pressure existing at the outlet of the compressor of the gas turbine, which creates a need for devices that create this pressure, if you plan to use a turbine or use the auxiliary compressor. Electromagnetic acoustic devices require special designs and precautions in order to ensure the reliability, availability and durability of the equipment.

Similarly requires power amplifiers to drive some speakers to obtain the sound pressure at 160 decibels (dB) or more. All these speakers are, therefore, inefficient, at least from the point of view of cost.

Device and method which is the subject of the present invention, allow to overcome the above disadvantages and have the desired characteristics listed above regarding the use of the circuit of the pulse combustor for uselu of the present invention is to provide an improved device for removing solid particles from the gas stream. Another objective of the present invention is to provide an improved combustion chamber which operates on fuel with high sulfur content, such as coal, with simultaneous cleaning of particles arising from combustion of such fuel and the avoidance of undesirable gaseous emissions.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide high pulse firing system for improved acoustic agglomeration of particles.

Another objective according to the present invention is the creation of an improved method for removing particles from a gas stream.

And another purpose of this invention is to provide a means of removing alkali vapor formed during combustion.

Another objective of the present invention is to capture dirt and sintering the particles of the products generated by the combustion of one pass of the gas stream.

Another goal, according to the present invention is the development of a device to create a low-frequency acoustic field to improve the sintering of the particles formed in the combustion process.

Another aim of the invention is to provide a subsystem for removal Zia.

Another objective of the invention is to provide a device designed to remove particles from the gas stream and to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides.

Another objective of the invention is to provide a means to capture and removal from the stream of gaseous products of combustion derived sulfur.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide an improved method for removing solid particles from a gas stream.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide an improved method for sorption of contaminants from the gas stream and sintering of particles in a single pass through the system.

And another purpose of the present invention is to provide a method of improved purification of the gas stream.

In General, the device according to the invention, includes means for receiving the flow of gas so that the gas stream with suspended therein solid particles can pass through it, the pulse burning tool that communicates with the means for receiving the gas stream, and switching means burning can create a pulsating stream of hot combustion products and an acoustic wave with a frequency in the range from about 20 to about 1500 Hz, the subsequent improvement of particle removal.

More specifically, in some cases, in the flow of products of combustion introduce additional particles, most preferably in the place of articulation of the combustion chamber with a resonance tube(s) or next to it. Additional particles can serve as a sorbent for contamination in one of the threads, such as derivatives of sulfur, providing the sorption of contaminants and bimodal agglomeration of suspended solid material. This decision making sorbent in the articulation of the combustion chamber with the resonance pipe or near it allows to obtain highly porous sorbent for the best sorption of contaminants. In other embodiments of sintering can take place at a singular distribution of particle sizes. In other words, if preferred modal sintering, the means of introducing additional particles can be removed from the device and the sintering is carried out using modal distribution of particle sizes.

In another embodiment, a device for sintering can be included sources of moisture. In particular, when the device sintering is used as part of treatment systems preferred, but not absolutely necessary is the presence of water droplets. Zaigratsya in the channel, in the sintering device.

In General, the method according to the invention includes the operation of the pulse combustion of fuel to produce a flow of hot products of combustion and acoustic pressure waves with a frequency in the range of from about 20 to about 1500 Hz to influence the flow of gas with suspended particles in it, so what happens is enhanced sintering of the particles to improve their destruction.

More specifically, in the present method can be used larger particles on grain size in comparison with the grain size of suspended particles. These deposited particles can also serve as a sorbent for contaminants in the gas stream, such as sulfur compounds. In addition, when using this solution, the switching means burning near the junction of the combustion chamber and the resonance pipe making particles, which is the sorbent.

In addition, in the present process can be carried out modal sintering using particles suspended in the hot flow of gaseous products of combustion, the exhaust from the pulse combustor. Modal distribution of particle sizes is acceptable for acoustic agglomeration and trapping h is higher adding sources of moisture can also contribute to the improvement process.

A brief description of the drawings.

The invention is further explained by the specific version of its embodiment with reference, but accompanying drawings, on which:

Fig. 1 depicts schematically a device for removing particles entrained in a gas stream, according to the invention;

Fig. 2 depicts another embodiment of the device for removing particles entrained in a gas stream, in accordance with the present invention;

Fig. 3 depicts schematically a device for removing particles entrained in a gas stream, in the form of the treatment system, added to the discharge system of the combustion chamber, according to the invention;

Fig. 4 depicts schematically a device for removing particles entrained in a gas stream in the form of attachment to an existing turbine driven by a combustion chamber according to the invention;

Fig. 5 depicts a preferred design of the pulse combustor, according to the invention;

Fig. 6 schematically depicts another variant of the device for removal of particles captured by the gas flow according to the invention;

Fig. 7 schematically depicts e is 8 schematically depicts another variant of the device for particle removal, entrained in a gas flow according to the invention;

Fig. 9 schematically depicts another variant of the device for removing particles entrained in a gas stream, in the form of the treatment system, added to the discharge system of the combustion chamber, according to the invention;

Fig. 10 schematically depicts another variant of the device for removing particles entrained in a gas stream, in the form of the treatment system, added to the discharge system of the combustion chamber, according to the invention;

Fig. 11 schematically depicts a variant of the device for removing particles entrained in a gas stream, in the form of the treatment system, added to the discharge system of the combustion chamber, according to the invention.

The preferred embodiment of the device to remove trapped gas flow of the particles before the gas is supplied to the turbogenerator includes pulse means burning with means for trapping and removing particles, as shown in Fig. 1. In Fig. 1 impulse tool 10 burning connected in series with the tool 20 trap and remove particles, so that the sintered material formed in the gas flow passing through it, could be removed from the gas stream particles from a stream of gaseous products of combustion, the gas flow, in this particular implementation, actuates the gas turbine generator 40. Turbine 40 transmits the rotation to the generator 50 and the air compressor 60. Since the gas stream is fed to the turbine is subjected to acoustic sintering and mechanical removal of material according to the invention, the gas stream is clean enough to operate the turbine 40 without significant negative impact on it.

Impulse tool 10 includes a fuel combustion valve means 12, which preferably is an aerodynamic valve (jet diode), although you can also use the aerodynamic valve, etc., the combustion Chamber 14 communicates with the valve means 12 and, depending on the needs receives through it the air-fuel mixture. With the combustion chamber 14 is communicated resonance pipe or tail pipe 16. The device which is the subject of the present invention, also includes means 15 for inclusion in the agglomerator additional particles. These additional particles preferably are made in the impulse tool 10 combustion and will be combined with the particles in the stream of hot products of combustion, forming a sintered mother is th camera (not shown). Resonance tube 16 can be represented by a single pipe or tail pipe, as shown in the drawing, or a set of pipes and, in a preferred implementation, gradually widens in the direction from the combustion chamber 14. Resonance tube 16 with the socket serves as a diffuser, you can reduce the velocity of the gas at the exit of the combustion chambers (14) and provides recirculation of products of combustion and increase the resonance time of the particles within the impulse tool 10 burning.

In the implementation shown in Fig. 1, compressed air from the compressor 60 is served in the air chamber 18 to increase the traction of the fuel mixture fed to the pulse tool 10 combustion, although it is not required. Resonance chamber 16 is positioned so that its outer open end allows the products of combustion formed in the combustion chamber 14 to flow into the tool receiving gas flow represented by the partition 19, although, as mentioned above, the scope of the present invention includes many different options for technical solutions. The gas passes through the receiving means 19, which, as described earlier, is the sintering of the particles.

In the specified embodiment, the pulse combustion device is the AK shown in Fig. 3. Therefore, the gas stream is a stream of products of combustion from the combustion chamber 14 and includes unwanted particles from which it must be clear and direct to the turbine 40.

The tool 20 trap and remove particles that communicates with the switching means 10 combustion may include a cyclone 72, fabric filter, scrubber, or any other conventional device for removing solid particles. Cyclone 72 provided with a funnel 74 with an opening 76 to remove solid waste. The tool 20 capture and removal it is also reported from the gas turbine 40, so that the purified gas stream can directly affect it in the right mode. The entire device may be lined with refractory and may be water cooled, depending on the needs of the system in thermal energy.

In the specified embodiment, the air chamber 18 is communicated with the bypass air channels 17 through which the tool receiving gas stream 19 can flow more air, to further enhance the sintering of the particles.

Pulse means burning, in the preferred embodiment, contains at least one aerodynamic valve or jet diode, a combustion chamber and at least one of MetaPost provided by the use of an auxiliary ignition device. The explosion of the fuel mixture causes a sharp increase in the volume and allocation of products of combustion, which is compressed in the combustion chamber. With the expansion of hot gas, there is a potential for in the direction of the resonant pipe with considerable momentum. Then in the combustion chamber due to the inertia of the gas in the resonance tube vacuum occurs. Only a small part of the exhaust gases are able to return to the combustion chamber, while the remaining gas leaves the resonance tube. Due to the fact that the pressure in the combustion chamber is below atmospheric, in the combustion chamber is absorbed additional air-fuel mixture and automatic ignition. And again, valve means restricts flow in the reverse direction, and the cycle resumes. After initiation of the first cycle of the process becomes self-sustaining. Fuel valve used in many systems, pulse combustion, is a mechanical valve type "collapsing Pana". Collapsing the valve is in reality a shutoff valve that allows flow in the direction of the combustion chamber and restrict the flow in the reverse direction due to the position of mechanical saddles. Although this si viewwise parts. When using the aerodynamic valve during the expansion valve occurs connecting layer and turbulent eddies largely quenched flow in the opposite direction. In addition, the exhaust gases have a much higher temperature than the gases at the inlet. Therefore, the viscosity of gas is much higher, and the feedback resistance input, in turn, is significantly higher than for forward current flow through the same hole. This phenomenon, along with the great inertia of the exhaust gas in the resonance tube, contributes to the combined occurrence of preferred and secondary currents from input to output. Thus, the preferred pulse combustion device is a suction motor, independently of the suction air and fuel into the combustion chamber, which is followed by the automatic ignition.

Pulse combustion systems regulate private stoichiometry within certain limits combustion without complicated devices for regulating the ratio of the mass flow of fuel and air. With increasing fuel consumption, increases the intensity of the pressure pulsations in the combustion chamber, which in turn leads to an increase in the amount of air being constant stoichiometry within the specified range. Given the stoichiometry can be changed by changing the jet bilateral bandwidth aerodynamic valve.

The preferred device is a pulse combustion used for burning coal, based on the Helmholtz model with an aerodynamic valve. The pressure fluctuations caused by the combustion in the shape of the cavity combustion chamber Helmholtz, along with jet bilateral bandwidth aerodynamic valve cause for diagonally from the entrance to the combustion chamber to the exit in the resonance tube. This leads to the priming lift the combustion chamber of the combustion air and to increase the average pressure in the combustion chamber, causing the expulsion of combustion products through the resonance tube with high average flow velocity (>1000 ft/s (305 m/s).

An integral feature of the pulse combustion is getting fashionable acoustic waves. The sound power level in areas adjacent to the wall of the chamber pulsed combustion, is about 110-190 dB and can be changed depending on the desired frequency of the acoustic field, in order to achieve specific tasks for which the intended pulse combustion device.

the Oia coal pulsating flux field causes the entrainment of combustion products from which came the reaction of solid coal, thus providing access to oxygen with a slight restriction of diffusion or its full absence. Secondly, for a pulse combustion devices characterized by a very high intensity of mass transfer and heat transfer in the combustion zone. While these combustion chambers tend to be very high intensity heat (typically ten times greater than conventional burners), intensive mass transfer and heat transfer in the combustion zone to promote the achievement of a more uniform temperature. Thus, the peak temperature is much lower than in case of conventional systems, which leads to a significant reduction in the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). High intensity allocation of heat reduces the required size of the combustion chamber at a given fuel consumption, and reduce the required time of resonance.

The present invention is particularly useful in cases where the pulse device burn cheap with high sulfur and high ash content of crushed coal. Sintering of the particles and their effective removal by using the present invention allows the use of this combustion device standard is with those which are formed during combustion of fuel, ground to micron size, which contributes to the establishment of centres of sintering fine particles of fly ash in the stream of gaseous combustion products at lower frequencies, as described here. Economic advantages of this option are obvious, since the standard powdered fuel is cheaper ground to micron size. It's also better to use coals that have not been deep enrichment with a cost reduction of ash content. The increase in ash particles from medium to large sizes, which should happen as a result of combustion moderately enriched fuel, contributes to the effectiveness of bimodal dynamic filter during sintering of the particles according to the present invention. Of course, the use of standard crushed fuel leads to increased levels of contaminants such as sulfur derivatives and, in particular, sulfur dioxide, and the vapor of alkali, such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride and sodium sulfate. However, these additional impurities can be effectively removed from the gas stream in accordance with the present invention, and the products of combustion produced from the standard crushed radiated pulse combustion device, provides high intensity of interphase mass transfer. Due to a sufficiently high temperature combustion of fuel dust at the output of the resonance tube pulse device combustion is essentially complete. In addition, the temperature can be maintained below the level required for melting the ash, if the process goes without shlakovaya. However, the temperature may be raised to the melting temperature of the ash, if you want to process shlakovaya. In addition, extra time finding the flow in the resonant tube provides a high degree of conversion of carbon and high combustion efficiency.

Volatile and combustion of the fuel stuff in a pulse combustion device also contribute to the allocation of a considerable part of the sulphur contained in the fuel before the fuel fines will leave the tail pipe or the resonance chamber. According to the invention, more specifically described below, the deposited particles can be, and preferably are, a sorbent for sulfur, which provides a high probability of absorption of sulfur particles of the sorbent. Recycling things as a consequence of the design of resonant tubes, also contributes to the achievement of high effektivnosti waste. Pulse combustion device are essentially devices with lower education, NOx. The intensity of heat transfer in pulsating current is higher than in conventional systems with a steady stream that leads to a lowering of the temperature in the combustion chamber. In addition, high intensity mixing of hot combustion products and colder residual products of the previous combustion cycle and the incoming cold reactants leads to the reduction of the time of resonance at high temperature, which prevents the formation of NOx. As a result, the emissions of NOxof the systems that are the subject of the present invention is lower than that of conventional combustion chambers.

It is shown in Fig. 1 pulse removal system of particles with direct combustion is as follows.

The fuel-air mixture flows into the air chamber 18 and then through one or more valve means 12 into the chamber 14 of the combustion. The original mixture flowing into the chamber 14 of combustion, ignite in any way: any spark, gas burner, etc., 14'. The resulting combustion products then resonate through the resonance tube 16. As described above, after the start of the initial combustion cycle of the pulse combustion becomes samvedana combustion pressure fluctuations in the fuel burning process. The resulting combustion sound field resonates in the resonance tube 16 and directly affects the gas stream carrying the particles. Does not require compressed air, which activates a siren or air horn, you do not need electricity used to drive the electromagnetic loudspeaker. However, as shown above, in the air chamber 18 may be filed additional compressed air, which can be recycled to improve traction. The pulse combustion device removes, thus, the need for parasitic power to generate the acoustic field.

In the inventive device for direct combustion of coal and method switching means burning creates a pulsating flow of the gaseous combustion products from the occupied them the first particles. These first particles are usually fine ash dust generated by the combustion of air-fuel mixture and having a size of about 4 microns. The acoustic wave generated impulse tool 10 combustion affects the gas flow for acoustically enhanced bimodal agglomeration of particles in the gas stream when it contains additional or different particles of different particle size distribution. B the sintered particles in the usual ways. The effectiveness of the sintering process is improved by increasing the total specific weight of the particles in the gas stream. When this particle size distribution higher specific gravity contributes to the emergence of a larger number of particles per unit volume, which, in turn, increases the probability of collisions between particles, leading to sintering. Therefore, the addition of the second kind, denoted here as entering into the stream of hot gaseous products of combustion, or other flow of additional particles, leads to an increase of the total mass. Implemented thanks to this bimodal treatment increases the effectiveness of the sintering process.

In addition to this phenomenon further increase in the number of collisions between the particles and the associated strengthening of sintering is achieved through the intensification of ortho-kinetic interactions between the two species. There are also hydrodynamic interaction. Preferably, other particles introduced into the stream of hot combustion products, had a larger particle size than the particles already captured gas stream, resulting in enhanced relative motion of particles, contribute to the poverhnosti section between the resonance tube 16 and the combustion chamber 14, which is a zone of high heat and outdoor heat transfer, especially in those cases where additional particles are sulfur sorbent and the like. Intense heat thus promotes rapid firing, creating porosity of the calcined sorbent, which, in turn, contributes to the achievement of great value relationship of surface to mass without the need for fine grinding of the sorbent. Along with the influence of the pulsation of the flow field on the mass transfer of gas, making the particles at the point near which the particles can influence the acoustic wave, improves the use of adsorbent at a relatively low molar relationship of calcium to sulfur.

Pulse combustion device subject of the present invention, creates a low-frequency acoustic fields with frequencies in the range from about 20 to about 1500 Hz. Higher frequencies contribute to the fluctuations of the material of the particles per unit time in the gas stream, which affects the acoustic field. However, increasing the frequency leads to a proportional decrease in the amplitude of the relative motion of particles per cycle.

As was However, because the size of the particles, introduced into the stream of hot products of combustion, are selected preferably so that was more particles already in the stream, the frequency required for separation is reduced. For example, for particle sizes of 100 μm in the gas stream at a temperature of 1600oF (871oC) and a pressure of 10 ATM, the ratio of ablation should be 0.1 at a frequency of only 100 Hz. Thus, the amplitude of oscillatory displacement of particles is only one-tenth of that rate to the gas flow with a significant (about 90% of the amplitude of displacement of the gas) relative bias gas flow and particles. Fly ash is almost completely captured by pulsed field flow coefficient of entrainment at a frequency of about 100 Hz in excess of 0.99. This, in turn, leads to a clash between the flyash particles and larger particles of sorbent, becoming centers of sintering, causing sintering of the particles of fly ash with additional particles. Since the amplitude of the relative motion of the fly ash particles entrained in a gas stream, and additional particles should be about 80 - 90% of the amplitude of oscillatory displacement of the gas, and such displacement is higher at low frequencies, the number of collision is Ooty their means, what happens sintering between particles of different particle size distribution, forms a type of dynamic filter for collecting particles of fly ash on the other, the larger particles introduced into the gas stream.

Preferably, the pulse combustion device generated acoustic fields with frequencies from approximately 50 to approximately 250 Hz. High-intensity acoustic fields have levels of sound pressure, usually greater than 160 dB, providing a much higher mass transfer characteristics. These characteristics contribute to increased utilization of the sorbent, increasing the intensity of the transfer derivatives of sulfur to the surface of the particles of sorbent and increasing penetration into the porous structure of the sintered particles of the sorbent. With a high intensity acoustic field improves sintering, changing the grain size of the particles so that the small micron and submicron particles are sintered, becoming larger particles that can be more effectively removed in the usual devices for removal of solid particles.

According to the invention, the capture contaminants such as sulfur derivatives, occurs simultaneously with specialii coal, preferably represented by sulfur sorbents such as limestone, dolomite, hydrated lime, etc., and are chosen so that the size of the particles exceeded the size of the particles intended for sintering. Granulometric composition of the additional particles is preferably from about 100 to about 150 microns. Larger additional particles reduce the magnitude of the frequency required to achieve a significant selection of particles from the gas stream. This leads to collisions between the particles and the larger particles of the sorbent, thus causing sintering of the particles with the adsorbent. The size of the particles and their size distribution used in this case will refer to the particle sizes within the scheme of distribution. Therefore, larger size or particle size distribution of the particles belong to the scale of the size distribution, which consists of larger particles. The porous particles of calcium oxide used as sorbent, under the influence of an intense acoustic field easily react with a derivative of the sulfur contained in the hot gaseous combustion products, such as SO4forming solid calcium sulfate (the process of combustion are sintered and can be easily removed from the gas stream.

Effective improvement of sintering of the particles to the greatest extent expressed in the increase of the particle size of the sorbent. This is due to the fact that acoustically enhanced flow will increase diffusion limitations, which have to face in relation to larger particles. The improvement in desulfurization and effective sintering of the particles with the removal can be achieved simultaneously without having to use expensive absorbing materials. Simultaneous trapping dirt and sintering used in this case are performed at one time and in one pass.

After the formation of large particles of material containing gas stream passes through a means of capturing and separating 20, where the material is separated from the gas stream and removed. After that, the purified gas stream can be used to drive a gas turbine 40, which, in turn, may be driven compressor 60 and/or generator 50. If the turbine 40 or any other device that uses gas, you want the heated gas, means for trapping and removal can be heated to maintain the temperature of the gas stream to the desired higher level. Thread cleaned hasnie sulfur and nitrogen oxides, may be emitted into the atmosphere, contaminating it.

Another embodiment of the device which is the subject of the present invention shown in Fig. 2 and contains elements similar to those shown in Fig. 1. For additional fuel in the channel between the camera 14 of the combustion chamber after the valve means 12 is provided for the injection hole 23. In addition, instead of smoothly expanding resonance chamber 16, shown in Fig. 1, in Fig. 2 shows a relatively direct resonance chamber 16 with a valve 21 on the outer end. The diffuser 21 provides for the recirculation of fine particles to reduce emissions of NOx.

Like the device shown in Fig. 1, in Fig. 2 shows the tool 15 additional particles to add additional particles in the stream of hot combustion products. Hole 15 for the additional particles may be positioned near the resonance chamber 16, as shown in Fig. 1 and 2, or may be located in any place where the particle is the effect of acoustic waves which generates a pulse combustion device. For example, the additional particles may be introduced into the device at a point behind the resonance button acoustic wave influenced by the gas flow to improve the sintering of the particles. As was shown above, additional particles are preferably sorbent designed to absorb various pollutants, such as sulfur derivatives. In addition, because the invention relates to a bimodal device and method, granulometric composition of additional particles introduced into the gaseous stream should be different from the particle size distribution of the particles originally contained in the gas stream. In the most preferred embodiment of the invention additional particles must have larger dimensions.

The device shown in Fig. 2, also includes an additional inlet means 27 for inclusion in the gas flow of the third material. In the process of combustion of solid fuels are often formed of a pair of alkalis, such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride and sodium sulfate. These pairs of bases may react with the grey sorbent particles, forming on the surface of the sorbent sulfate alkalis and prevents effective absorption. To capture these vapors of alkali through the third inlet means 27 can be materials that absorb alkali, such as infusoria earth, ematic, silica, bauxite, vermiculite, hectorite and kaliese bimodal sintering due to the further increase of the specific gravity of the solid material and the formation in the flue gas of a larger centres sintering, removes small particles from the gas stream. In addition, it is possible the injection of additional air through the inlet 33 to further increase the intensity of collisions between particles in the sintering process.

Impulse tool 10 burning communicated with the tool 20 trap and remove particles.

The tool 20 capture and removal contains a cyclone 72, funnel 74 and, in addition, may include a hopper 76 to the solid material for the further accommodation of the particles removed from the gas stream. Cyclone 72 has an outlet 73 through which the purified gas stream may be passed to the turbine (not shown) or other device. Cyclone 72 may be heated as described above, can operate at ambient temperature or have a water cooling system, depending on what you would prefer.

This device concept can be applied to any system for which you want or which is enriched by the flow of pure gas or cleaning gas stream prior to its discharge into the atmosphere. So between the pulse combustion system and remove solid particles can be located in other devices, such as katogo device, used as a subsystem for control of emissions included in the existing gas channel, for example, the exhaust of any combustion chamber. See as an example the combustion chamber (not shown) ejects the gas flow through the channel 100. Pulse combustion system, indicated generally by item 10, is located in the channel 100, or otherwise communicated with him on the condition that the acoustic field affects the gas flow in the channel 100. Suspension with a solids gas stream flowing from the combustion system (not shown) through the channel 100, forms a composite containing solid particles flow together with hot combustion products originating from pulse means 10 burning. Impulse tool 10 combustion may include the previously described elements, but at least should include the main valves, the combustion chamber and the resonance pipe.

As described above, in the stream of hot products of combustion, the exhaust from the pulse means 10 burning through the tool 15 introduce additional particles. The particles preferably are making near the junction of the combustion chambers (14) and the resonance tube 16, which provides exposure to more particles high temperature is jihane there is sufficient difference in particle size distribution, adding additional particles may be optional.

The combined flow of gas and solid particles, which formed the waste products in the channel 100 and combustion products from impulse device 10 combustion leads to the formation of the channel 100 particles of large size.

The acoustic field generated by the pulse device 10 combustion, contributes to this sintering, so that the resulting material can then be directed to the usual means of capture and removal (not shown). After removal of the solid particles of the combustion gas can be powered turbine or other device or be emitted into the atmosphere.

In the channel 100, usually in the place where the waste products of the combustion chamber and the products of combustion from the pulse combustion device are merged into a single stream, is eductor 110. Eductor 110 may be a conventional device for mixing gases and must be located on the site of a strong acceleration of the gas stream with the subsequent slowdown for further allocation of particles and mass transfer. Eductor promotes the sintering of the particles due to differences in the level of separation of larger particles than smaller particles - usually the e air supply to improve the control of emissions of NOxhelps improve acoustic coupling between the resonance chamber 16 and the section of the channel 100, which is an acoustic sintering, providing good mixing in the flow of solid and gas phases.

In Fig. 4 schematically shows a device for removing solid particles with pulse combustion, is used as an additional subsystem. Device to remove particles that are the subject of the present invention and indicated by General position 200, included between the existing system 210 of combustion and the device 240, which is driven by the gas, and includes switching means burning 220 and means of capture and remove solid particles 230. The system may be configured as shown in Fig. 3, or otherwise. Similarly, the cleaning can be followed by the boiler for flue gas cleaning.

In another specific implementation of the present invention of the structures can be excluded means of introducing additional particles. In particular, if injected into the fuel system and/or the sorbent have a wide range of granulometric composition, for acoustic sintering with subsequent trapping and removing solid particles is acceptable to monomachine, it is shown in Fig. 6. The stream of hot combustion products formed during pulse combustion injected fuel is sufficient from the viewpoint of the particle size distribution of the particles, in order to implement an effective sintering of the particles. Like the device shown in Fig. 1, particles are removed from the system, and the purified gas is fed to the turbine 40.

In Fig. 7 illustrates another variant of the device of sintering. In particular, the impulse tool 14 communicated with the combustion means for receiving the gas stream, represented by the partition 19, which follows from the cyclone 72, provided with a means of collecting, for example, funnel 74. The device is identical to the shown in Fig. 1, except that there is no means of introducing additional particles 15, and other added elements. In particular, it provides a means 320 injection for submission to the pulse chamber 14 of the combustion of fuels such as coal, oil, gas, trash, etc. of Various sorbents for removal of gases containing hydrogen sulfide, or trapping of alkali may be introduced through the opening 23. However, the hole 23 is not required for the practical implementation of the sintering process.

In a specific embodiment, the implementation of them is adashim pipe 325 for hot water and steam. In addition, section 19 for receiving the gas stream, which serves as a camera sintering, consists of an inner section 335 and the outer ring section 345, and a resonance tube 16 is approximately half the length of the inner section 335. In the transverse direction has a reflector 310 sound, designed to adjust the pulse combustion device. This particular design of resonant tubes and camera sintering applied to get into the inner section 335 and the annular space 345 standing wave (half-wave), in order to minimize acoustic losses. Luggage sintering is the antinodes of the pressure and the center corresponding to the node speed and the node pressure. Resonance tube 16 forms a velocity antinode at the location near the center of the tool receiving gas stream 19 to suitable boundary conditions and minimize the attenuation of sound. In addition, the tool 300 trap for removal from the camera sintering the formed large particles. Final disposal of solid particles is performed as described above for the device depicted in Fig. 1.

In one embodiment, the implementation shown in Fig. 8 depicts the device with the use of Bimota what s in Fig. 1 and 2. Provided by the device 15 designed to make particles of other sizes for the implementation of the bimodal sintering described above. Optionally, the hole 15 may be used for supplying additional air, fuel or sorbent to control the formation of oxides of nitrogen, removal of gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon capture alkalis or other purposes. For example, a step change of air supply or supplements for post-combustion gas can be used to control the formation of nitric oxide. Dolomite, limestone or Pushina lime can be added to capture sulfur and infusoria earth, kaolinite or hectorite can be used to capture bases.

In the sintering device can be used in other structural solutions. So, for example, single-camera sintering may take the form of a U-shaped tube for receipt of full waves in the chamber with the resonance tube 16, corresponding to approximately a quarter wavelength. This device complies with the present invention, but is not limited to them.

In Fig. 9 shows another device for sintering of solid particles. The device is identical to the additional clearing system, parasema is modal sintering without the need of depositing particles of a different size.

In Fig. 10 shows another cleaning system, similar to that shown in Fig. 3 and 9. However, it includes the tool 400 injection, designed to make the moisture in the system. In particular, in the system as a moisturizing agent can be injected water. In the presence of water is improved desulfurization process occurring in the channel, which is associated with the interaction of the sulfur sorbent and water drops, improving the capture of sulfur.

In Fig. 11 shows another cleaning system. However, in this specific implementation is designed to hydrate the tool 400 insufflation applied together with various other means 401 and 402 insufflation. Through these means, the injection can be made of various reagents, such as a variety of sorbents, reducing agents or materials, catching alkali. When using this device is designed to hydrate the means of insufflation 400 is placed in sufficient proximity to the vehicle injection 401, so that any sulfur sorbent introduced into the system, improves the interaction of the sulfur sorbent and water drops. The tool 401 may be located directly in front intended for humidification by means of injection to minimize veroyatnaya unlike modal sintering, in the process shown in Fig. 10.

For all devices, as shown in Fig. 6 to 11, the sintering process of the solid particles is identical to that described above, except that in some embodiments is modal sintering without introducing additional particles of a different size.

In some embodiments of the present invention is preferable design of the pulse combustor, shown in Fig. 5. In this construction the generators square shape for axisymmetric geometric shape that allows you to include a number of design and operational characteristics of the camera.

The alphanumeric characters of the pulse combustor, shown in Fig. 5, correspond to the following dimensions, which relate to the version of the combustion chamber with islamovedenie (described below), which has a thermal capacity of 7.5 million BTU/ HR (2.2 thousand kW/h) and can be used to define other structures of the pulse combustor. The entrance aperture 100 has a diameter 5,69 inch (144,5 mm), and the outlet 101 is the diameter of 5.06 inches (105,4 mm). The length of the various sections of the combustion chamber has the following values: L1- 16.7 inches (410,7 mm); L2- 4,15 of duynstee 100 to the outlet 101, equal 28,03 " (712 mm). The angle is 40, the length of P1 is equal to 25.15 inch (639 mm), the length of R2 is equal to 6,46 inches (164 mm) span R3 equal to 4.31 inches (109,5 mm), cut R4 equal to 3.40 inches (86.4 mm).

It has been found that the use of the claimed device to remove solid particles with pulse combustion, some ranges are preferred. It is desirable that the pressure level of the sound accompanying pressure wave generated in a pulse combustion device, although it can sometimes be lower, but preferably equal to at least 160 dB at atmospheric pressure, 180 dB at a pressure of 10 ATM and 200 dB at a pressure of 20 ATM. As described above, the preferred frequency range for pulses of acoustic waves generated in a pulse combustion device, should be from about 20 to 1500 Hz, most preferably from about 50 to about 250 Hz. The preferred difference in particle size distribution between particles entrained in a gas stream, which must be removed, and made additional particles must be such that the dimensions included additional parts exceeded the size of the particles, initially entrained in a gas stream.

Preferably, the tion, to the specific content of solid material was not less than 10 g/cubic meters Preferred average length of time of solid particles in the resonance tube 16 is from about 2 to about 5 seconds. The preferred temperature of the combustion gas in the system must be maintained at a level lower than the temperature at which intended for sintering the particles begin to melt. This lower temperature prevents the appearance of molten materials (slag) and thus ensures the release of particles from the gas stream before and after sintering. Preferably, the temperature of the gas in the system is maintained at a level of at least 200oF (approx. 110oC) below the softening temperature or the initial deformation of solid particles. In addition, thermal output of the pulse combustor valley preferably be from about 1 to about b million BTU/HR (0,29-1.74 thousand kW/hour).

1. Improved device for removing particles entrained in a gas stream, characterized in that it contains means for receiving a gas stream carrying solid particles, and passing this gas flow, the pulse tool ooh what about the stream of hot gaseous combustion products and an acoustic wave with a frequency of from about 20 to about 1500 Hz, acting on the gas flow so that there is an increase in acoustic effect sintering of solid particles entrained in a gas flow, which improves the removal of sintered particulate material.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the switching means combustion is within the means of receiving the gas stream.

3. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the switching means of combustion comprises a combustion chamber, a fuel valve which is connected with the combustion chamber, and a resonance tube, a chamber connected with the combustion chamber and having an exit inside means receiving the gas stream, while the outlet of the resonance pipe is located approximately in the center of the tool receiving the gas stream.

4. The device under item 1, characterized in that it contains the uninstall tool of sintered particles from the gas stream.

5. The device according to p. 4, characterized in that as a means of removal of sintered particles used cyclone.

6. The device under item 5, characterized in that the cyclone is heated.

7. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that the means receiving the gas stream contains two separate sections, with at least one of the sections is about contains a means for injection of fuel in the fuel valve.

9. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that it contains a water jacket around the combustion chamber to circulate coolant around the combustion chamber.

10. The device according to p. 7, characterized in that the resonance tube is approximately half the length of the annular channel.

11. The device according to p. 10, characterized in that it contains the second annular channel.

12. The device according to p. 11, characterized in that it contains a reflector of sound, located across the second annular channel so that the pulse means burning configured for receipt in the annular channel and the second annular channel of the standing wave to reduce acoustic losses.

13. The device under item 1, characterized in that it contains the means of introducing into the unit moisture removal of particles.

14. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that the means of introducing moisture contains a nozzle for spraying water located relative to the pulse means burning so as to direct moisture to the pulsating stream of hot combustion products.

15. An improved method of removing solid particles from the gas stream, characterized in that the hcpa is with a frequency of from about 20 to about 1500 Hz to improve the acoustic impact on the sintering of particles.

16. The method according to p. 15, characterized in that applied to the stream of hot combustion products, including designed for sintering the solid material and the other gas stream carrying the other particles, the pulse acoustic pressure.

17. The method according to p. 15, wherein implementing the introduction of moisture into the gas stream carrying solid particles.

18. The method according to p. 15, wherein removing the sintered particles of the material to improve the purification of the gas stream.

19. The method according to p. 16, wherein removing the sintered particles of the material to improve the purification of the gas stream.

20. The method according to p. 15, characterized in that the pulse reduction is subjected to an air-fuel mixture with the crushed fuel.

21. The method according to p. 15, characterized in that the particles in the gas stream are fly ash generated by the combustion of coal.

22. The method according to p. 15, characterized in that use acoustic pressure wave with a frequency of approximately 50 to approximately 250 Hz.

23. The method according to p. 15, characterized in that used as the heat generated when the pulse combustion, which creates a temperature below that at which the particles of the first stream to the device, which is driven by this gas stream.

25. The method according to p. 24, characterized in that the device, which is driven by a gas flow, is a turbine.

26. The method according to p. 15, characterized in that the support of thermal power in the range from 1106VTE/up to 610 h6VTE/h (0,29-1,74)103kWh

27. The method according to p. 15, characterized in that the gas stream carrying solid particles, represents a stream of hot products of pulse combustion, followed by a pressure wave.

28. An improved method of removing solid particles from the gas stream, characterized in that burn fuel in a pulsed mode to produce hot stream of products of combustion and acoustic pressure waves with a frequency of from about 20 to about 1500 Hz, the combined flow of products of combustion and the pressure wave from an independent gas stream containing the captured solid particles for enhanced acoustic agglomeration of the particles and removing the sintered particles of the merged streams, use the combined gas stream to actuate located downstream flow equipment.

29. Improved device for removing particles, erdie particles, and passing this gas flow switching means of combustion containing a combustion chamber, a fuel valve which is connected with the combustion chamber, and a resonance tube, a chamber connected with the combustion chamber and having an exit inside means receiving the gas stream, the pulse tool communicated with the combustion means for receiving a gas stream to obtain a pulsating stream of hot combustion products and an acoustic wave impinging on the gas flow so that there is an increase in acoustic effect sintering of particulate materials entrained in a gas flow, to improve the removal of a crust of solid materials, means for introducing catching sulfur sorbent into a stream of hot products of combustion, means for introducing moisture to exposure to hot combustion products to enhance sulfur capture and remove solid particles.

30. An improved method of removing solid particles from the gas stream, characterized in that burn fuel in a pulsed mode to produce hot stream of combustion products and the waves of acoustic pressure, affect the flow of hot products of combustion carrying solid particles in the gas stream, carry out the registration in the tives such as those what is injected into the stream of hot products of combustion sorbents capture dirt, and the sorbent is selected from the group consisting of limestone, dolomite, lime and slaked lime.

32. The method according to p. 31, characterized in that the contamination is captured by the sorbent include derivatives of sulphur.

33. The method according to p. 30, characterized in that the flow of hot products of combustion catching add alkali reagent, and detecting alkaline reagent selected from the group consisting of infusorial land, Amalita, silica, bauxite, vermiculite, hectorite and kaolin.

34. The method according to p. 30, characterized in that the gas stream support heated during the removal of solid particles.

35. The method according to p. 31, characterized in that the flow of hot products of combustion is accompanied by the acoustic pressure wave.

36. The method according to p. 30, characterized in that exercised by the introduction of sorbent into a stream of hot products of combustion.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to the environment, and more specifically to devices for destroying unburned residual fuel and removal of toxic products of incomplete combustion from exhaust and flue gases, and can be used in any sector of activity
The invention relates to technology and equipment for the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels can be used in energy, transport and other sectors to improve the efficiency of fuel combustion

The invention relates to a power system, and in particular to methods of burning solid fuel, and can be used for combustion, for example, vegetable waste

The invention relates to the environment, and more specifically to means for removing products of incomplete combustion from exhaust and flue gases, and can be used in any industry for the purification of gases generated by the combustion of fuel

The invention relates to power equipment and can be used in power plants combustion of liquid, gaseous and pulverulent fuel

The invention relates to energy and is intended for use primarily in heating installations, used for the heating of dwellings, cottages, garages, greenhouses, etc

The invention relates to a pulsed air-breathing engines with resonant combustion chambers

The invention relates to a pulsed air-breathing engines with resonant combustion chambers

The invention relates to a pulsed air-breathing engines with resonant combustion chambers

Detonation luggage // 2066426
The invention relates to a pulsed air-breathing engines with resonant combustion chambers

The invention relates to equipment for the separation of components of gas mixtures by using their liquefaction and can be used in various branches of national economy

Cyclone // 2116120
The invention relates to a device cleaning compressed air or gas from moisture, oil and impurities

The invention relates to the technology of purification of liquids and gases from suspended particles, in particular particles with a diameter of from 0.01 to 100 μm, by use of ultrasonic energy

The invention relates to a wet gas purification in the field of acoustic oscillations and can be used in industrial ecology
Up!