# The phase direction finding method

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the radiolocation and radionavigation. The technical result is to enhance the functionality of the method by determining the location of the radiation source of complex signals. The essence of the method lies in the fact that take complex signals of five antennas, arranged in a geometric straight angle, the top of which is placed the antenna of the measuring channel, transform them by frequency and emit a voltage of the first intermediate frequency, thus forming one measuring and four dynamical channel in the measuring channel measuring the phase difference between the harmonic oscillations at the frequency of the second local oscillator and the voltage of the second local oscillator and evaluate the values of the azimuth and elevation of the source signal, measure the phase difference between the harmonic voltage at the frequency of the first local oscillator and the voltage of the first local oscillator, measure the carrier frequency of the received signal, the angle of sight of the radiation source complex signal and the difference of the phase difference between the first direction-finding and measuring channels, as well as between the second and first dynamical channels CLASS="ptx2">The proposed method relates to the radiolocation, radionavigation and can be used to determine the location of radiation sources of complex signals.As a basic method selected phase method of direction finding (Space trajectory measurement. Under the General editorship of P. A. Agadzhanova and other M: "Owls. radio", 1969, S. 244-245). The described method inherent contradiction between the requirements of accuracy and unambiguity of the reference angle. Indeed, according to the formula< / BR>

where d is the distance between the antennas (test database);

- wave length;

- the angle of arrival of radio waves,

phase technique is the more sensitive to the change of the angle , the greater the relative size of the database But decreases with increasing value of the angular coordinate at which the phase difference exceeds a value of 2, i.e., comes the ambiguity of reference. The resolution noted the contradictions in this way is achieved by using multiple measurement bases (mnogodelnosti).However, the basic method of direction finding does not provide the possibility to measure the distance to the radiation source of complex signals, i.e. it is not possible to determine the location of the radiation source of complex signals.This objective is achieved in that the method based on the reception signals on the three antennas located in the azimuthal plane on one line, converting them by frequency, and the selection voltage of the first intermediate frequency, elevation plane placed two additional antennas on the other line, perpendicular to the first, take them signals, convert the last frequency and emit a voltage of the first intermediate frequency, thus forming one measuring and four dynamical channel, two on each plane, in the measuring channel voltage of the first intermediate frequency second time transform on the frequency, allocate the voltage of the second intermediate frequency, Peremohy it with the voltage of the first intermediate frequency direction-finding channels from the received voltages produce harmonic oscillations at the frequency of the second local oscillator preserving phase relationships, measure the phase difference between the harmonic oscillations and the voltage of the second local oscillator and appreciate the value of the azimuth and elevation of the source signal, Peremohy the received signal of the second dynamical channel voltage of the first intermediate frequency pervogo on the frequency of the first local oscillator preserving phase relationships, measure the phase difference between the harmonic oscillation and the voltage of the first local oscillator to measure the carrier frequency of the received signal, the angle of sight of the source signal and the difference of the phase difference between the first direction-finding and measuring channels, as well as between the second and first dynamical channels in the azimuthal plane and their value estimate range to a radiation source of the signal on the measured values of azimuth, elevation and range determine the location of the radiation source signal.Receiving antennas 1-5 are placed in the geometric form of a right angle, the top of which is placed the antenna 1 of the measuring channel, thus forming in each plane, two measurement bases d and 2d, between which establish the inequality

< / BR>

where is the wavelength.In this case, smaller base d form a rough but clear scale of reference angles and the large base 2d form accurate but ambiguous scale of reference angles.Receiving antennas 1-5 can be placed also in the form of a symmetric geometrical cross in the center of which is placed the antenna 1 of the measuring channel.Positioning a radiation source complex signal is reanimat complex signals, for example, phase shift keying (QPSK) and unstable carrier frequency of five antennas 1-5, located in the geometric form of a right angle, the top of which is placed the antenna 1 measuring channel:

u

_{1}(t) = U

_{1}cos[(

_{c})t+a

_{k}(t)+a

_{1}],

u

_{2}(t) = U

_{2}cos[(

_{c})t+a

_{k}(t)+a

_{2}],

u

_{3}(t) = U

_{3}cos[(

_{c})t+a

_{k}(t)+a

_{3}],

u

_{4}(t) = U

_{4}cos[(

_{c})t+a

_{k}(t)+a

_{4}],

u

_{5}(t) = U

_{5}cos[(

_{c})t+a

_{k}(t)+a

_{5}], 0 t t

_{c},

where U

_{1}-U

_{2}- amplitude signals;

_{c}, T

_{c},

_{1}-

_{5}- carrier frequency, duration, and initial phase signals;

- instability of the carrier frequency due to various destabilizing factors;

_{k}(t) = {0,} - manipulated component phases, reflecting the law of phase manipulation, and

_{k}(t) = const when

k

_{and}< t < (k+1)

_{and}and may change abruptly at t = k

_{and}, i.e. at the boundaries between elementary parcels (K= 1,2,..., N-l);

_{and}N - the length and number of basic assumptions which form the signal duration T

_{c}(T

_{c}= N

_{and}).

2. Transform their frequency and emit a first voltage between the/SUB>cos[(

_{PR1})t+a

_{k}(t)+a

_{AC2}],

u

_{AC3}(t) = U

_{AC3}cos[(

_{PR1})t+a

_{k}(t)+a

_{AC3}],

u

_{p}(t) = U

_{p}cos[(

_{PR1})t+a

_{k}(t)+a

_{p}],

< / BR>

where U

_{PR1}=1/2K

_{1}U

_{1}U

_{G1};

_{PR1}=

_{1}-

_{G1};

where U

_{AC2}=1/2K

_{1}U

_{2}U

_{T2};

_{AC2}=

_{2}-

_{G1};

where U

_{AC3}=1/2K

_{1}U

_{3}U

_{G1};

_{AC3}=

_{3}-

_{G1};

where U

_{p}=1/2K

_{1}U

_{4}U

_{T2};

_{p}=

_{4}-

_{G1};

where U

_{WP5}=1/2K

_{1}U

_{5}U

_{T2};

_{WP5}=

_{5}-

_{G1};

K

_{1}- transfer coefficient of the frequency Converter;

_{PR1}=

_{c}-

_{G1}the first intermediate frequency;

U

_{G1},

_{G1},

_{G1}the amplitude, frequency and initial phase of the voltage of the first local oscillator (lo)

thus forming one measuring and four dynamical channel, two on each plane.3. In the measuring channel voltage U

_{PR1}(t) the first intermediate frequency second time transform on the frequency and produce a voltage of the second intermediate frequency.u

_{p}(t) = U

_{p}cos[(

_{AC2})t+a

_{p}], 0 t t

_{c},

where U

_{PR1}=1/2K

_{1}U

_{1}U

_{G1};

2,

_{T2},

_{T2}the amplitude, frequency and initial phase of the voltage of the second lo.4. Peremohy voltage of the second intermediate frequency u

_{p}(t) with voltages u

_{AC2}(t) - u

_{WP5}(t) the first intermediate frequency direction-finding channels.5. From the obtained stress emit harmonic oscillations of frequency

_{T2}the second local oscillator with the preservation phase ratio:

u

_{6}(t) = U

_{6}cos(

_{T2}t+a

_{T2}+

_{1})

u

_{7}(t) = U

_{7}cos(

_{T2}t+a

_{T2}+

_{2})

u

_{8}(t) = U

_{8}cos(

_{T2}t+a

_{T2}+

_{3})

u

_{9}(t) = U

_{9}cos(

_{T2}t+a

_{T2}+

_{4}), 0 t t

_{c},

where U

_{6}= 1/2K

_{2}U

_{AC2}U

_{p};

U

_{7}=1/2K

_{2}U

_{AC3}U

_{p};

U

_{8}=1/2K

_{2}U

_{p}U

_{p};

U

_{9}=1/2K

_{2}U

_{WP5}U

_{p};

K

_{2}- transfer coefficient multiplier products;

< / BR>

< / BR>

< / BR>

< / BR>

d, 2d measuring base;

- the angular coordinates in azimuth and elevation planes

6. Measure the phase difference

_{1}

_{4}between harmonic oscillations u

_{6}(t)- u

_{9}(t) and the voltage of the second lo:

u

_{T2}(t) = U

_{T2}cos(

_{T2}t+a

_{T2}t the received signal u

_{2}(t) of the first direction-finding channel voltage u

_{AC3}(t) the first intermediate frequency of the second dynamical channel in the azimuthal plane.8. From the obtained voltage emit harmonic oscillation at a frequency of

_{G1}the first local oscillator preserving phase relationships

u

_{10}(t) = U

_{10}cos(

_{G1}t+a

_{G1}+

_{5}), 0 t t

_{c},

where U

_{10}=1/2K

_{1}U

_{3}U

_{AC2};

< / BR>

9. Measure the phase difference

_{5}between harmonic oscillation u

_{10}(t) and the voltage of the first local oscillator (lo

u

_{G1}(t) = U

_{G1}cos(

_{G1}t+a

_{G1}).

10. Measure the carrier frequency

_{c}the received signal and the difference of the difference of phases (Fig. 4)

< / BR>

Expressing sin

_{1}and sin

_{3}through the sides of right-angled triangles 11'AND, 22'AND 33'AND get

< / BR>

< / BR>

where D is the distance to the radiation source of complex signals. The above expression can be written in the approximate form:

< / BR>

< / BR>

The value of the phase difference in approximate form as follows:

< / BR>

11. The desired distance D from the radiation source complex signals evaluated according to the following formula:

< / BR>

12. For measured values of azimuth , elevation and distance D oleracea may be implemented by a device, block diagram is shown in Fig. 1. The mutual arrangement of the receiving antennas is shown in Fig. 2, 3, and 4.The device comprises a receiving antenna 1-5, 6-10 amps high frequency first local oscillator 11, a mixer 12 to 16, 23, amplifiers 17-21 first intermediate frequency, a second local oscillator 22, an amplifier 24, a second intermediate frequency, multiplier products 25-28, 29, narrowband filters 30 and 34, the phasemeter 35-40, the counter 41, the computing unit 42 unit 43 of the Desk.Measuring channel consists of a series of antenna 1, the amplifier 6 high frequency mixer 12, a second input connected to the output of oscillator II, amplifier 17, the first intermediate frequency, a mixer 23, a second input connected to the output of the local oscillator 22, an amplifier 24, a second intermediate frequency and the frequency of 41.Each DF channel consists of a series of antenna 2 (3, 4, 5), amplifier 7 (8, 9, 10) high frequency mixer 13 (14, 15, 16), a second input connected to the output of the local oscillator 11, the amplifier 18 (19, 20, 21) of the first intermediate frequency, multiplier 25 (26, 27, 28), a second input connected to the output of the amplifier 24, a second intermediate frequency, narrow-band filter 30 (31, 32, 33) and failedover connected to the multiplier 29, a second input connected to the output of the amplifier 19, the first intermediate frequency, narrowband filter 34, the phase meter 39, a second input connected to the output of the local oscillator 11, the phase meter 40, a second input connected to the output of the phase meter 35, the computing unit 42, a second input connected to the output of the phase meter 39, and a third input connected to the output of the counter 41, and the recording unit 43, second, third, fourth and fifth inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the phase meter 35-38, respectively.The device operates as follows.The received complex signals, for example, phase shift keying (QPSK) and unstable carrier frequency U

_{G1}(t)-U

_{G5}(t) from the outputs of the antennas 1-5 through amplifiers 6 -10 high frequency received at the first inputs of the mixers 12 to 16, respectively, the second inputs of which are supplied with voltage of the first local oscillator 11

u

_{G1}(t) = U

_{G1}cos(

_{G1}t+a

_{G1}).

Ha the outputs of the mixers 12 to 16 are formed voltage Raman frequencies. Amplifiers 17-21 are voltage u

_{PR1}(t)-u

_{WP5}(t), only the first intermediate frequency. The voltage u

_{PR1}(t) from the output of the amplifier 17, the first intermediate frequency is supplied to the first input of the mixer 23, the second whde mixer 23 are formed voltage Raman frequencies. The amplifier 24 selects the voltage u

_{p}(t) only the second intermediate frequency, which is fed to the second inputs of the multiplier products 25-28, at the first input of which receives the voltage u

_{AC2}(t)-u

_{WP5}(t) the first intermediate frequency. From the obtained stress narrowband filters 30-33 stand out harmonic oscillations u

_{6}(t)-u

_{9}(t) received at the first inputs of the phase meter 35-38, the second inputs of which are supplied with voltage u

_{T2}(t) of the local oscillator 22. The measured phase shifts

_{1},

_{2},

_{3}and

_{4}register block 42 of the Desk.The phase meter 39 is measured phase shift

_{5}. The difference between the phase difference () = (

_{1}-

_{5}) is measured by the phase meter 40 and arrives at the computing unit 42, where it is determined indirectly distance D from the radiation source complex signal and then recorded in the block 43 of the Desk. In the last determined location of the radiation source complex signal.The maximum error in determining the distance D

< / BR>

Thus, the proposed method compared with the base provides for the determination of the distance to the radiation source signal and the measurement of the elevation angle, i.e., provides the definition places the major increases. Moreover, the definition of the range is made almost instantaneously.To resolve the contradiction between accuracy and certainty of the location of the radiation source of complex signals in each plane uses two measurement bases d and 2d, between which satisfies the following inequality:

< / BR>

While a smaller base d forms a rough, but unambiguous scale reference angle, and the large base of 2d forms accurate but ambiguous scale reference angle. These databases form the five antennas, which have a direct geometric angle, the top of which is placed the antenna 1 of the measuring channel, or in the form of a symmetric geometrical cross in the center of which is placed the antenna 1 of the measuring channel.In addition, the proposed method of direction finding invariant to instability of the carrier frequency and the modulation of the received complex signals.Thus the functionality of the basic method of direction finding expanded. 1. The phase method of direction finding based on the reception signals on the three antennas located in the azimuthal plane on one line, converting them by frequency, and the selection voltage of the first intermediate frequency, the balance of the first nuclear biological chemical (NBC, take them signals, convert the last frequency and emit a voltage of the first intermediate frequency, thus forming one measuring and four dynamical channel, two on each plane, in the measuring channel voltage of the first intermediate frequency second time transform on the frequency, allocate the voltage of the second intermediate frequency, Peremohy it with the voltage of the first intermediate frequency direction-finding channels from the received voltages produce harmonic oscillations at the frequency of the second local oscillator preserving phase relationships, measure the phase difference between the harmonic oscillations and the voltage of the second local oscillator and evaluate the values of the azimuth and elevation radiation source signal, Peremohy the received signal of the first DF channel voltage of the first intermediate frequency of the second dynamical channel in the azimuthal plane, from the received voltage emit harmonic oscillation at the frequency of the first local oscillator preserving phase relationships, measure the phase difference between the harmonic oscillation and the voltage of the first local oscillator to measure the carrier frequency of the received signal, the angle of sight of the source of the second control and the first dynamical channels in the azimuthal plane and their value estimate range to the source of the radiation signal, for measured values of azimuth, elevation and range determine the location of the radiation source signal.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the receiving antenna is placed in the geometric form of a right angle, the top of which is placed the antenna of the measuring channel, thus forming in each plane, two measurement bases d and 2d, between which establish the inequality

< / BR>

where is the wavelength;

in this case, smaller base d form a rough but clear scale of reference angles and the large base 2d form accurate but ambiguous scale of reference angles.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the receiving antenna is placed in a symmetric geometrical cross in the center of which is placed the antenna of the measuring channel.

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