Solar photovoltaic concentrator module
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to solar energy, in particular solar PV modules with solar concentrators to generate electricity and heat. The objective of the invention is to increase the degree of concentration of solar radiation in photovoltaic module, resulting in increased power density PV and reduces the cost of the module. The photovoltaic module includes a prism of total internal reflection 1, the side faces 2 which is made reflecting the radiation, and on the verge of the radiation exit 3 installed PV 4. Prism is installed in the output hole 5 parabolic trough Polina (focon). Tricks troughs reflecting surfaces F1and F2are located on the surface of the radiation input prism 1 inside the projection of the smaller base of the prism on a larger basis. The width of the prism d equal to the width of the outlet 5 Polina. The aperture angle Polina equal to the angle of the radiation input into the prism when the maximum deviation of the sun from normals. 3 Il. The invention relates to solar energy, in particular solar photovoltaic modules from the end of elektricheski module, containing optical element with a trapezoidal cross-section, the side faces of which are made reflecting radiation, and different-sized bases are the faces of the input and output of radiation, and are mounted in contact with the face of the output radiation of the solar cells. The optical element is designed in the form of a prism of total internal reflection, and the face of the output radiation is smaller base optical element.with. USSR N 1048260).The ratio of the areas of the faces of the input and output determines the ratio of concentration of solar radiation.The advantage of the PV module is no need for a tracking device. A disadvantage of the known solutions is that it has a low coefficient of concentration. This is due to the fact that the minimum angle0at the apex of the prism at normal incidence of the radiation, i.e., when the entrance angle of the radiation is equal to zero, equal to half the angle of total internal reflection 20. For glass with refractive index n=1,51, 20= 41o30' theoretical concentration factor for the linear prisms K=ctg0= 2,64, circular prism K=4.The closest in technical essence to the proposed image is ugodnom hole which is installed panels. Both of the reflective surface of Polina made in the form of two mirrors parabolic shape and is oriented from West to East. The focal area of each parabolic surface Polina is located in the plane of the outlet at the base opposite the reflective surface of Polina (Solar Today, July/August, 1997, S. 31).Photovoltaic module does not require tracking of the sun when the aperture angle 24o. The disadvantage of this module is the low concentration coefficient, equal to 2.5 when the aperture angle 24o.The lack of both known photovoltaic modules is the low power density PV and, as a consequence, the high cost of the module.The task of the invention is to increase the degree of concentration of solar radiation in photovoltaic module and the increasing power density PV.In use of the present invention increases the power density of the phototransducer and this reduces the cost of the module.The above technical result is achieved by the fact that in the solar photovoltaic module containing the hub on the basis of foclin is TVersity installed optical element in the form of a prism internal reflection so what tricks of Polina (focon) is located within the projection of the smaller base of the prism on a larger basis, and the minimum angle of the input beams in the prism is equal to the aperture angle of Polina.The essence of the invention is illustrated in Fig. 1 to 3. In Fig. 1 shows a photovoltaic module, the cross-section. In Fig. 2 and 3 the variation of solar radiation at normal incidence and the maximum deviation of solar radiation.The photovoltaic module includes a prism of total internal reflection 1, the side faces 2 which is made reflecting the radiation, and on the verge of the radiation exit 3 installed PV 4.Prism is installed in the output hole 5 parabolic trough Polina (focon) with two reflecting surfaces 6 and 7 so that the upper base of the prism 8 coincided with the outlet of Polina 5 (focon). Tricks troughs reflecting surfaces F1and F2are located on the surface of the radiation input prism inside the projection of the smaller base of the prism on a larger basis. The width of the prism d equal to the width of the outlet 5 Polina. The aperture angle Polina equal to the angle of the radiation input into the prism when the maximum deviation is Ipanema of glass with refractive index n=1.5. The width of the prism d= 180 mm, length 600 mm, the angle at the vertex of the prism 28owidth phototransducer 72 mm, the thickness of the prism 30 mm, the aperture angle Polina = 30oheight Polina H=250 mm, the width of the upper base D=310 mm Foci F1and F2both surfaces of Follina are located in the Central part of the upper base of the prism. Geometric concentration K is for Polina K= 2, for prism K= 2,5, and for photovoltaic module K=5,0. Photovoltaic module installed from West to East so that the normal to its surface directed to the position of the sun on 22 March and 22 October.Solar photovoltaic module hub operates as follows.Solar radiation enters the reflecting surface Polina 6 and 7, is reflected on the surface of the output Polina 5 between the focus F1and F2and based Polina 9 and 10 at an angle equal to or smaller aperture angle B Polina 6 and 7. Therefore, the module does not require tracking of the sun. Radiation enters the prism 1 at an angle of entrance, is reflected on the side faces 2 and after total internal reflection at the larger base of the prism 8 is supplied to the transducers 4. Penetratee radiation on the verge of going islomania more.The module in the form of a composite hub of the two reflecting surfaces of Polina 6, 7 and prism 1 can increase the power density of the PV and concentrating solar radiation in 2 times in comparison with the hub based prism. Solar photovoltaic module comprising a hub based parabolicheskikh of vaklinov (fokanov) with the output hole and solar cells, characterized in that in the plane of the outlet of Polina (focon) installed optical element in the form of internal reflection prism such a way that tricks Polina located inside the projection on a larger basis prism of its smaller base, the latter of which is installed panels.
FIELD: orbital and aerospace vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed engine contains pulsed periodic laser radiation source, optical unit with radiation concentrator and reflectors, system forming plane radiation front, and gas-dynamic unit coaxial to concentrator. Forming system provides reception and matching of laser beam aperture with dimensions of optical unit. First reflector of concentrator is made in form of cone-shaped figure of revolution with surface generatrix in form of part of short-focus parabola. Gas-dynamic unit is made in form of pressure pulse receiver arranged from rear side and on base of first reflector, and jet nozzle installed at a distance from base and forming input slot for laser rays. Concentrator is provided with additional reflector coaxial to first reflector and made in form of figure of revolution with arc-shaped surface generatrix. Said additional reflector is placed on way of beam focused by first reflector so that focus area of concentrator is arranged in zone of said slot.
EFFECT: possibility of mounting engine on board the craft, building of thrust irrespective of relative orientation of craft and laser energy source.