Flotation device

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to shipbuilding, in particular to the floating device. Flotation device is made from a combination of steel/concrete. Flotation device has a body floating or submerged part of the concrete, which are up concrete pillars. Support continues as steel stands up to the deck portion of the steel. Steel racks are built separately and can be fully equipped before you install them on a concrete part and fixing it. The dividing line between concrete and steel in the support is at a distance from the support deck (point of application of the shock load), where the mechanical stresses from concentrated loads on the support deck are distributed along the steel supports to low and relatively uniform level. Delivers improved stability and General characteristics of the movement of the floating device. 7 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il.

The invention relates to a floating device equipped with submerged floating section of concrete, the anchor section that includes one or more footings, protruding upwards from the floating section of the site, and deck section of the steel supports is UTR deck sections as a hollow steel support designed to accommodate the equipment.

Flotation device is an installation of floating on the surface of the sea, for the development of resources under water, or beneath the seabed. It can be movably installed or anchored. Typical marine buoyant devices are drilling platforms, mining marine base, submersible buoys, etc.

It is quite natural that the weight and stability are issues arising in connection with the creation of floating devices. That is, the tendency to increase the so-called top deck section) and other local loads at high levels is becoming a more serious problem. This, as is commonly believed, is associated with unpredictable increase in the weight of the deck structures and components, which often occurs in the transition from project to its actual implementation.

Stability and General hydrodynamic characteristics of floating device closely associated with the physical position of the center of gravity in cooperation with the centre of buoyancy and metacentric distance above the center of buoyancy. Thus, the height of metacentre plus the center of buoyancy must be defined as clearly superior USTOIChIVOSTI. Thus, it becomes clear that if you have a physical center of gravity as low as possible, it will still be a big win. This also means that while heavy construction bottom part of the concrete floating device is a distinct advantage, quite another to be appropriate in relation to the upper part of the floating device. Deck section, made in the form of steel construction, positive impact on stability.

The reasons for selecting the connection of floating devices, steel and concrete are partly economic and partly technical. Concrete is advantageous from the point of view of its value and, as is, has a number of advantages compared to steel. Relatively numerous and various types of installations used up to the present time in the North sea with minimal maintenance and without special protection, showed high resistance to corrosion. Therefore, it is believed that concrete flotation device has the advantage of a longer lifetime. Another important advantage is the hardness of concrete structures, it is this property that makes them particularly suitable for use in Maki Japan N 56-63589 (CL B 63 B 35/44, 30.05.81) known flotation device having a submerged floating section of concrete, the anchor section that includes one or more footings, protruding upwards from the floating section, and deck section of steel, supported above the water surface by means of a support section, and the above-mentioned one or more concrete abutments are made with mounted hollow steel supports within the deck section and designed to accommodate the equipment.

However, tests showed that the interaction between steel and concrete is one of those aspects of design that create problems. The problem occurs when significant and concentrated static and dynamic loads between the deck section and the reference section must be transmitted to the bearing concrete structures. These large concentrated loads can lead to the formation of cracks in the concrete and in addition to this, these sections will be highly susceptible to fatigue. To these forces were distributed over a larger area and, therefore, satisfactorily reduced the level of mechanical stress, it is necessary to reinforce concrete with steel structures. However, such gain shall TRISTANIA weight is much higher than the physical center of gravity with a negative impact on stability.

The magnitude of these compressive loads will depend on the design, i.e. the size of the deck sections and the principles and embodiments selected for interaction between lying below the reference system and the reference section of the floating device. Thus, it becomes possible to reduce the magnitude of the compressive loads through the careful choice of design, based solely on this aspect. However, such a choice entails an obvious limitation of technical and economic optimization of the design of the floating device.

The technical task of the present invention is to develop a floating device, having improved stability and General characteristics of the movement, as well as the optimal time for design and installation of the equipment.

This technical problem is solved due to the fact that in a floating device, having a submerged floating section of concrete, the anchor section that includes one or more footings, protruding upwards from the floating section, and deck section of steel, supported above the water surface by means of a support section, and the above-mentioned one or more betonnymi for equipment, according to the invention the dividing line between concrete and steel in the support is at a distance from the support deck (point of application of the shock load), where the mechanical stresses from concentrated loads on the support deck are distributed along the steel supports to low and relatively uniform level.

When this dividing line may be located at a distance of 20 - 30 m from the support deck.

The distance from the dividing line to the proposed waterline may be about 5 m

In addition, one or more of the above steel supports can be mounted winch for anchor system of floating device.

Flotation device may include two opposing steel poles installed in the support section and the base section can consist of a number of closely grouped supports.

Submerged floating section can be a part of the reference section.

The interaction area on the dividing line between the concrete and steel may include a horizontal annular steel plate and preventing annular shear plate, protruding from became the ryh:

in Fig. 1 presents the time of installation of steel supports on a concrete stand,

in Fig. 2 presents a perspective view of the possible options for performing floating device in accordance with the present invention,

in Fig. 3 shows another possible embodiment of a floating device in accordance with the present invention,

in Fig. 4 partially presents the cross-section steel posts used in a floating device shown in Fig. 3,

in Fig. 5 shows a vertical projection of the steel bearing shown in Fig. 4, installed below concrete pole,

in Fig. 6 shows an enlarged fragment of Fig. 5, representing a zone of interaction between the concrete/steel

in Fig. 7 shows a modified version of the above snippet in accordance with the present invention.

In Fig. 1 shows the upper end portion of the concrete pillars 1. This concrete bearing 1 is part of a floating device and is, as shown, up through the water surface 2. Steel bearing 3 is shown in the rise in position at the top of the concrete support 1 by means of two crane barges 4, 5.

Combined bearing 1, 3 may, on tositsa type, where submerged floating section is part of the section, or Vice versa, and thus, there is no clear separation between the submerged floating section 6 and the reference section 7 floating device. Deck section 8 presents the dotted lines. This deck section may be made of various designs and may be so small that it practically disappears, for example, in the case when the submersible buoy exists as a platform for a helicopter or a corresponding target device in the upper part of the support section.

Flotation device, as shown, is made of closely spaced and grouped supports 1, 9, 10 and 11. Concrete bearing is molded as a monolithic structure, up to a level slightly above the water surface 2, and then acts up in the form of a steel legs 3, 12, 13, 14. The dividing line between the concrete and the steel is marked with the positions 15, 16 and 17.

Flotation device such as this can be built using two separate sites, one for concrete pads, and the other for steel towers. Steel poles can be almost fully completed before they will be installed on concrete pads (Fig. 1). Thus, each steel opania, and the necessary equipment can also be placed in a steel bearings before installing them in a floating device. Flotation device on slack anchor ropes, shown in Fig. 2, it will be as soon as installed steel support, to have your anchor system. This means that the flotation device shown in Fig. 2, for example, in this case, it may be necessary anchor winch 18, 19 in their equipped with steel bearings 3 and 13, so that the intended installation of the anchor can easily be accessed by using the slack anchor lines 20-23. It is evident from Fig. 2 it is obvious that the system is installed on the anchor in accordance with the present invention can operate with only two steel supports, which are located diametrically opposite and most distant from each other, specifically steel supports 3 and 13. Moreover, it is not required that all support had terminal steel parts, as in Fig. 2. Thus, when it is considered useful or appropriate, steel towers 12 and 14 can be mounted, and concrete pads 9 and 11 may be completed at the dividing line 16 or possibly above or below this dividing line. This group clearly stands may consist of more Zmeiny embodiment of a floating device in accordance with the present invention, in this case, in the form of a platform fixed on the stretch marks. Flotation device shown in Fig. 3, has shipped floating section 25 of the concrete, is designed as a frame construction (seen in horizontal projection), with concrete pads 26, 27, 28 and 29 protruding from each corner of the structure. Concrete pillars 26-29 protrude above the water surface 30 to a certain level 32, 33, 34, 35. Further individual support continues as steel bearing 36, 37, 38 and 39. Steel supports are support structure/frame 40 to support nodes deck (not shown) and to associate the racks together.

As previously mentioned, the flotation device of Fig. 3 is a platform attached to the stretch marks. The necessary stretch marked positions 41, 42, 43 and 44, and equipment for working/pulling to stretch ropes are installed in the respective steel racks. This equipment is indicated in Fig. 3 positions 45, 46, 47 and 48. The connection between the braces and the floating device, not represented in more detail.

Typical steel bearing, such as is used in a floating device in Fig. 3, shown in Fig. 4 in partial cross section. As shown in Fig. 3, supporting construing to the centreline of the supports floating device. Therefore, steel towers have in this case, special design, and reinforcing retaining wall 50 is made protruding from the periphery of the support, and retaining wall 51 is executed in parallel under the control system 40 (Fig. 3). Similarly, two parallel retaining walls 52, 59 are made between pairs of retaining walls 50, 51. These structural reinforcing elements are intended primarily for distribution of the mechanical direction and torque from the reference system 40 to a steel pole. At the same time, these parallel retaining walls could be used as, for example, storage tanks for water and diesel fuel, as they could be met with a significant internal storage capacity.

Moreover, from Fig. 4 shows that the required number of steel decks 54, 55 can be performed inside the steel supports.

In Fig. 5 shows a dividing line between concrete and steel, and Fig. 6 and 7 presents in detail the possible interaction between steel and concrete, with the section taken from the region 56 shown in Fig. 5. In Fig. 5 concrete bearing indicated by the position 27 (see also Fig. 3), and steel bearing indicated by the position 37 (see also Fig. 3).

It would be a definite advantage in relation to protection against leakage to the profiles in the form of I-beams and steel plate was represented by a continuous weld around the entire circumference, but the install items in the form of continuous rings will create technical problems during installation. The sectors that are suitable for the installation, should the investigator is OMCI, temporarily suspended, for example, at depth. After welding, the ring can be moved down in the final, just boiled position. Steel plate/top plate 57 may be correspondingly located openings for the introduction of concrete (optional epoxy-based). Of course, it is possible to use other methods to achieve the continuity of the ring. Steel bearing 37 is, as shown in Fig. 5, a somewhat smaller diameter than the concrete bearing 27. This difference is partially performs the function of strengthening the (technological), but it will also provide access during the installation of steel support relative to the usually applied very stringent construction tolerances.

The dividing line between the concrete and the steel parts in the support should ideally be located on a reasonable and at the same time, the shortest possible distance over the water, calculated from the place where the mechanical stresses occurring due to the compressive loads from the deck sections, reached a low, initially constant level. This place can be calculated, assuming that the compressive stress extends down along the cylindrical steel casing, steel supports in the form of a fan. On onoverall to determine compressive and tensile mechanical stress as a function of the concentrated load and the thickness of the cylindrical steel housing with steel supports, you can chart the distribution of mechanical stress, showing that both compressive and tensile stress due to eccentric applied moments, will smoothly change from a maximum value at the point of application of the shock load to a low, constant level at some distance from the top of the support and further down. For the diameter of the top of the support 25 m above distance is approximately equal to the diameter. Another requirement that must be fulfilled is the location of the dividing line design at the correct height above the waterline, for example 5 m above it, as this location will provide reasonable opportunities for inspection and maintenance. This is a big advantage, because you must have access to the entire rack for inspection and maintenance, even though the connection concrete/steel, supposed to be sealed to avoid leakage, taking into account that, in accordance with the rules of the flotation device has the estimated useful life of 50 years.

Using the present invention takes advantage of concrete options in terms of stiffness, heaviness and ustawodawca under the water surface, in combination with the elasticity/plasticity steel and the well-documented ability to align and distribute mechanical stress, in all parts above the water surface. Stability and main characteristics of the movement are improved due to the fact that the physical center of gravity as much as possible reduced. It is also possible to completely use the advantages of two construction sites, specifically including the advantage of the opportunity to fully equip steel parts prior to their connection with concrete construction.

Significant and concentrated static and dynamic loads between deck and abutment sections will be distributed on a larger area, providing a very favorable reduction of stress and satisfactory interaction between steel and concrete.

1. A floating device, having a submerged floating section of concrete, the anchor section that includes one or more footings, protruding upwards from the floating section, and deck section of steel, supported above the water surface by means of a support section, and the specified one or more concrete abutments are made to set the Oia, characterized in that the dividing line between concrete and steel in the support is at a distance from the support deck (point of application of the shock load), where the mechanical stresses from concentrated loads on the support deck are distributed along the steel supports to low and relatively uniform level.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the dividing line is located at a distance of 20 - 30 m from the support deck.

3. The device under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the distance from the dividing line to the proposed waterline is about 5 m

4. The device according to PP.1, 2 or 3, characterized in that one or more steel supports installed winch for anchor system of floating device.

5. Device according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that it comprises two diametrically opposite steel poles installed in the reference section.

6. Device according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the supporting section consists of a series of closely grouped supports.

7. Device according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the submerged floating behold the different topics the interaction region at the dividing line between steel and concrete includes a horizontal annular steel plate and preventing annular shear plate, protruding from the steel plate down into the concrete.

 

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FIELD: shipbuilding; manufacture of mobile research complexes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed complex is made in form of ship with small waterplane area having upper and lower hulls interconnected by means of telescopic columns for disconnection and autonomous motion of these hulls. Lower hull is submersible vehicle and upper hull is amphibian. Both hulls are provided with greenhouses and power units for generation of energy for motion of complex, domestic and technological purposes, as well as for growing vegetables, sea products and production of distilling water by motion of spheres with plant containers located spirally on their surfaces, thus ensuring generation of electric power. In addition to vegetation tubes with plants growing chains are provided where sea products are contained for distilling sea water by change in pressure and level of illumination and growing chains for growing fish and preparation of nutrient solution for plants. Lower hull is provided with plankton trawls for delivery of plankton for greenhouse and power plants of lower and upper hulls for growing fish and sea products. Amphibian supplies fresh air to submersible vehicle through its collector; it is also used for transportation of sections for erection of scientific research station. Provision is made for delivery of light to submersible vehicle through lenses, light conduits and structural sections and light conduits of collector of vehicle.

EFFECT: environment control.

4 cl, 22 dwg

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