The method of forming a beam of neutral atoms and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to techniques and technologies for the processing of microstructures and can be used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices. Effect: increase the contrast and sharpness of the image applied to the micro-object. A beam of neutral atoms formed by laser radiation in the optical range in three stages: 1. The atoms are cooled in the interference nodes of the three-dimensional standing wave moving parallel to the beam axis with a speed of 2. Exercise resonant interaction of atoms in the vacuum field of a standing light wave radiation field of a traveling wave cooling of optical radiation and the field of a traveling light wave with a given transverse intensity distribution. 3. Cooled by passing radiation the atoms are accelerated to operating speed1along converging lines of minima of the interference pattern associated radiation. After exiting the resonance conditions with radiation the atoms of inertia reach the treated surface. The described device for implementing the method of forming a beam of neutral atoms, which includes a source of neutral atoms, optomagnetic separator, coherent sources and the technique of forming beams of neutral atoms and can be applied for the processing and analysis of microstructures, in particular in the manufacture of microelectronic devices.

The prior art in this field is characterized by the following information. In the literature [1] described a method of creating a directional flow of neutral atoms with the use of resonant light pressure on atoms in axially symmetric fields generated by opposing traveling waves. At any atom beam the force of radiation pressure directed to the beam axis, as a consequence, in the domestic field there is a narrowing of the transverse velocity distribution. However, this method is applicable only for cooling nuclear power flow and does not make any information.

There is also known a method of forming geocentricism monochromatic beam of neutral atoms, with the possibility of a stigmatic image transfer. The method is based on the resonant interaction of neutral atoms in the vacuum field of the standing wave laser radiation. When the atoms are accelerated to constant speeds and simultaneously focus the atomic beam by passing atoms along converging to the processing object of the lines of maxima of the spatial interference pattern.

This is itself a source of coherent electromagnetic radiation, microchannel mirror filter with holes located in the space formation, stencil, a source of neutral atoms [2].

The prototype is peculiar to the following disadvantages:

1. In the area of capture of atoms laser radiation is scattered by the atoms far from the resonance speed, so from the receiving heats them.

2. The longitudinal phase velocity antinodes of the interference pattern is not constant along the beam axis in contrast to the longitudinal velocity of the atoms, this misalignment reduces the efficiency of the interaction of the atoms with the field.

3. Radiation, which makes the atom beam image is formed by the focusing system. Thus, all the aberrations that contribute lenses affect the image quality. In addition, when high intensity radiation energy losses due to heating of the lenses reach 5%, which leads to deformation of the lens and ultimately negatively affects even the bone image.

4. On the surface are atoms whose interaction with the field was ineffective, resulting in reduced contrast of the resulting image.

The present invention is to improve the contrast and sharpness ishka neutral atoms based on the resonant interaction between them in the vacuum field of a standing light wave radiation frequency1, field of a traveling wave cooling of optical radiation frequency 2and the field of a traveling light wave with a given transverse intensity distribution frequency3the frequency of which is shifted to the long wavelength region of the spectrum with respect to the Central frequency0principal permitted transition of the atoms of the beam, the pre-form is parallel to the atomic beam, cooling atoms to a constant speed , influencing them advanced standing light wave frequency where c is the speed of light is directed along the motion of atoms and light wave frequency where the natural width of the line, directed opposite to the motion of the atoms, then, while maintaining the parallelism of the beam, set the desired transverse distribution of the atoms, and then scale the transverse distribution of the beam and simultaneously dispersing the atoms to operating speed1acting on them along the way by a standing light wave frequency4=1(c+(a1-)/2)/(c-(1-)/2). When this cooling radiation viperous frequency range corresponding to the velocity spread of the atoms in the beam.

Apparatus for forming a beam of neutral atoms includes sources of coherent electron is defined in the space of the formation and separated it into three specialized area - preparing, structuring and compression, and in the beginning of the site preparation placed sources of radiation frequencies in the early portion of the compression are sources of radiation frequencies3,2at the end of the site preparation placed sources of radiation frequencies at the end of the plot structuring posted by sources of radiation frequency and in the early portion of the compression are sources of radiation frequencies4and2. Sources with frequencies completed divided into 4 threads, each of which is inclined to the axis of the space formation. All specialized areas equipped with eight flat mirrors, and normal mirror sites preparation and structuring perpendicular to the axis of the space formation and normal mirrors the plot of compression inclined to it. Sources of electromagnetic radiation frequency is equipped with devices for the sweep rate.

In Fig. 1 presents a diagram of the device for implementing the method of forming a beam of neutral atoms.

In Fig. 2. presents a variant plane of the axicon.

In Fig. 3. presents pyramidal axicon.

In Fig. 4. shows the mirror - filter.

n(n=1 ...8) is rotated at 45owith respect to axis OY. Axicon 12 is identical to the axicon 3. Mirrors pyramidal axicon (Fig. 3) is identical to the mirror plane of the axicon and have the same transverse location and the continuation of their axial A An(n=1... 8) converge to the same point O. the Mirror-filter 8 is made in the form of an inclined cut a microchannel plate, the diameter and pitch of holes which are aligned with the pitch of the transverse structure of the field in the staging area. From the plot structuring the surface of the plate is provided with a mirror coating. The mirror is placed at the Brewster angle relative to the axis of the channel OZ. [3]. Mirror-filter 15 is made in a similar way, its reflecting surface directed oppositely atomic stream.

The proposed method, the beam is formed in three stages: the atoms localize nodes moving spatial lattice (preparation stage), into a parallel beam of atoms make the image (stage structure), the beam focus (stage compression).

I. the preparation stage.

In the past the separator 2 (Fig. 1) neutral atoms in which from sources 5-6 and cooling radiation from sources 4-7. Thus, the cooled atoms near the speed in potential wells formed by the interference structure of the bearing of the field.

Thanks to the separation of the atoms, for speed characteristics are far from resonance, do not fall into the interaction zone, and unlike the prototype does not scatter the laser radiation.

The cooling radiation viperous in the frequency range corresponding to the speed range of most atoms on the site. On the following stages of the frequency of the cooling radiation viperous similarly. This allows you to avoid the formation of spurious potential structure of the cooling field and cooling a large part of the atomic flux.

In order to get rid of the atoms, the interaction of which with the field was not effective, the beam is passed through a Spinneret mirror-filter 8 (Fig. 1).

II. Stage structuring.

As shown in Fig. 1, between the mirror-filter 8 and microchannel mirror 15 is similar to prototype form a parallel beam of atoms with a given transverse distribution. But the image into a stream of atoms to be paid more just because

- no focus related aberrations and loss of energy;

- trajectory acomodate with the same size of area;

radiation interacts with atoms, pre-cooled in the potential minima.

Unlike the prototype along the path of the image density of atoms, mostly due to the capture of atoms with transmission sites, which increases the sharpness of the image.

Microchannel mirror-filter 8 and microchannel mirror-filter 15 are discarded atoms, the interaction of which with radiation was not effectively, this increases the contrast of the image.

III. Stage of compression.

Passing radiation from the source 16 atoms dispersed along geocentricity paths from V to V1corresponding to the energy required processing, while the atoms are cooled by radiation from the source 17. Dispersing the atoms move in the long wavelength region relative to the radiation sources 16 and 17 and, thereby, removed from resonance. Moving by inertia, they fall on a given area of the treated surface. Potential field structure at this stage is shown in Fig. 5.

Unlike the prototype, there is no counter radiation, thus the efficiency of laser pressure on atoms increases by an order that allows the use of radiation mencetak compression, to avoid heating of the workpiece and the negative impact of plane-parallel radiation on the focusing process.

The method is as follows:

The atomic flux from a source of neutral atoms 1 served in optomagnetic separator 2, which is separated neprevziataia atoms of the working gas, the electrons and ions from the excited atoms of the working substance. Thus allocate part of the excited atoms that satisfy the requirements of high-speed resonance in the staging area. The separated stream of neutral atoms is directed to the input of the site preparation, which consists of a plane of the axicon 3 and 4 sources of additional associated bearing 4, 4 sources of cooling 5, 4 sources of the counter bearing 6 and 4 sources 7 cooling radiation. These sources form a flat lisanovalive flows radiation. Sources 4 and 6, located at the vertices of a parallelepiped with a square cross-section and radiate at an angle to the axis OZ . The spatial location of the sources 5 and 7 as described (4 and 6), with the difference that forms a parallelepiped deployed at 45oaround the axis OZ, and flows radiation is e three-dimensional interference of the periodic lattice, shifting along the axis OZ at a constant speed without changing the structure. In cross section this lattice represents planopilaris to each other square cells of step which depends on the angle of radiation to the axis of the channel. By reflection of the radiation sources 5 and 7 from the axicon mirror 3, the space of the site preparation evenly fill the field of cooling radiation. Frequency sources of cooling radiation viperous in the k band, where the velocity spread of the atoms on the site, k is the wave vector of the radiation. In the following sections ranges sweep rate of cooling sources of radiation are also consistent with the velocity distributions of the atoms on the sites. An ordered stream of atoms passes through the hole of the mirror - filter 8 and get on the site structuring. Neprevziataia atoms are reflected microchannel plate and extend beyond the plot.

Plot structuring differs from the preparation area so that the associated bearing the radiation from the source 4 replacement but on a passing plane-parallel radiation source 9, is similar to the radiation of the prototype. The transverse structure of the flow area strukturyzowane removes the associated radiation in the absorber and weeds atoms, out of the interaction.

The site of compression is different from the site of structuring the fact that instead of the plane of the axicon, here races put pyramidal axicon 18 (Fig. 1), as well as completely missing the oncoming radiation. The configuration of the land of compression allows to form a converging field (Fig. 5). Transverse interference pattern at the input section of a compression aligned with the transverse structure of the field plot structuring. The structure of the field plot compression is geocentricism converging tube of square cross section, having a longitudinal cellular structure that hold the atoms of the beam inside and accelerate along the formed channels. With increasing speed of the beam decreases the probability of interaction of the atoms with the field. With a smooth exit from the interaction of atomic motion becomes sluggish, and maintaining the direction of motion, the atoms drift to the substrate.

An example implementation of the method can be process controlled formation of a beam of neutral helium atoms in the radiation field of quantum-optical system consisting of a powerful laser and a multiple quantum amplifiers dye.

The helium atoms have mass MD0corresponding wavelength 0= 5785.7 A, the transition frequency0= 3.257661015with-1the power oscillator Aki= 0.608, the probability that Aki= 0.7053 with-1natural line half-width = 2.21576108rad/S.

At the entrance of the site preparation, the dispersion of velocities of atoms should not exceed = 1000 - 1500 m/s, the range of energies should not exceed E = 0.02-0.05 eV.

Offset emitters carrying radiation ranges from -200 to -50 for cooling radiation from -5 to -2 , the Range of sweep frequencies in the staging area is 4.836 E+10-1.209 E+11 Hz. The range of sweep frequencies in the area of structuring an order of magnitude smaller.

The output power of the carrier radiation in a continuous mode of operation is 20 watts per channel (8 channels).

The output channels of the cooling radiation ( 6 - 8 channels) equals about 0.3 watts/channel and does not depend on the mode of plant operation.

An example implementation of the device can be set, presented in the diagram of Fig. 1. It includes a source of neutral atoms 1, optomagnetic the separator 2, the mirrors forming the carrier and the cooling radiation (plane-parallel axicon site preparation is anitelea associated cooling radiation of the site preparation 5, sources of coherent counter bearing radiation of the site preparation 6, the sources of the oncoming cooling radiation of the site preparation 7, microchannel mirror-filter 8, a source associated bearing the radiation section of the structure 9, the stencil 10, sources associated cooling radiation section of the structure 11, the mirror forming carrier and the cooling radiation (plane-parallel axicon plot structuring) 12, sources of coherent counter carrying a radiation area of the structure 13, the sources of the oncoming cooling radiation plot structuring 14, microchannel mirror-filter 15, the sources of additional associated bearing the radiation area of compression 16, additional sources associated cooling radiation plot of compression 17, mirrors forming a bearing and cooling radiation (pyramidal axicon plot compression) 18. In addition, the system includes a vacuum Udachnaya system, power supply system, water supply, cooling system, system alignment and movement of optical elements, systems alignment and movement of samples.

For spatial and temporal synchronization is nerator. Such a generator may be tunable laser dye. Radiation specifying the quantum oscillator is divided by dividers radiation (10 channels) and served on each of the schemes forming radiation with frequencies

Diagram of the formation of radiation with a frequency of3includes acousto-optical Converter that converts the radiation from the source frequency radiation with a frequency3and quantum amplifier increases the radiation power to the working level.

Scheme of formation of radiation with frequencies performed similarly, with the peculiarity that each of these radiations after the formation is divided into 4 channels, flat semi-transparent mirrors. Additionally, the generation of radiation with frequencies supplemented by another device the sweep frequency of the radiation connected to the control circuit acoustooptical converters.

The source of neutral atoms and the stencil is identical to the prototype, namely the source of neutral atoms 1 is a hollow cylinder made of Nickel, inside which is placed a box of sponge Nickel impregnated with a melt of India. Heater covering the cylinder source, is made of nichrome in ceramic P>C. At this temperature, the vapor concentration of indium in the volume of the source is sufficient to support the process. The stencil 10 is a plate of fused quartz coated with a negative image of the topology of the conductive areas of the chip, made with magnification of 400 times.

Mirror Aksyonov 3, 12, 18 is made of a dielectric material with the deposited reflective layer. Mirror filters 8, 15 obtained by drawing the glass tube through the die plate with the subsequent cut at the Brewster angle, the polishing of the cutting surfaces and the deposition of the reflective layer.

The proposed solution has the following advantages:

- allows you to form a clearer and sharper image on the micro-object;

- allows you to achieve greater uniformity of the composition of the formed beam;

- allows you to achieve greater uniformity in the energies of the atoms in the generated beam;

- allows you to more efficiently manage the process of micro-object due to the possibility of changing the output speed of the beam and the degree of compression without changing the design;

- extends the application installation;

- eliminated the harmful effects of radiation on micro is s. -M. : Nauka, 1986, 147 S.

2. USSR author's certificate 1672865.

3. Jaworski B. M., Detlef A. A. Handbook of physics. -M.: Nauka, 1964, 847 S.

1. The method of forming a beam of neutral atoms based on the resonant interaction between them in the vacuum field of a standing light wave radiation frequency1, field of a traveling wave cooling of optical radiation frequency2and the field of a traveling light wave with a given transverse intensity distribution frequency3the frequency of which is shifted to the long wavelength region of the spectrum with respect to the Central frequency0principal permitted transition of the atoms of the beam, wherein the pre-form is parallel to the atomic beam, cooling atoms to a constant speed , influencing them advanced standing light wave frequency where c is the speed of light is directed along the motion of atoms and light wave frequency where - atural line half-width, directed opposite to the motion of the atoms, then, while maintaining the parallelism of the beam, set the desired transverse distribution of the atoms, and then scale the transverse distribution of the beam and simultaneously dispersing the atoms to operating speed1who is).

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cooling radiation viperous frequency range corresponding to the velocity spread of the atoms in the beam.

3. Apparatus for forming a beam of neutral atoms, which includes the sources of coherent electromagnetic radiation, microchannel mirror filter with holes located in the space of the formation, and the source of neutral atoms, wherein the space forming supplemented by one microchannel mirror-filter and separated the two mirrors on three specialized site - preparation, structuring and compression, and in the beginning of the site preparation placed sources of radiation with frequencies in the early portion of the compression are sources of radiation with frequencies3,2at the end of the site preparation placed sources of radiation frequencies with at the end of the plot structuring posted by the radiation source with the frequency and in the early portion of the compression are sources of radiation with frequencies4and2.

4. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that each of the sources with frequencies completed divided into 4 threads and inclined to the axis of the space formation.

6. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that the electromagnetic radiation source frequency is equipped with devices for the sweep rate.

 

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