The method of forming a beam of neutral atoms and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to techniques and technologies for the processing of microstructures and can be used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices. Effect: increase the contrast and sharpness of the image applied to the micro-object. A beam of neutral atoms formed by laser radiation in the optical range in three stages: 1. The atoms are cooled in the interference nodes of the three-dimensional standing wave moving parallel to the beam axis with a speed of 2. Exercise resonant interaction of atoms in the vacuum field of a standing light wave radiation field of a traveling wave cooling of optical radiation and the field of a traveling light wave with a given transverse intensity distribution. 3. Cooled by passing radiation the atoms are accelerated to operating speed1along converging lines of minima of the interference pattern associated radiation. After exiting the resonance conditions with radiation the atoms of inertia reach the treated surface. The described device for implementing the method of forming a beam of neutral atoms, which includes a source of neutral atoms, optomagnetic separator, coherent sources and the technique of forming beams of neutral atoms and can be applied for the processing and analysis of microstructures, in particular in the manufacture of microelectronic devices.The prior art in this field is characterized by the following information. In the literature  described a method of creating a directional flow of neutral atoms with the use of resonant light pressure on atoms in axially symmetric fields generated by opposing traveling waves. At any atom beam the force of radiation pressure directed to the beam axis, as a consequence, in the domestic field there is a narrowing of the transverse velocity distribution. However, this method is applicable only for cooling nuclear power flow and does not make any information.There is also known a method of forming geocentricism monochromatic beam of neutral atoms, with the possibility of a stigmatic image transfer. The method is based on the resonant interaction of neutral atoms in the vacuum field of the standing wave laser radiation. When the atoms are accelerated to constant speeds and simultaneously focus the atomic beam by passing atoms along converging to the processing object of the lines of maxima of the spatial interference pattern.This is itself a source of coherent electromagnetic radiation, microchannel mirror filter with holes located in the space formation, stencil, a source of neutral atoms .The prototype is peculiar to the following disadvantages:
1. In the area of capture of atoms laser radiation is scattered by the atoms far from the resonance speed, so from the receiving heats them.2. The longitudinal phase velocity antinodes of the interference pattern is not constant along the beam axis in contrast to the longitudinal velocity of the atoms, this misalignment reduces the efficiency of the interaction of the atoms with the field.3. Radiation, which makes the atom beam image is formed by the focusing system. Thus, all the aberrations that contribute lenses affect the image quality. In addition, when high intensity radiation energy losses due to heating of the lenses reach 5%, which leads to deformation of the lens and ultimately negatively affects even the bone image.4. On the surface are atoms whose interaction with the field was ineffective, resulting in reduced contrast of the resulting image.The present invention is to improve the contrast and sharpness ishka neutral atoms based on the resonant interaction between them in the vacuum field of a standing light wave radiation frequency1, field of a traveling wave cooling of optical radiation frequency 2and the field of a traveling light wave with a given transverse intensity distribution frequency3the frequency of which is shifted to the long wavelength region of the spectrum with respect to the Central frequency0principal permitted transition of the atoms of the beam, the pre-form is parallel to the atomic beam, cooling atoms to a constant speed , influencing them advanced standing light wave frequency where c is the speed of light is directed along the motion of atoms and light wave frequency where the natural width of the line, directed opposite to the motion of the atoms, then, while maintaining the parallelism of the beam, set the desired transverse distribution of the atoms, and then scale the transverse distribution of the beam and simultaneously dispersing the atoms to operating speed1acting on them along the way by a standing light wave frequency4=1(c+(a1-)/2)/(c-(1-)/2). When this cooling radiation viperous frequency range corresponding to the velocity spread of the atoms in the beam.Apparatus for forming a beam of neutral atoms includes sources of coherent electron is defined in the space of the formation and separated it into three specialized area - preparing, structuring and compression, and in the beginning of the site preparation placed sources of radiation frequencies in the early portion of the compression are sources of radiation frequencies3,2at the end of the site preparation placed sources of radiation frequencies at the end of the plot structuring posted by sources of radiation frequency and in the early portion of the compression are sources of radiation frequencies4and2. Sources with frequencies completed divided into 4 threads, each of which is inclined to the axis of the space formation. All specialized areas equipped with eight flat mirrors, and normal mirror sites preparation and structuring perpendicular to the axis of the space formation and normal mirrors the plot of compression inclined to it. Sources of electromagnetic radiation frequency is equipped with devices for the sweep rate.In Fig. 1 presents a diagram of the device for implementing the method of forming a beam of neutral atoms.In Fig. 2. presents a variant plane of the axicon.In Fig. 3. presents pyramidal axicon.In Fig. 4. shows the mirror - filter.
n(n=1 ...8) is rotated at 45owith respect to axis OY. Axicon 12 is identical to the axicon 3. Mirrors pyramidal axicon (Fig. 3) is identical to the mirror plane of the axicon and have the same transverse location and the continuation of their axial A An(n=1... 8) converge to the same point O. the Mirror-filter 8 is made in the form of an inclined cut a microchannel plate, the diameter and pitch of holes which are aligned with the pitch of the transverse structure of the field in the staging area. From the plot structuring the surface of the plate is provided with a mirror coating. The mirror is placed at the Brewster angle relative to the axis of the channel OZ. . Mirror-filter 15 is made in a similar way, its reflecting surface directed oppositely atomic stream.The proposed method, the beam is formed in three stages: the atoms localize nodes moving spatial lattice (preparation stage), into a parallel beam of atoms make the image (stage structure), the beam focus (stage compression).I. the preparation stage.In the past the separator 2 (Fig. 1) neutral atoms in which from sources 5-6 and cooling radiation from sources 4-7. Thus, the cooled atoms near the speed in potential wells formed by the interference structure of the bearing of the field.Thanks to the separation of the atoms, for speed characteristics are far from resonance, do not fall into the interaction zone, and unlike the prototype does not scatter the laser radiation.The cooling radiation viperous in the frequency range corresponding to the speed range of most atoms on the site. On the following stages of the frequency of the cooling radiation viperous similarly. This allows you to avoid the formation of spurious potential structure of the cooling field and cooling a large part of the atomic flux.In order to get rid of the atoms, the interaction of which with the field was not effective, the beam is passed through a Spinneret mirror-filter 8 (Fig. 1).II. Stage structuring.As shown in Fig. 1, between the mirror-filter 8 and microchannel mirror 15 is similar to prototype form a parallel beam of atoms with a given transverse distribution. But the image into a stream of atoms to be paid more just because
- no focus related aberrations and loss of energy;
- trajectory acomodate with the same size of area;
radiation interacts with atoms, pre-cooled in the potential minima.Unlike the prototype along the path of the image density of atoms, mostly due to the capture of atoms with transmission sites, which increases the sharpness of the image.Microchannel mirror-filter 8 and microchannel mirror-filter 15 are discarded atoms, the interaction of which with radiation was not effectively, this increases the contrast of the image.III. Stage of compression.Passing radiation from the source 16 atoms dispersed along geocentricity paths from V to V1corresponding to the energy required processing, while the atoms are cooled by radiation from the source 17. Dispersing the atoms move in the long wavelength region relative to the radiation sources 16 and 17 and, thereby, removed from resonance. Moving by inertia, they fall on a given area of the treated surface. Potential field structure at this stage is shown in Fig. 5.Unlike the prototype, there is no counter radiation, thus the efficiency of laser pressure on atoms increases by an order that allows the use of radiation mencetak compression, to avoid heating of the workpiece and the negative impact of plane-parallel radiation on the focusing process.The method is as follows:
The atomic flux from a source of neutral atoms 1 served in optomagnetic separator 2, which is separated neprevziataia atoms of the working gas, the electrons and ions from the excited atoms of the working substance. Thus allocate part of the excited atoms that satisfy the requirements of high-speed resonance in the staging area. The separated stream of neutral atoms is directed to the input of the site preparation, which consists of a plane of the axicon 3 and 4 sources of additional associated bearing 4, 4 sources of cooling 5, 4 sources of the counter bearing 6 and 4 sources 7 cooling radiation. These sources form a flat lisanovalive flows radiation. Sources 4 and 6, located at the vertices of a parallelepiped with a square cross-section and radiate at an angle to the axis OZ . The spatial location of the sources 5 and 7 as described (4 and 6), with the difference that forms a parallelepiped deployed at 45oaround the axis OZ, and flows radiation is e three-dimensional interference of the periodic lattice, shifting along the axis OZ at a constant speed without changing the structure. In cross section this lattice represents planopilaris to each other square cells of step which depends on the angle of radiation to the axis of the channel. By reflection of the radiation sources 5 and 7 from the axicon mirror 3, the space of the site preparation evenly fill the field of cooling radiation. Frequency sources of cooling radiation viperous in the k band, where the velocity spread of the atoms on the site, k is the wave vector of the radiation. In the following sections ranges sweep rate of cooling sources of radiation are also consistent with the velocity distributions of the atoms on the sites. An ordered stream of atoms passes through the hole of the mirror - filter 8 and get on the site structuring. Neprevziataia atoms are reflected microchannel plate and extend beyond the plot.Plot structuring differs from the preparation area so that the associated bearing the radiation from the source 4 replacement but on a passing plane-parallel radiation source 9, is similar to the radiation of the prototype. The transverse structure of the flow area strukturyzowane removes the associated radiation in the absorber and weeds atoms, out of the interaction.The site of compression is different from the site of structuring the fact that instead of the plane of the axicon, here races put pyramidal axicon 18 (Fig. 1), as well as completely missing the oncoming radiation. The configuration of the land of compression allows to form a converging field (Fig. 5). Transverse interference pattern at the input section of a compression aligned with the transverse structure of the field plot structuring. The structure of the field plot compression is geocentricism converging tube of square cross section, having a longitudinal cellular structure that hold the atoms of the beam inside and accelerate along the formed channels. With increasing speed of the beam decreases the probability of interaction of the atoms with the field. With a smooth exit from the interaction of atomic motion becomes sluggish, and maintaining the direction of motion, the atoms drift to the substrate.An example implementation of the method can be process controlled formation of a beam of neutral helium atoms in the radiation field of quantum-optical system consisting of a powerful laser and a multiple quantum amplifiers dye.The helium atoms have mass M
Diagram of the formation of radiation with a frequency of3includes acousto-optical Converter that converts the radiation from the source frequency radiation with a frequency3and quantum amplifier increases the radiation power to the working level.Scheme of formation of radiation with frequencies performed similarly, with the peculiarity that each of these radiations after the formation is divided into 4 channels, flat semi-transparent mirrors. Additionally, the generation of radiation with frequencies supplemented by another device the sweep frequency of the radiation connected to the control circuit acoustooptical converters.The source of neutral atoms and the stencil is identical to the prototype, namely the source of neutral atoms 1 is a hollow cylinder made of Nickel, inside which is placed a box of sponge Nickel impregnated with a melt of India. Heater covering the cylinder source, is made of nichrome in ceramic P>C. At this temperature, the vapor concentration of indium in the volume of the source is sufficient to support the process. The stencil 10 is a plate of fused quartz coated with a negative image of the topology of the conductive areas of the chip, made with magnification of 400 times.Mirror Aksyonov 3, 12, 18 is made of a dielectric material with the deposited reflective layer. Mirror filters 8, 15 obtained by drawing the glass tube through the die plate with the subsequent cut at the Brewster angle, the polishing of the cutting surfaces and the deposition of the reflective layer.The proposed solution has the following advantages:
- allows you to form a clearer and sharper image on the micro-object;
- allows you to achieve greater uniformity of the composition of the formed beam;
- allows you to achieve greater uniformity in the energies of the atoms in the generated beam;
- allows you to more efficiently manage the process of micro-object due to the possibility of changing the output speed of the beam and the degree of compression without changing the design;
- extends the application installation;
- eliminated the harmful effects of radiation on micro is s. -M. : Nauka, 1986, 147 S.2. USSR author's certificate 1672865.3. Jaworski B. M., Detlef A. A. Handbook of physics. -M.: Nauka, 1964, 847 S. 1. The method of forming a beam of neutral atoms based on the resonant interaction between them in the vacuum field of a standing light wave radiation frequency1, field of a traveling wave cooling of optical radiation frequency2and the field of a traveling light wave with a given transverse intensity distribution frequency3the frequency of which is shifted to the long wavelength region of the spectrum with respect to the Central frequency0principal permitted transition of the atoms of the beam, wherein the pre-form is parallel to the atomic beam, cooling atoms to a constant speed , influencing them advanced standing light wave frequency where c is the speed of light is directed along the motion of atoms and light wave frequency where - atural line half-width, directed opposite to the motion of the atoms, then, while maintaining the parallelism of the beam, set the desired transverse distribution of the atoms, and then scale the transverse distribution of the beam and simultaneously dispersing the atoms to operating speed1who is).
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cooling radiation viperous frequency range corresponding to the velocity spread of the atoms in the beam.3. Apparatus for forming a beam of neutral atoms, which includes the sources of coherent electromagnetic radiation, microchannel mirror filter with holes located in the space of the formation, and the source of neutral atoms, wherein the space forming supplemented by one microchannel mirror-filter and separated the two mirrors on three specialized site - preparation, structuring and compression, and in the beginning of the site preparation placed sources of radiation with frequencies in the early portion of the compression are sources of radiation with frequencies3,2at the end of the site preparation placed sources of radiation frequencies with at the end of the plot structuring posted by the radiation source with the frequency and in the early portion of the compression are sources of radiation with frequencies4and2.
4. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that each of the sources with frequencies completed divided into 4 threads and inclined to the axis of the space formation.6. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that the electromagnetic radiation source frequency is equipped with devices for the sweep rate.
FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.
EFFECT: increasing the energy range of X-ray beam when maintaining its spatial position; improving the uniformity of bending force distribution and homogeneity of crystal deformation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: roentgen optics; roentgen ray flux reflecting, focusing, and monochromatization.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for controlling X-ray flux by means of controlled energy actions on control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate includes change of substrate and diffraction medium surface geometry and diffractive parameters of this medium by simultaneous action on control-unit substrate and on outer surface of control-unit diffraction medium with heterogeneous energy. X-ray flux control system has X-ray source and control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate; in addition, it is provided with diffraction beam angular shift corrector connected to recording chamber; control unit is provided with temperature controller and positioner; substrate has alternating members controlling its geometric parameters which are functionally coupled with physical parameters of members, their geometric parameters, and amount of energy acting upon them. Diffraction medium can be made in the form of crystalline or multilayer periodic structure covered with energy-absorbing coating.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of roentgen-ray flux control due to dynamic correction of focal spot shape and size.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.
EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: optical trap matrix control and particle matrix formation.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device are implemented by laser and variable-time optical diffraction element enabling dynamic control of optical-trap matrices followed by controlling particle matrices and also using plurality of optical traps to provide for handling single objects.
EFFECT: improved method and system for producing plurality of optical traps.
30 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, for manufacturing lens with required focal distance F, one or several lenses are made with focal distance, determined from formula , where N - number of lenses, and F0=Rc/2δ, where Rc - parabolic profile curvature radius, δ - decrement of refraction characteristic of lens material related to class of roentgen refracting materials, after that required amount of lens material is injected, where ρ - density of lens material, R - lens radius, in liquid state into cylindrically shaped carrier with same internal radius, material of which provides wetting angle to aforementioned liquid, determined by condition , carrier is moved to centrifuge, carrier with lens material are rotated until reach of homogeneity at angular rotation frequency , where η - viscosity of lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then lens material is transferred to solid state during rotation, rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in holder.
EFFECT: production of lenses having aperture increased up to several millimeters, having perfect refracting profile in form of paraboloid of revolution with absent micro-irregularities (roughness) of surface.
FIELD: medical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves manufacturing lens from material capable of photopolymerization, forming one or several lenses with required focal distance by introducing required quantity of the lens material in liquid state into cylindrical holder which material possesses required wetting angle for given liquid. The holder is placed on centrifuge and rotated together with the lens material to achieve uniformity under preset rotation frequency condition. Then, when rotating, the lens material is transformed into solid state due to light source radiation flow being applied. Rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in the holder. Oligomer composition, capable of frontal free radical photopolymerization with monomer corresponding to it, and reaction photoinitiator, is taken as the lens material. Working temperature is to be not less than on 30-40°С higher than polymer glass-transition temperature during polymerization. The lens material transformation into solid state by applying rotation is carried out by means of frontal photopolymerization method with polymerization front moving along the lens axis from below upwards or along the lens radius.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in producing x-ray lenses having paraboloid-of-revolution refraction structure and having aperture increased to several millimeters without microroughnesses available on the surface.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns resorts for formation of a directed bundle of a X-rays from a divergent bundle created by the point or quasi-point source. The device for formation of a directed bundle of X-rays contains a catopter in the form of a surface of gyration and has a focal point. The focal point is located on an axial line of the specified surface of gyration. Forming surfaces has the curve shape. The tangent to the specified curve in any point of this curve forms with a direction on a focal point the same angle. This angle does not exceed a critical angle of the full exterior reflexion for X-rays of the used range. The catopter is or an interior surface of the shaped tubular device or a surface of the shaped channel in a monolithic body, or boundary between the surface of the shaped monolithic core and a stratum of the coat superimposed on this core. The specified tubular device or the channel is executed from a material reflecting X-rays or has a coat from such material. The specified core is executed from a radiotransparent material. The specified coat of the core is executed from a material reflecting X-rays.
EFFECT: increase of radiation source angle capture.
8 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: application: for manufacturing of X-ray refractory lenses. Substance: consists in the fact that lens matrix is manufactured from material capable of photopolymerisation, formation of one or several lenses with required focus distance, talking into account number and geometric characteristics of these lenses, characteristics of these lenses material and holder material, and also dynamic mode, in which lens matrix is generated, besides, produced matrix is used to form one or several bases for lenses, for this purpose material is introduced, which has no adhesion to matrix material, in matrix base material is transferred into solid phase, produced base is separated from matrix, is placed in bath with liquid photopolymer on piston with precision travel of linear displacement, then photopolymerisation is carried out through set of masks with annular clearances and radial slots, where internal radius of annular clearance is identified as , and external radius - as , where m is even number, base is shifted by value equal to even number of phase shift lengths L=mλ/δ, operations of exposure through the subsequent masks and shift are repeated until specified number of segments is obtained, lens is separated from base, and lens is installed in holder.
EFFECT: improved focusing properties of lenses with rotation profiles.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of radiation in a given direction and required wavelength range. The method of generating radiation in a given direction in the required wavelength range involves generation of initial radiation using a radiation source and filtration of the initial radiation through controlled distribution of refraction index of beams in the control region. Filtration provides for selective deviation of beams of initial radiation depending on their wavelength and selection of beams with given wavelength. Control of distribution of refraction index of beams is achieved through controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The device for generating radiation has a source of initial radiation and filtering apparatus. The filtering apparatus have apparatus for providing for controlled distribution of refraction index of beams. The latter, in their turn, have apparatus for controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The lithography device contains the said device for generating radiation.
EFFECT: invention reduces probability of damage to filtration apparatus, while retaining the stream of radiation incident on them, and provides for generation of radiation at required wavelength.
28 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has a stationary vacuumised neutron guide made in the form of a stainless steep pipe, nickel or copper. The device is additionally equipped with a section of a neutron guide made as a flexible polyvinyl chloride tube, the inner wall of which has mirror surface. Values of average roughness of the inner wall of the flexible polyvinyl chloride tube do not exceed the length of the ultracold neutron wave length.
EFFECT: reduced losses of low energy neutrons during transportation, capability of delivering them into hard-to-access areas.
8 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl