The way we produce thermostable of russian leather for the uppers from the skins of cattle macromolecule method of canning

 

(57) Abstract:

Method for the production of thermostable a Russian leather chrome tanning. Skins are: soaking off in the sodium sulfide solution for 16-18 hours and Then perform a combined process obespechivayuschego glutton and ashing in a solution of sodium sulfide and calcium hydroxide with addition of sodium carbonate and with reinforcement ash liquid by introducing into it once the calcium hydroxide within 12 hours from start ashing and twice the sodium sulfide - after 2 and 12 h from the start ashing. Produce obessolivanie get pickling ammonium sulfate for 1 h 40 min 1 h 45 min when the ammonium sulfate concentration of 2.5% to 3.8% by weight of the hide when the LCD of 1.5-2.0. Skins magchat protocontinent for 10-15 minutes, pikelot in sulfuric acid solution, tan, chrome tanning agent, neutralized with sodium bicarbonate solution at concentrations of 2.0 to 3.0% and the LCD of 1.5-2.0. Followed by dyeing in a dye containing straight black "3" and nigrosine for 1.5-2.0 hours at a concentration of direct black "3"0.8% and the water-soluble nigrosine - 0,8%, LCD 1,2-2,0. It is greased natural and synthetic fats. Hydrophobizing, doublenaut, carry out wiring and drying to a moisture content of skin 25-28% with simultaneous O. 8 C.p. f-crystals.

The invention relates to leather manufacture, and can be implemented in the production of thermostable a Russian leather, chrome tanned, intended for the manufacture of Shoe uppers vulcanized.

Currently, under the existing practice of production, leather raw materials for the production of Russian leather complement in a separate batch of skins, homogeneous in appearance, weight, grade, which is treated separately. With existing equipment and operating methods of processing uniformity skins in each production lot is an important factor in the quality of Russian leather. However, the shortage of raw materials leads to difficulties in keeping uniformity selection of skins the acquisition of production batches. Implementation of the claimed method allows you to handle by a single method batch of skins, with differences, for example, on the grade, with the resulting properties of Russian leather match industry standard for this type of skin. In addition, obtained by known technologies yuft is not heat-resistant, which prevents its use for shoes, manufactured by the method of vulcanization.

A known method of manufacture of Russian leather chrome method is bestlive, bating, pickling, tanning and gouging received pickling, retanning, neutralizing and washing the sliced skin, as well as dyeing, fatliquoring, drying, priming aging and the final touches skin with subsequent cutting of the grain (the"uniform method of production of Russian leather footwear and saddlery prominentand method of tanning hides and skins of cattle and horses for delivery by state order", M, Milligram USSR, 1986 [1].

The method, in accordance with this methodology provides for the acquisition of batches of raw materials in accordance with the weight of the skins and their grades, quantities to be constant. The raw material is made according to GOST 382-92 "Raw leather and sorted for industrial processing". In accordance with the method of processing is performed as in mobile equipment and stationary equipment.

During the processing of skins according to this method required strict selection of raw materials during the preparation of the batch, as processed raw materials of one kind, otherwise there are such defects of the skin as a detached, friability and screed.

In addition, this method provides a sufficiently low scores in the output (square) finished skin as well as performance, as a separate op is th way thermostable of Russian leather, necessary for the manufacture of shoes by hot vulcanization.

Separate these shortcomings in the way we produce leather for the uppers.with. USSR N 1588769, MCI 5: C 14 C 9/00, 1988).

Given the way we produce leather includes all of the above processes, such as: soaking off, liming, the vision of the hide, obessolivanie, abating, tanning, and so on, and the processes of neutralization, dyeing, fatliquoring and filling combined, and after ghosting the hide is subjected to additional liming.

The combination of these processes provides a slight reduction in the overall time for the production of leather, however, requirements for packaging batches of raw materials remain the same, you need to find the raw material of one species (or close varieties, usually the 1st and 2nd grades), the production also have such skin defects, as detached and riglos. When this method is characterized by low output (by area) of finished leather, and in addition, this method is unsuitable for the production of thermostable a Russian leather for making shoes by hot vulcanization, which is currently the most advanced.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed method of Mechanisatie (kN. "Production of Russian leather and its properties", A. I. Metelkin, L. C. Belobrova, M., "Light and food industry", 1983, S. 85 - 91).

As in previous counterparts, this method provides for the sorting of raw materials macromolecule method of canning taken on the said GOST 382-92. In the sort form the party from the skins of one species. Processing of raw materials is performed with the control of processes with time on mobile equipment in the sequence provided [1]. Thus, the raw batch is first subjected to two-stage rollback in the sodium sulfide solution with a concentration of 0.5 - 0.8 g/l, and the first unwinding lead with liquid ratio (hereinafter W.K.), equal to 4 (W.to.=4) duration 5 to 6 hours, and the second duration 5 to 6 hours, liming obezbolivaushee without glutton (W. K.=4, length 36 - 40 h) in a solution of calcium hydroxide-15 - 20 g/l and sodium sulfide is 0.7 - 1.0 g/L. Reinforcements ash fluid produced first 2 hours, after 6 - 8 hours

After accomplishing wool, meskene and washing the resulting pickling in a solution of sodium carbonate it is cut in half on the spinal line and produce obessolivanie solution of ammonium sulfide in the amount of 2 to 2.5% by weight of the hide for 1 h 45 - 60 min and after washing spend pickling at W.to.=1 duration 2 to 4 hours with a mixture of 8 - 9% of sodium chloride and 0.8 - 0.9% of sulfuric acid. Then spend the tanning solution of chromium oxide (concentration 2 - 2.2%, basicity 37 - 42%) and sodium carbonate (flow rate of 0.3 - 0.4%). Then after 24 hours of aging and pressed carry out planing over the entire area and then neutralization (W.to.=0,8 - 1,0), duration 45 - 60 min in sodium bicarbonate solution with a concentration of 1.8% by weight of sliced cake mix. After washing prefabricated comes to dyeing, which is produced when W.to.=0,8 - 1,0 for 45 - 60 minutes in the dye composition: direct black "3"-1,2%, acid black "C"0.3 per cent, straight brown "LOC"-0,1%, starting from the mass of sliced cake mix, then greasing in a mixture of the following composition: synthetic fat 60%, sulfonated oils - 20%, spun butter 20% with the addition of surface-active substances (surfactants) (In the amount of 0.2% by weight fat) when W.to.=1 for 45 - 60 minutes Then perform the hydrophobization-filling skin polymers, which reduces peristat in the sediments of the impregnating material, and retanning synthetic tanning agent. The final development processes are distributing and drying the humidifier is - 7 hours at a temperature of 40 45oC until the moisture content in the skin 14 - 16%. When this skin much stretch on the metal shields botermans side to the shield and fix. This tension often leads to the emergence cages in the finished leather. After drying, put the dressing on the front surface, the partial blanching followed by cutting the grain, and then measure the square and sorting of finished leather.

Delivered as a prototype method provides for processes in sequence and parameters, enabling the production of raw material to obtain a heat-resistant Russia leather, suitable for the manufacture of shoes by hot vulcanization. However, it should be recognized well-known method is quite time-consuming and uneconomical, since its implementation requires a rigorous approach to the acquisition of production batches of raw materials (as a rule, the skins 1 and 2 varieties), while at the present time, a significant amount of raw materials fed to the production of 3 and 4 varieties. The duration of a number of operations that make up the technology known way, testifies to his lack of performance. In the processing of leather in the composition of the drugs used are expensive substances and komaschelle of Russian leather for the uppers from the skins of cattle macromolecule method of canning satisfies the conditions of novelty, industrial applicability and is not obvious to a person skilled from the prior art.

The aim of the present invention is to eliminate the above disadvantages in particular: obtain the heat-resistant Russian leather from commercial batches of raw materials, picking out different sorts of leather, mostly 3 and 4 varieties, the use of drugs cheap components and substances, the greater yield of the skin while improving its quality by eliminating defects such as friability and detached. The inventive technology allows also to reduce the duration of the process of Russian leather.

This problem is solved due to the possibility of acquisition of production batches of prefabricated materials constant volume from the skins of cattle weighing from 10 to 30 kg with a large number of skins 3 and 4 varieties. The raw material used are skins of half, bull rawhide average, byczyna light and heavy homogeneous mass in the range from 10 to 17 kg and from 17 to 30 kg macromolecule method of canning. Also this problem is solved due to the combined changes of parameters of a number of processes and the use of certain ingredients in the compositions of the substances. In addition, soglasovat advantages of this technology. These characteristics set forth in additional claims. So the distinctive features of the process include the following characteristics. The process of unwinding is carried out in a solution of sodium sulfide for 16 - 18 hours While the cumulative result of the technology used allows you to exclude submission in otmuchow water calcium hydroxide, which greatly simplifies this operation. The result of this operation the wool skin is not burnt and is saved, which positively affects the quality of the semifinished product. Processes obespechivayuschego ashing glutton and ashing are simultaneously within 72 hours In ash liquid add the sodium carbonate in the amount of 2.2 - 2.5 g/l by weight of fresh raw materials at volume ratio of 3.0 - 4.0, and the reinforcement of the ash fluid during the process is provided with a single introduction into it after 12 h from the start ashing of calcium hydroxide and twice the introduction of sodium sulfide after 2 and 12 h from the start ashing. In winter when the temperature drops ash liquid inside frame drums slow loosening of the fibrous structure of the dermis. The increase in the content of sodium sulfide twice his introduction to reinforcement ash fluid accelerates the process of obesola) calcium hydroxide for reinforcements ash fluid is injected in the amount of up to 20 25 g/l, which speeds up the process of dehairing. With these parameters, this process turns the hide with a good Navarra, with a fairly rapid and complete destruction of hair, a decrease in tbsistuste. The process of obessolivanija, according to the method, carried out within 1 h 40 min to 1 h 45 min when the ammonium sulfate concentration of 2.5% to 3.8% by weight of the hide, when W.to.=of 1.5-2.0. The time specified is completely removed lime as in dense areas of the hide and loose (floors). While completely subsides alkaline plumping, the hide is "compressed". The above features of the proposed method allow the bating process for 10 to 15 minutes (instead of) 1,5 - 2 h according to known methods). When abating enzymes is intense razvlechenie structure of the hide, dissolution Nikolayevich proteins. The result is the pickling plate, soft with good ductility, with a clean outer surface, the tensile strength is not reduced. For excessively long abating the hide becomes loose, prone to accusatory. Neutralisation processes and dyeing are carried out separately with intermediate rinsing. The neutralization process performed when the concentration of sodium bicarbonate solution of 2.0 to 3.0% by weight of sliced none is s, search for similar achieved result of dyes and composite fats, revealed the possibility of using Oceania several colorings and specific composition of fats, the defining properties of the semi-finished product. According to the claimed method, the dyeing process is carried out in the course of 1.5 - 2.0 h dye, which consists of a black "C" with a concentration of 0.8% and nigrosine water soluble with a concentration of 0.8% by weight of sliced cake mix and W.to.=of 1.5 - 2.0. The use of water-soluble nigrosine provide a uniform coloration over the entire area of the skin. In addition, you may be in the composition of the dye entered the dye acid at the concentration of 0.4% by weight of sliced cake mix, decreasing the concentration of the dye direct black "C" to 0.7% and nigrosine to 0.5% by weight of sliced cake mix. To ensure full Progresa, for 30 min prior to the dyeing sliced cake mix is treated with a wetting give a surface-active substance (surfactant) at a concentration of 0.2% by weight of sliced cake mix, and 30 minutes before the end of the dyeing to the coloring composition is administered acetic acid in concentrations of 0.5 - 0.8% with a dilution ratio of 1:10. The process of fatliquoring of leather is compositional fats STRIZH "L" and ustoichivosti to the action of electrolytes, has a low melting point 40 - 45oC (if known method 70 - 75oC), which allows to simplify the process of melt fat. Application STRIZH "L" excludes the use of sulfated fish oil and leather paste. The application of this fat allows to obtain soft leather, plastic, well filled with superior physical and mechanical properties. SMANS-COFI - oiling composition based on natural and synthetic fats, has a low melting point, is designed for emulsion and molten fatliquoring. SMANS-COFI promotes bonding and fixation of dyes. The fatliquoring process are emulsion based on the specified composite fat for 1.5 - 2.0 hours at a temperature of 60 - 65oC and W.to.=of 0.8 - 1.0. This fat emulsion is produced by mixing the emulsifier composition of fat, surfactant and 2 to 3 times the amount of water at a temperature of 65 - 70oC. Willingness of the emulsion is determined by achieving a pH of 7.8 to 8.2. In the composition of the emulsion may be introduced ammonia. Drying of the skins carry out vacuum on the horizontal vacuum machine at a temperature of 80 - 85oC for 1 to 6 minutes to a moisture content of 25 to 28% with simultaneous additional ptx2">

Were completed four experimental batch of hides and skins of bovine (calf) weighing from 10 to 30 kg macromolecule method of canning. In these parties used mixed raw materials with a large number of skins 3rd and 4th grade, volume batches constant 125 pieces of skins. In parallel processed batch N1 and N3 known to the methodology, as well as parties N2 and N4 by the method according to the present method.

party N1 - N2 party

grade 1 - 2 PCs - grade 1 - 1 PC

grade 1 - 13 PCs - grade 2 - 4 PCs

grade 3 - 76 PCs - grade 3 - 68 PCs

4 grade - 34 PCs - 4 grade - 52 PCs

party N3 - N4 party

grade 1 - 0 PC - 1 grade - 0 PCs

grade 2 - 1 piece - grade 2 - 9 PCs

grade 3 - 84 PCs - grade 3 - 71 PCs

4 grade - 40 PCs - 4 grade - 45 PCs

Treatment of lots 1 and 3 were held, respectively, is known for a common methodology. Processing batches NN 2 and 4 were conducted on the parameters corresponding to the claimed method.

The rollback was performed for 16 h in the frame drum, the rotation of the first 3 to 4 hours continuous, then for 10 to 15 minutes every hour frequency rotation in 2 to 3 minutes once, changing the water every 6 - 8 hours

Processes obespechivayuschego ashing and glutton ashing was carried out simultaneously for 72 h in a frame drum with 26oC. In the ash fluid and in the process provided a single introduction into it after 12 h from the start ashing of calcium hydroxide and twice the introduction of sodium sulfide: after 2 and 12 h from the start ashing.

Obessolivanie held suspended in the drum at W.to.=1.5 and a temperature of 36oC, with a duration of 100 minutes the continuous Rotation of the drum, the consumption of ammonium sulfate 2.5 per cent.

The abating were held in a suspended drum. Softening agent was injected on an elaborate obezbolivaushee liquid-it after mixing with water /1:10/ when the temperature of the 38oC, flow rate of protocolin 0.23%, and W.to.=1,5, duration bating 12 minutes

Neutralization was carried out in a suspended drum with continuous rotation. The temperature of the solution 30oC when the concentration of sodium bicarbonate 2.5% of the mass of sliced cake mix and W.to.=1,5.

The dyeing was carried out in suspension continuously rotating drum within 2 hours Total consumption of dyes was 1.8% by weight of shaved leather. 30 minutes before the end of the dyeing filed acetic acid 0.5%, and diluted with water 1:10, W.to.=1,5.

Drying is carried out at horizontale-vacuum machine "income" at a temperature of 82oC and a pressure of 3 ATM. Duration: 5 min

As follows from the analysis of the properties of the skin, they fully complied with the OST.

Party NN 1 and 3:

planned output - 67500 square inch

actual output - 63150 CTI 89%:

grade 1 - 1 piece - 0,4%

grade 2 - 41 PCs - 16,4%

grade 3 - 112 PCs - 44,8%

4 grade - 96 PCs of 38.4%

Party NN 2 and 4

planned output - 67500 sq DM

actual output - 63980 square inch

the output density:

thin - 10%

medium - 52,5%

dense - 37,5%

the quality of the finished Russian leather 92,4%:

grade 1 - 12 PCs - 4,8%

grade 2 - 88 PCs - 35,2%

grade 3 - 107 PC - 42,8%

4 grade - 43 PCs of 17.2%.

The output of the skin area increased by 14%, the output square with 1 kg of raw material is 17 square inch

Methods generation of heat resistant of Russian leather for the uppers from the skins of cattle macromolecule method of canning is ready for introduction in the production of shoes by hot vacuum.

1. The way we produce thermostable of Russian leather for the uppers from the skins of cattle macromolecule method of canning, including the processes of soaking the skins in a solution of sodium sulfide obespechivayuschego ashing and glutton ashing in a solution of sodium sulfide and calcium hydroxide with reinforcement ash fluid, obessolivanija get pickling ammonium sulfate, bating protocontinent, perelivania in sulfuric acid, tanning, chrome tanning agent, neutralizing developed"C" and nigrosine, the fatliquoring, natural and synthetic fats, waterproofing, dublirovaniya and implementation of wiring and susilowati processes and operations on stationary equipment, characterized in that: soaking off is carried out for 16 to 18 h, the combined process obespechivayuschego ashing and glutton ashing lead within 72 h, with ash liquid add the sodium carbonate in the amount of 2.2 - 2.5 g/l by weight of fresh raw materials at volume ratio of 3.0 to 4.0, and reinforcement ash provide fluid by introducing into it once the calcium hydroxide within 12 hours from start ashing and twice the sodium sulfide - after 2 and 12 h from the start ashing process obessolivanija carried out within 1 h 40 min 1 h 45 min when the ammonium sulfate concentration of 2.5% to 3.8% by weight of the hide when liquid ratio of 1.5 - 2.0, the process of bating are within 10 - 15 min, neutralization is carried out by the concentration of sodium bicarbonate solution of 2.0 to 3.0% by weight of sliced cake mix and volume ratio of 1.5 - 2.0, and dyeing carried out for 1.5 - 2.0 hours in the dye at a concentration of direct black "C" - 0.8% of nigrosine water soluble to 0.8%, by weight of sliced cake mix and volume ratio of 1.5 - 2.0, drying is carried out , is it 30 min before dyeing sliced cake mix is treated with a wetting agent at a concentration of 0.2% by weight of sliced cake mix.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that for 30 minutes before the end of the dyeing process, introduce a solution of acetic acid at a concentration of 0.5 - 0.8% with a dilution ratio of 1 : 10.

4. The method according to PP.1 and 3, characterized in that dyeing is carried out in the dye when added to its composition acid "With" when its concentration of 0.4% by weight of sliced cake mix and concentration direct black "C" - 0.7% and the water-soluble nigrosine 0.5 percent by weight of sliced cake mix.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the process of fatliquoring are emulsion-based composite fat for 1.5 - 2.0 hours at a temperature of 60 - 65oC and volume ratio of 0.8 - 1.0.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the fat emulsion will get by mixing the emulsifier composition of fat, surfactant and 2 to 3 times the amount of water at a temperature of 65 - 70oWith the willingness of the emulsion is determined by achieving a pH of 7.8 to 8.2.

7. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the composition of the emulsion is injected ammonia.

8. JV is about on p. 1, characterized in that the additional wiring perform a drag from organic glass.

 

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