A method of creating ice crossing
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of hladotehnika and can be used when creating the ice terminal for cargo transportation. The invention aims to increase the bearing capacity of the ice crossing. This technical result is achieved by reducing the amplitude of Flexural-gravity waves. For this purpose under ice cover set manageriale in the form of a vertical permeable plate oriented perpendicular to the direction of movement of cargo. 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of hladotehnika and can be used when creating the ice terminal for cargo transportation.Known technical solution (I. C. Peschansky, "Lagoudera and hladotehnika". M. : Sea transport. - 1963 - 345 C.), in which a method of creating ice crossing is in the preparation of the ice cover by the early clearing of the ice surface from snow along the intended path for faster growth of ice thickness.The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of ensuring the reliability of the terminal in case of a forced excitation of the ice sheet from the movement of goods izgib-gravitation ice begins to rapidly deteriorate even at low mass of the transported cargo (C. M. Kozin Resonance method of destruction of ice cover". The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of technical Sciences in the form of a scientific report. - Vladivostok, IAP, 1993, 44 S.).The task of the claimed invention is to provide an ice crossing with a high degree of reliability.Technical result achieved when the task is to reduce the amplitude of the VVM excited in ice moving cargo.The essential features characterizing the invention.Restrictive: ice crossing is generated by the Stripping of the ice cover from snow.Distinctive: under the ice cover through the slot formed in the latter and oriented perpendicular to the direction of movement of goods, vertically mounted plates with holes, and the plate on the upper edge have flanges for attachment to the surface of the ice by vmerzanii in ice.It is known (see Sretensky L. N. "theory of wave motions of a fluid". Jist, 1936 ), when the excitation of gravity waves at the interface of two media of a fluid particle make a circular motion. If the movement path of the fluid encounters an obstacle in the form of a solid plate, it does not change. If the plate has openings, the liquid passing through it will leave a part of its energy in the form of hydraulic losses, and the intensity of the gravitational waves, and therefore its amplitude will decrease. Based on this principle work of manageritalia installed in the towing tank basin. Placing these plates under the ice perpendicular to the front of gravitational waves (perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave source, i.e., goods on the ice), you can reduce the intensity of gravitational waves, to reduce the amplitude of the VVM, and hence the level of Flexural stresses in the ice. Thus, paying off waves of water, you can increase the bearing capacity of the ice crossing when traffic loads.The method is as follows.Under ice cover along the intended direction of transportation establish a number of plates with holes. Previously in ice prepared the required number of straight through slots oriented perpendicular to the direction of movement of cargo. Through these slits under the ice vertically down plates, which are fixed in ice cover its upper part by samertan the AI.The invention is illustrated graphically, where Fig. 1 shows the diagram of the installation plate, and Fig. 2 - General view of the isolated plate. In pre-cleaned from snow ice cover 1 is formed through the slits 2, oriented perpendicular to the direction of movement of cargo. Through these slits under the ice vertically lower plate with holes 3, which are pre-attached on ice 1 due to the flange 4. Water 5, enrolling in slot 2, within a certain time freezes. After complete freezing of the slits 2 is provided tightness, ravnopravnosti thus prepared ice crossings and readiness for operation. The way to create icy crossing, consisting of scraping ice from snow, characterized in that beneath the ice cover through the slot formed in the latter and oriented perpendicular to the direction of movement of goods, vertically mounted plates with holes, and the plate on the upper edge have flanges for attachment to the surface of the ice by vmerzanii in ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct temporary roads across lakes and other water obstacles.
SUBSTANCE: ice bridge includes cooling plant, pipelines connected to cooling plant. Pipelines are submersed in water and suspended by wire ropes. Cooling plant has reducers for pressure reduction, 10 MPa gaseous nitrogen cylinders and liquid nitrogen cylinders adapted to fill pipelines with liquid and gaseous nitrogen mixture. The pipelines include several coiled sections or formed as straight and finned pipes. The pipelines are arranged in several rows and extend in vertical or horizontal directions. The pipelines are submersed for 0.1-5 m depth and are connected by wire ropes to balloons floating at water surface or to finned pipes driven in ground of river bottom and connected one to another by diaphragms. The cooling plant provides water freezing within 3-5 km range and obtains ice having thickness of 3 m or more.
EFFECT: increased water freezing rate.
FIELD: movable or portable bridges, floating bridges adapted to convey loads over ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: method to transport vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover over ice involves moving vehicle having weight not exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover at resonance speed; moving vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying capacity to ice cover line when above vehicle having lesser weight has moved away from ice cover line for distance equal to 2/3 of resonance bending-gravity wave length; initiating above vehicle having larger weight movement with above resonance speed. Resonance bending-gravity wave length is determined from where D is cylindrical stiffness of ice plate, ρ and h - ice density and thickness, g - gravity, H - water body depth.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of ice cover.
FIELD: floating bridges, for instance temporary bridges for load transportation over ice.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes ice blanket in which vertical holes are drilled for the full bridge structure length so that the holes are located from both bridge sides. Reinforced concrete blocks connected to ropes are inserted through the holes so that the blocks are located under the ice blanket. Discs having diameters exceeding hole diameters are connected to upper block ends. Rope lengths are selected to prevent ice blanket movement in upward direction with respect to initial ice position if flexural-gravity waves are generated in ice blanket.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity.
FIELD: bridge crossing equipment; ferries and floating bridges.
SUBSTANCE: proposed motor unit includes displacement hull with joints in sides, engine mounted inside hull and water-jet propeller, two hinged pontoons which are articulated with hull and mechanism for opening and folding the pontoons. Each hinged pontoon is provided with torsion-loaded swivel hydrostatic shield on external side which is articulated with hinged pontoon in area of its bottom; hinged pontoons are also provided with mechanism for turning the shield; this mechanism is made in form of hydraulic cylinder with rod secured in hull of hinged pontoon. Thrust roller secured on end of rod is received by guide of hydrostatic shield.
EFFECT: reduced resistance of shuttle ferry due to improved streamlining of projecting lower part of motor unit.
FIELD: bridge construction, particularly floating bridges, for example, pontoon bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method involves unloading land-based and river-based pontoon sections on ice, expanding the pontoon sections in temporary bridge location area; sealing pontoons of each pontoon section by means of top and bottom jointing means; moving each pontoon section to temporary bridge construction site over ice; serially jointing pontoon sections with each other along temporary bridge length and breaking ice by blasting charges spaced from bridge axis. Longitudinal grooves are created in ice from each bridge side with the use of ice-cutters so that ice thickness in groove bottom area is not more than 10 cm. After that elongated charges including several detonating fuse strings are laid in the grooves. The grooves are filled with wet snow or water and elongated charges are blasted to break ice in each groove. After that ice under bridge sections is broken by vehicle movement over the bridge.
EFFECT: decreased time and increased safety of temporary bridge construction.
FIELD: construction industry; bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method of pontoon bridge equipping at high flow speed is performed using set of railway pontoon ribbon bridge and differs in the fat that bridge stiffness on water obstacle is provided by anchors which are installed on bridge top and bottom sides and are attached to bottom of outer pontoons with the help of ropes which pass through lugs fixed on rings welded to deck and bottom of outer pontoons.
EFFECT: increasing vertical component of hydrodynamic forces, reducing the different of member to top or bottom sides, and improving pontoon bridge reliability.