The way to prevent flooding potash mines
(57) Abstract:Usage: in mining, particularly in potash mines. Provides improved reliability prevent flooding. The essence of the invention: method of drilling a well from the surface to the upper contact of the water conveyance channel between the aquifer and mine workings. After establishing communication recolorable in mines with shallow waters in the area of violations of the water column are drilling from the surface and grow tubes two wells. Them set the filters. They are set at the level of the brine aquifer. The distance between the wells is determined by the parameters located between zone violations of the water column. It varies in the range of 10 - 100 m Determine the level of brine in the borehole. In one of the wells, which is located upstream, pumped cement slurry. From another pump out brine. The injection of cement slurry and pumping brine begin at the same time and are continuously with constant flow rates. The rate of pumping exceeds the rate of injection in 2 - 4 times. This reach hydrodynamic isolation of the treated volume. 3 Il. The invention relates to mountain de the applications fields should always take into account the solubility of salts in fresh water and associated risk of catastrophic flooding of mine workings.In the history of the development of a potash mine way known dozens of cases where penetration into the workings of even a small amount of water from aquifers ends with the death of mine.In Germany died from flooding over 35 potash mines, some of them were flooded for a few hours, the other with water fought for decades. In Russia in 1986 was flooded with the most productive, equipped with the most modern and powerful equipment mine Third Berezniki mine.As shown by long experience, the pathways of water and brines in the mined-out area can be: exploration wells, tectonic or other geological disturbance salt deposits, the discontinuity of the rocks under the influence of mining operations.To prevent the threat of flooding of the mines before operating carefully study the hydrogeological conditions potash deposits and primarily determines the degree of well defined coating thickness and its contacts with the saline array. For example, on the upper Kama potash Deposit in the lower part of the salt-marl strata installed everywhere is primarily in the conduct of operational intelligence, addressing the opening and the choice of the method of extraction.For this purpose, conduct (separately or comprehensively) the following measures of technical and organizational nature:
- special methods of liquidation bridging exploration and maintenance of wells;
- special methods of shaft sinking and mounting shafts;
- leaving between aquifers and mining water pillar (water column);
- leaving the safety of pillars between the mine fields, about exploration wells and in areas of geological disturbances;
- select development systems to ensure integrity (maintaining continuity) water column;
the mined - out space;
- the special monitoring service water seepage in the mine .If tampering is detected in the mine brines apply special measures to eliminate them inflow: cementation or bituminaria surrounding the production of rocks installation on separate sections of the workings waterproof lining, plugging of wells, the installation of waterproof jumper .These known methods do not have sufficient nade is x2">Potash mine "van" (Caminco) in Canada was finished construction in 1969, and August 27, 1970 in the trunk N 2, just below the base tubbing columns, when carrying out grouting Sakrebulo space was opened repaid freezing well. Her elimination was executed poorly, and this has created a water conveyance channel from the aquifer rock formations of Larmor and Nisku.The hole in the concrete shaft lining for 6 hours increased from 75 to 350 mm When it became clear that the flow of sand and water do not stop within 10 hours of the most valuable underground equipment has been allocated to protected areas.Within five days the mine was flooded and the water level began to rise in the trunks. During this time in barrel # 2 were drilled and equipped with a tube wells for injection of cement for the support from the surface. In parallel was organized by drilling wells on the probable location of the accident from the surface. To establish hydraulic communication with the intake of water into the barrel in the hole was blown up to 5 kg of explosives. Then the barrel was made brine for changing the direction of water movement. Pipes in the shaft began to pump cement, minocylcine together with the brine in the host rock. On the awn released from the water. Production resumed in September 1972This known way to prevent flooding, potash mines, including the drilling of boreholes from the surface to the upper contact of the water conveyance channel between the aquifer and mine workings and the injection (injection) cement slurry is the closest to the technical nature of the proposed method and therefore is taken as a prototype .The method does not have sufficient reliability with no hydrodynamic isolation of the treated volume of the reservoir and the need to use explosives, and therefore able to be compromised the integrity of the water column.The purpose of the invention is to enhance reliability prevent flooding by hydrodynamic isolation companyremoval plot water column.This objective is achieved in that in the area of violations of the water column are drilling from the surface of the two wells and the one that is higher up the stream, carry out the injection of cement slurry, the other pumping out the brine. Hydrodynamic isolation violations carried out by the excess of the rate of pumping on the rate of injection.Existing sources of details which are as follows (see Fig. 1, 2).In case of detection of links coming into production brines 1 2, with shallow waters (brines) 3 determine the probable zone settings disorders 4 in the roof water column 5. Then in the area of violations 4 are drilling from the surface and grow tubes two wells 6, 7 with the installation of filters 8 in them at the level of the brine aquifer. In his absence perform the linkage of the wells using hydraulic fracturing.The distance between the wells is determined by the parameters located between zone violations thickness and varies in the range of 10-100 meters Distance less than 10 m does not guarantee the overlap zone violations area of circulation of cement slurries. At a distance of more than 100 m of a significant path length filtering cement slurry from the injection wells 6 to zone violations 4 tighten the period of liquidation of recolorable.Then determine the level of brine in the wells and in the one which is located upstream, carry out the injection of cement slurry, the other pumping out the brine. As a cement slurry, a mixture, not aggressive salt rocks and similar in viscosity to saturated brine circulating in micropolitan these rocks. T the apostrophes: acrylamide, salicilovo acid, calcium hydroxide and polyacrylamide .The process of plugging is a constant feeding of cement slurry into the injection well with a flow rate of Q3and pumping brines from otkachnoj well with a flow rate of Q0when Q0> Q3. This Udachnaya well simultaneously performs two functions - o on the earth's surface brines from the disturbed volume of the reservoir and hydrodynamic isolation of this volume from the surrounding area. The ratio of the flow rate corresponds to equation Qo= Q32.
The shape and size of the square within which are implemented in such conditions, filtering cement slurry and plugging zone violations in the roof water-tight strata defined by theoretical solution of the problem of seepage field, two wells with production rates of different sign and magnitude .Supply of cement slurry into the injection well and the pumping of brine from otkachnoj well start at the same time and are conducted continuously with constant flow rates. The value of the coefficient unbalance is taken in the interval from 2 to 4. When the value of > 4, the area of circulation of the cement slurry may not coincide with the area of violation of water masses who were part of it begins to penetrate into cracks and voids water column, gradually filling them and isolating from the overlying brine horizon. Plugging cease after the complete cessation of flow of brine in the mine workings.An example of the method. In the Verkhnekamskoe potash salts with the resumption of flow of brine in the working area 4 of block 1 of the North-East panel Berezniki potash mine N 4 set communication recolorable (according to chemical analysis) with shallow waters. Entered into force the respective positions of the "Plan of liquidation of the accident" involving actions at various stages of liquidation of the accident.In the area 4 block are drilling two wells machines GCP-650 without coring rock bits diameter 190-243 mm Distance between the holes 20 m, the likely area of violation is in the middle, the depth of wells 260 mAfter drilling grow tubes with a diameter of 146 mm Filters of the same diameter set in the range of 250 - 260 m Then produce a test pumping and determine the levels of brine wells.In the above flow well carry out the injection of a saturated solution of sodium chloride containing acrylic volume of the reservoir is achieved by exceeding the flow rate otkachnoj well above the rate of injection 2 times. Plugging cease after the elimination of inflow of brine in the production.Sources of information
1. Hadikov A. E. Questions of formation and use of natural brines Verkhnekamskoe Deposit. -L.-M.; Tr. VNIIG, 1953, vol.28, S. 3-36.2. Guidance on the protection of the mines from flooding and the protection of the object on the earth's surface from the harmful effects of underground mining in the conditions of the potash Deposit. S. P. JSC VNIIG", 1994.3. Interim guidance on the elimination of possible recolorable in potash mines Verkhnekamskoe Deposit. -VNIIG, 1990.4. Siman, M. I. Prevention of flooding potash mines. -M.: Nedra, 1992, S. 21-23.5. Permiakov, R. S. and other mining Technology salts. -M.: Nedra, 1981, S. 42-43.6. Grabovnica Century A. geotechnical studies in the exploration of metals. -M.: Nedra, 1983. The way to prevent flooding potash mines, including the drilling of boreholes from the surface to the upper contact of the water conveyance channel between the aquifer and mining works and pumping cement slurry, characterized in that after the connection of recolorable in mines with ins with the installation of filters in them at the level of the brine aquifer and the distance between wells, defined parameters located between zone violations of the water column and variable in the range of 10 - 100 m, then determine the level of brine in the wells and the wells, which is located upstream, carry out the injection of cement slurry, the other are pumping out the brine, while the injection of cement slurry and pumping brine begin at the same time and are continuously with constant flow rates, but with the excess of the rate of pumping on flow injection 2 to 4 times than reach hydrodynamic isolation of the treated volume.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to protect mine workings against underground water ingress.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling injection wells along pit shaft perimeter; widening cracks by supplying high-pressure water and injecting grouting mortar in the cracks; additionally boring vertical preparation well in pit shaft center. Cracks are widened by feeding water and then air or only water in vertical preparation well. Water and air are supplied under pressure lesser than pressure of hydraulic rock fracturing. Grouting mortar is injected in cracks by forcing thereof through injection wells immediately after finishing of feeding water or air in vertical preparation well. Cryogenic gel is used as the grouting mortar. Cryogenic gel is foamed before injecting thereof in wells and foamed cryogenic gel is forced into cracks beyond the pit shaft perimeter by supplying compressed air in vertical preparation well. After leaving pit shaft as it is for grouting mortar setting time wells are sunk for the next grouting step depth and above operations are repeated up to reaching the lower boundary of pit shaft interval, wherein injection is performed under pressure exceeding that on previous step.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and material consumption along with increased efficiency of water suppression.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, particularly elimination of emergency situations.
SUBSTANCE: method involves closing borehole cross-section with extendable means; arranging predetermined volume of non-combustible material above the means, wherein the volume is determined from a given relation; discharging all non-combustible material in the borehole at a time and further distributing portions of non-combustible material having volumes of not less than volume of incoming water. Non-combustible material includes clay and pourable components which are laid in layers above the means, wherein clay volume is equal to pore volume of pourable component.
EFFECT: increased reliability of borehole sealing and water burst liquidation.
3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: water-proofing sheet comprises three layers. The first layer provides mechanical strength of the sheet and is made of elastometer polyethylene of high strength and flexibility. The second layer is intermediate one, represents the connection between the first and second layers, and is made of foam plastic with closed pores. The third layer is made of a impermeable plastic material which possesses high resistance to breaking. The tensile strength, breaking elongation, and thickness of the sheet range from 24 MPa to 39 Mpa, from 550% to 900%, and 3 mm to 50 mm, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: backfill fibrosolution consists of concrete, argil, fibers and water, as fibers solution contains synthetic filaments with diameter 0,1-0,15 mm and length 10-20 mm in amount of 10-20 kg for 1m3 of argil-cement mixture, subjected to electrification with induction of static electric charge.
EFFECT: possible backfill of extensive fractured systems with active influx of water, increased hardness of backfill material, decreased material costs of reinforcement of fractured rocks, removal of water influxes in mines.
FIELD: mining, particularly mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.
SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and performing explosions through regular system from pit bottom to create joined subvertical annular and subhorizontal rock fissured zones which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.
EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.
FIELD: mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.
SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and from pit bottom; performing explosions in wells surrounding kimberlite pipe perimeter and carrying-out hydraulic fracturing from wells drilled from pit bottom to create jointed subvertical and subhorizontal rock fissured zones, which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.
EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises leaving of massifs of minerals 14 between chambers 7-13, driven at extraction of potassium salt bed 1, and filling chambers with backfill material. Bores 6 are drilled from ground surface 5 to chambers; the bores are cased with tubes. Not soluble in water backfill material is supplied into chambers via bores 6 till chambers are filled for their complete height at a point of backfill material supply. The first to be filled are chambers 7 located at proximity to the underground water inrush zone 4 from the side of the bed rise 1 of potassium salt; thereafter filling of chambers 8-10 located below underground water inrush 4 is carried out. Not solved in water, hardening, backfill materials are supplied into chambers 7-13 via bores 6. If filed chambers driven along the course of bed chambers have considerable length, the distance between bores is determined from a calculated expression.
EFFECT: invention facilitates prevention of flooding of potassium mine and hazardous deformation of the earth surface at breaks of water protective strata and underground water inrushes into mine through water permeable cracks generated in water protective strata in areas of geological disturbances.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to strengthening of the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel and may be employed for strengthening of bases of buildings and constructions. Method includes feeding of mortar with filling agents. A shaft is drilled in the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel above the detected emptiness for feeding of filling material and a second shaft for feeding of consolidating mortar. Feeding device is installed and filling material is supplied through it in the form of balls of waterproof material, density whereof equals or is greater than water density. Balls are compressed by means of a vibrations generator; entrained water is pressed out from the emptiness by balls either through holes in the rock or through the consolidating mortar feeding shaft. Having filled the emptiness with balls, feeding device is taken away and the shaft is sealed, consolidating mortar is supplied into the second shaft and having filled all the emptiness the shaft is sealed. Should there be no water in the emptiness one shaft is drilled in the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel; where through emptiness are filled with balls compressed by a vibration generator, after that feeding device is taken away and consolidating mortar is supplied through the shaft. Emptiness been filled the shaft is sealed.
EFFECT: cost reduction of elimination of emptiness.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and is designed for elimination of hazardous situation at instantaneous inrush of water. Massif of rock is bored around with bore holes and outpost blast holes in vicinity of a groove head. Clay material is stacked inside the contour. Explosive substances are inserted in bore and blast holes; and explosion is initiated.
EFFECT: reduced time and material costs for preparation of non-combustible material to simultaneous discharge.
1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device consists of panels, supports and water intake chute. The panels have U-shaped flanged cross sections. The flanges and ribs of panels are different with regard to the required width and height along the corresponding sides of U-shaped cross section. The upper support to the bearing lining fastener assembly and lower panels to support fastener assembly are spatially distanced and implemented so that canopy panels and effective canopy hanger can be remotely adjusted to the bearing tunnel lining regardless canopy panels width and lining elements width dimensions. The upper fastener assembly is provided with supporting element for assembling pin, for example, pivot block, with one end being fixed to the bearing lining by means of fastening element, for example, bolt and/or threaded pin and/or anchor. The other end is coupled with the assembling pin, by means of, for example, a pair of nuts with spherical surface and beveled washers. The lower panel to support fastener assembly is made from the supporting element and clamping element for panels and installed on the assembling pin. The panels are installed and fastened to ensure the required architectural geometry of arch and overflow conditions in the lower panel fastener assembly for water penetrating through the lining. The position of the lower fastener assembly is adjusted by the upper fastener assembly. The invention provides for different structural implementation of the upper fastener assembly and specific features of U-shaped panel profiles and lower fastener assembly for the includes tunnel and horizontal tunnel.
EFFECT: possibility of spatial assembling pin position adjustment and installation of canopy panels in designed position regardless arch configuration inaccuracies in underground structure; more effective, reliable and simplified hanger for canopy to be attached to bearing lining notwithstanding canopy panel width and lining width ensuring conditions of penetrating through lining water.
15 cl, 20 dwg