A device for determining skin blood flow
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to medicine and is intended for functional diagnostics. The technical result is to increase the accuracy of measurements of the blood supply of the skin of man. The device includes a calibrator, sounding current generator, connected to a pair of electrodes, the transducer impedance - voltage indicator. New device is running the generator probe current schema generator stabilized by the amplitude of the rectangular pulses, each of the two electrodes is divided into current and potential and current electrodes are external to the potential. Potential electrodes serially connected transducer impedance - voltage, the first passive high-pass filter, the first active low-pass filter and an analog differentiator. In addition, applied additional pair of electrodes for removal of the action potentials, which are sequentially connected instrumental amplifier, the second passive high-pass filter, the second active low-pass filter and final amplifier. The calibrator is connected to the inputs of the first and second asset is the suspects, and can be used to determine the status of the blood supply of the skin of man.A device for determining the pulse of blood, which contains the probe generator, two electrodes, item calibration, the impedance Converter in voltage, power, indicator, two peak-detector element subtraction, comparator, two elements And the Schmitt trigger, the counter register, an amplifier with adjustable gain, trigger and clock generator (SU N 1754064, MKI A 61 B 5/0295, publ. 15.08.92).The disadvantages of this device are low resolution at the Desk cutaneous blood flow, which is mainly laminar in nature and, accordingly, small compared to the volume of blood, the amplitude of the pulse wave; inadequate allocation pattern of cutaneous blood flow from the General background of the blood supply to the inner tissues of the investigated area of the body such as the forearm or lower leg; no simultaneous independent information that defines hemodynamics, such as electrocardiogram for verification of curves and determination of the phase characteristics of the research object.The technical result of the invention is Genie to decrypt them.The technical result is achieved due to the fact that the device contains a calibrator, sounding current generator, connected to a pair of electrodes, connected in series Converter impedance-voltage indicator. As a generator, the excitation current used generator, made by the scheme generator stabilized by the amplitude of the rectangular pulses (frequency 400 kHz), each of the two electrodes is divided into current and potential and current electrodes when applied to a biological object are external to potential. Potential electrodes serially connected transducer impedance - voltage, the first passive high-pass filter, the first active low-pass filter and an analog differentiator. In addition, applied additional pair of electrodes for removal of the action potentials, which are sequentially connected instrumental amplifier, the second passive high-pass filter, the second active low-pass filter and final amplifier.In Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of the device.A device for determining skin blood flow comprises a generator 1 of the probing current rectangular formbeans - voltage, the output of which is connected to the indicator 5 and consistently included the first passive filter 6 of the upper frequencies, the first active filter 7 of the lower frequencies and analog differentiator 8. To a pair of electrodes 9 for removal of biopotentials connected instrumental amplifier 10, the output of which is serially connected to the second passive filter 11 of the upper frequencies, the second active filter 12 of the lower frequencies and final amplifier 13, the calibrator 14 is connected to the input of the active filter 7 and 12 of the lower frequencies.The device operates as follows.In the investigated part of the body impose a dielectric plate with two pairs of fixed electrodes - current 2 and 3 potential. A third pair of electrodes 9 for removal of the potentials placed on the chest (any bipolar lead electrocardiogram for monitoring). The outputs, which are the first filter 7 of the lower frequencies, the final formation of rogramme (curve, reflecting the volume of blood), analog differentiator 8, which form the first derivative of rogramme (differential curve, reflecting the rate of change of blood volume) and final amplifier 13 (curve electrocardiography form with stabilized amplitude, the order reduced the noise at the input of the Converter 4 impedance - voltage associated with the parasitic amplitude modulation of the useful signal uncontrollable fluctuations of the amplitude of the probe current is sinusoidal; the noise detection signal of rectangular shape fundamentally less noise detection signal sine wave - this leads to the improvement of the resolution of the device, respectively, and the improvement of measurement accuracy and legibility of curves, in addition, a large part of the energy spectrum of the rectangular signal is accounted for higher order harmonics, with the passage which surround the conductor formed by the studied area of the body such as the forearm, causing the appearance of skin effect, displacing the probe current to the external part of the volume of the conductor, i.e., to the patient's skin. To enhance the effect of a leakage of the excitation current in the tissue directly under the skin, the distance between the current electrodes is chosen less than the thickness of the investigated area of the body. Measures have been taken to get a picture of predominantly cutaneous blood flow, thus preventing exposure of the underlying tissue and arterial vessels largely olabl 6 and 7 improve readability curves, filtering respectively waves associated with breath, movement of the patient and high-frequency noise, do not carry useful information.Instrumental amplifier 10 connected to a pair of electrodes 9, amplifies the potentials generated by the electric generator of the heart, the second filters 11 and 12 form the curve of the electrocardiogram, final amplifier 13 serves for adjustment of the output signal with the Registrar. The availability of this channel, you can solve the problem of verification of rheogram.The calibrator 14 generates an exemplary sinusoidal signal to zoom entries recorded curves.Using this device examined 30 patients with psoriasis, neurodermatitis, eczema, allowing to judge the state of the cutaneous blood flow before treatment and in the dynamics during and after therapy. A device for determining skin blood flow containing the calibrator, the generator, the excitation current, is connected to a pair of electrodes, connected in series Converter impedance - voltage and light, characterized in that the generator of the probing current is made under the scheme generator stabilized by the amplitude of the pulses p which when applied to a biological object are external to potential, which are connected in series Converter impedance - voltage, the first passive high-pass filter, the first active low-pass filter and an analog differentiator, also apply to additional pair of electrodes for removal of the action potentials, which are sequentially connected instrumental amplifier, the second passive high-pass filter, the second active low-pass filter, and a final amplifier, and the calibrator is connected to the inputs of the first and second active low-pass filters.
SUBSTANCE: method involves recording rheogram from feet and legs lifted and fixed at an angle of 45є. Then, rheogram is recorded on inhaling from legs directed vertically downward. Functional blood circulation reserve index is calculated as product of results of dividing and subtracting rheographic indices recorded under conditions of lifted and lowered extremities that means under conditions of functional venous system relief and venous hypertension, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in recognizing patient group suffering from severe lower extremities ischemia.
FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves doing multi-channel recording of electroencephalogram and carrying out functional tests. Recording and storing rheoencephalograms is carried out additionally with multi-channel recording of electroencephalogram synchronously and in real time mode in carotid and vertebral arteries. Electroencephalograms and rheoencephalograms are visualized in single window with single time axis. Functional brain state is evaluated from synchronous changes of electroencephalograms, rheoencephalograms and electrocardiograms in response to functional test. The device has electrode unit 1 for recording bioelectric brain activity signals, electrode unit 2 for recording electric cardiac activity signals, current and potential electrode unit 3 for recording rheosignals, leads commutator 4, current rheosignal oscillator 5, synchronous rheosignal detector 6, multi-channel bioelectric brain activity signals amplifier 7, electrophysiological signal amplifier 8, demultiplexer 9, multi-channel rheosignal amplifier 10, multi-channel analog-to-digital converter 11, micro-computer 12 having galvanically isolated input/output port and personal computer 13 of standard configuration.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of differential diagnosis-making.
11 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves irradiating blood-carrying tissue area under control with luminous flow, receiving scattered luminous flow modulated with blood filling changes in blood vessels and capillaries of blood-carrying tissue and forming electric signal of pulse wave. Deviation signal of light-emitting and light-receiving transducers of optoelectronic converter relative to blood-carrying tissue area under control based on difference between the current and preceding values of impedance signal on the area under control. The signal being observed, prohibition signal is produced on pulse wave electric signal passage for excluding errors caused by motion artifacts from its following processing. The device has optoelectronic converter having light-emitting and light-receiving transducers and unit for producing pulse wave signal, which input is connected to light-receiving transducer output. Unit for forming deviation signal has two measuring electrodes connected to separate comparator inputs which output being deviation signal former output, is connected to control input of key. Information input of the key is connected to pulse wave signal former output.
EFFECT: improved noise immunity.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves recording multichannel electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram record and carrying out functional test and computer analysis of electrophysiological signals synchronously with multichannel record of electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram in real time mode. Superslow brain activity is recorded, carotid and spinal artery pools rheoelectroencephalogram is recorded and photopletysmogram of fingers and/or toes is built and subelectrode resistance of electrodes for recording bioelectrical cerebral activity is measured. Physiological values of bioelectrical cerebral activity are calculated and visualized in integrated cardiac cycle time scale as absolute and relative values of alpha-activity, pathological slow wave activity in delta and theta wave bandwidth. Cerebral metabolism activity dynamics level values are calculated and visualized at constant potential level. Heart beat rate is determined from electrocardiogram, pulsating blood-filling of cerebral blood vessels are determined from rheological indices data. Peripheral blood vessel resistance level, peripheral blood vessel tonus are determined as peripheral photoplethysmogram pulsation amplitude, large blood vessel tonus is determined from pulse wave propagation time data beginning from Q-tooth signal of electrocardiogram to the beginning of systolic wave of peripheral photoplethysmogram. Postcapillary venular blood vessels tonus is determined from constant photoplethysmogram component. Functional brain state is determined from dynamic changes of physiological values before during and after the functional test. Device for evaluating functional brain state has in series connected multichannel analog-to-digital converter, microcomputer having galvanically isolated input/output ports and PC of standard configuration and electrode unit for reading bioelectric cerebral activity signals connected to multichannel bioelectric cerebral activity signals amplifier. Current and potential electrode unit for recording rheosignals, multichannel rheosignals amplifier, current rheosignals generator and synchronous rheosignals detector are available. The device additionally has two-frequency high precision current generator, master input of which is connected to microcomputer. The first output group is connected to working electrodes and the second one is connected to reference electrodes of electrode unit for reading bioelectrical cerebral activity signals. Lead switch is available with its first input group being connected to potential electrodes of current and potential electrodes unit for recording rheosignals. The second group of inputs is connected to outputs of current rheosignals oscillator. The first group of outputs is connected to current electrodes of current and potential electrodes unit for recording rheosignals. The second group of outputs is connected to inputs of synchronous detector of rheosignals. Demultiplexer input is connected to output of synchronous detector of rheosignals and its outputs are connected to multichannel rheosignals amplifier inputs. Outputs of multichannel bioelectrical cerebral activity signals amplifier, multichannel rheosignals amplifier and electrophysiological signal amplifier are connected to corresponding inputs of multichannel analog-to-digital converter. Microcomputer outputs are connected to control input of lead switch, control input of multichannel demultiplexer, control input of multichannel analog-to-digital converter and synchronization inputs of current rheosignals oscillator and synchronous detector of rheosignals. To measure subelectrode resistance, a signal from narrow bandwidth current generator of frequency f1 exceeding the upper frequency fup of signals under recording is supplied. A signal from narrow bandwidth current generator of frequency f2≠ f1>fup is supplied to reference electrode. Voltages are selected and measured at output of each amplifier with frequencies of f1, f2 - Uf1 and Uf2 using narrow bandwidth filtering. Subelectrode resistance of each working electrode is determined from formula Zj=Ujf1 :(Jf1xKj), where Zj is the subelectrode resistance of j-th electrode, Ujf1 is the voltage at output from j-th amplifier with frequency of f1, Kj is the amplification coefficient of the j-th amplifier. Subelectrode resistance of reference electrode is determined from formula ZA=Ujf2 :(Jf2xKj), where ZA is the subelectrode resistance of reference electrode, Ujf2 is the voltage at output from j-th amplifier with frequency of f2, Jf2 is the voltage of narrow bandwidth current oscillator with frequency of f2.
EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.
15 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: medicine, surgery.
SUBSTANCE: one should evaluate clinical state of a patient and as objective parameters one should calculate rheological and brachio-malleolar indices, detect fractional tension of oxygen in capillary blood. At observing clinical improvement accompanied by increased rheological and brachio-malleolar indices by more than 0.1, increased blood saturation with oxygen by more than 10 mm mercury column one should state upon a "good" therapeutic effect. At detecting clinical improvement accompanied by the increase of either one or several objective parameters, or if dynamics of these values is not available - effect should be considered as a "satisfactory" one. At kept ischemic pain at rest without decrease of its intensity, impossibility to keep a limb in horizontal position for a long period of time, the absence of positive dynamics of trophic disorders, at kept ischemic edema and at no alterations in objective parameters - should be determined as "no dynamics". In case of enhanced ischemic pain and edema of foot, at progressing necrotic alterations in foot - one should detect "deterioration" of patient's state. The method increases the number of diagnostic means.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of evaluation.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves recording peripheral differential upper extremity blood vessel rheogram and phonocardiogram in synchronous way. The second phonocardiogram beginning and the deepest rheogram points are detected. Pulse way propagation time reduction being found, arterial bloodstream tone growth conclusions are drawn.
EFFECT: high reliability of the results.
18 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: medicine, neurology.
SUBSTANCE: a patient should be in initial position when his/her sight is directed towards the ceiling and in 3-5 min it is necessary to register a background rheoencephalogram, then a patient should fix the sight at a pointer's tip being at the distance of about 30 cm against the bridge of nose along the middle line, then the sight should be directed into marginal position due to shifting pointer to the left. Then the sight should be returned into initial position and 3 min later it is necessary to register rheoencephalogram of vertebro-basilar circulation, calculate rheographic index (RI), coefficient for RI ratio on returning the sight from left-hand marginal position into initial one (k2) and at k2>1.098 from the left and (or) k2>1.085 from the right one should detect alteration in vertebro-basilar circulation by reflector mechanism. The method excludes biomechanical impact in stimulating proprioceptive receptors of muscular-ligamentous system under stretching.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and reliability of detection.
2 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: medicine, resuscitation.
SUBSTANCE: one should detect cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), intracranial pressure (ICP), values for blood saturation with oxygen in radial artery and jugular vein bulb (SaO2, SjO2), additionally one should study lactate level in jugular vein bulb and radial artery, calculate venous-arterial difference according to lactate (▵lactate), cardiac ejection (CE) due to thermodilution and hemoglobin level. Values for cerebral oxygen transport function should be calculated by the following formulas: mĎO2 = 0.15 x CE x CaO2 x 10; mVO2 = 015 x CE x (CaO2 - CjO2) x 10; CaO2 = 1.3 x Hb x SaO2; CjO2 = 1.3 x Hb x SjO2. In case of noninvasive detection - due to pulsoxymetry one should measure peripheral saturation (SpO2), due to parainfrared spectroscopy - cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) and cardiac ejection due to tetrapolar rheovasography (CEr), detect and calculate the values of cerebral oxygen transport system according to the following formulas: mĎO2 = 0.15 x CEr x CaO2 x 10; mVO2 = 0.15 x CEr x (CaO2 - CjO2) x 10; CaO2 = 1.3 x Hb x SpO2; CjO2 = 1.3 x Hb x rSO2. At the value of mĎO2 86-186 ml/min and more, MVO2 33 - 73 ml/min, ▵lactate below 0.4 mM/l one should evaluate cerebral oxygen transport system to be normal and the absence of cerebral metabolic disorders. At mĎO2 values below 86 ml/min, mVO2 being 33-73 ml/minO2, ▵lactate below 0.4 mM/l one should state upon compensated cerebral oxygen transport system and the absence of metabolic disorders. At mĎO2 being below 86 ml/min, mVO2 below 33 mM/l, ▵lactate below 0.4 mM/l one should conclude upon cerebral oxygen transport system to be subcompensated at decreased metabolism. At the values of mĎO2 being 86-186 ml/min and more, MVO2 below 33 ml/min, ▵lactate below 0.4 mM/l one should establish subcompensated cerebral oxygen transport system at decreased metabolism. At values of lactate being above 0.4 mM/l and any values of mĎO2 and mVO2 one should point out the state of decompensation in cerebral oxygen transport system and its metabolism. The innovation enables to diagnose disorders and decrease the risk for the development of secondary complications.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of evaluation.
1 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves setting a patient in vertical posture with stabilogram and rheoencephalogram being concurrently recorded with frontomastoid and accipitomastoid leads being used retaining head position with stressed neck extensor muscles state and head position with relaxed neck extensor muscles state. Stabilogram parameters characterizing vertical posture stability and rheographic index of each of four brain basins. When combining better filling of cerebral basins with blood and higher standing stability, training is carried out in keeping head positions allowing better filling of cerebral basins. If better filling of cerebral basins with blood follows with no increased standing stability, the trainings are carried out in keeping head position with stressed neck extensor muscles state. The training sessions are given twice a day for 15 min during two weeks.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of treatment.
2 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining pulsating arterial blood flow parameters. To do it, measuring electrodes are applied in main liver body mass location zone. Electrode-to-electrode distance is additionally measured and hepatic index is calculated from formula HI=ρ*L2*Ad*ET*HBR/Z2*1000*S, where HI is the hepatic index (l/min/m2), ρ is the constant reflecting volume blood resistance (150 Ohm cm), L is electrode-to-electrode distance (cm), Z is the base impedance (Ohm), Ad is the differential rheogram amplitude (Ohm/s), ET is blood expulsion time (s), HBR is heart beat rate per 1 min, S is the body surface (m2), 1000 is the coefficient for converting to liters. HI value being greater than 0.225 l/min/m2, porto-portal and/or porto-central hepatic fibrosis is diagnosed.
EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.