Power plant with combined cycle, equipped with a reactor of the circulating fluidized bed


F23C11/02 -
F22B3/08 - at critical or supercritical pressure values

 

(57) Abstract:

The present invention relates to a power plant with combined cycle containing air compressor, gas turbine, the pressure vessel (11) and the reactor (10) under high pressure circulating fluidized bed (LTP), enclosed in the pressure vessel. The reactor with the LTP includes a chamber (12) of the reactor, means for hot gaseous combustion products from the reactor and one or more non-circular centrifugal separators (13) for receiving and cleaning the hot gaseous products of combustion. Inside the pressure vessel is also a camera (12') of the heat exchanger boiling fluidized bed, soamsawali with the camera (12) of the reactor and having a common wall section with the said chamber of the reactor. The invention improves the compactness and increase heat removal. 19 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il.

The present invention relates to a power plant with combined cycle, characterized in restrictive part of the independent p. 1 of the attached claims.

Known reactors under high pressure fluidized bed, such as specified in patnem above atmospheric, that is, under a pressure of 2 bar (0.2 MPa) or more, and preferably under a pressure of about 8-16 bar (0,8-1,6 MPa) (for combustion), while the pressure varies significantly from one installation to another or within the same installation during operation. However, a very significant cost in such reactors high pressure is the pressure vessel. With the increase of the pressure vessel costs grow exponentially, not linearly. Therefore, reducing the size of component parts, rebuild parts or eliminating the need to composite parts can have a significant impact on the cost and competitiveness of the vessel and process. It is therefore desirable to maintain a minimum size of the pressure vessel. One part, which occupies considerable space inside the vessel is a conventional hot cyclone. When using a conventional cyclone separator to the reactor chamber in the pressure vessel is lost considerable space, and the pressure vessel is necessary to do proportionally more to accommodate a conventional cyclone. If the cyclone is placed outside of the main pressure vessel, koedoe to provide piping and seals, supply hot combustion gases from the reactor chamber located outside in a cyclone separator, and recirculation piping located between the outside of the cyclone separator and in the reactor vessel. These component parts can lead to an additional increase costs and complicate maintenance and repair.

Known reactor under atmospheric pressure circulating fluidized bed having a cyclone separator, which is distinctly non-circular, generally rectangular, cross-section of the vortex combustion chamber or space for the gas in it. In this type of system, to ensure combustion of the fuel substance at atmospheric pressure, the proposed geometry, being intended for applications at atmospheric pressure, determined by the cost of production and/or installation and adaptation of the cooled cyclone to the cooled walls of the reactor. A similar application of high pressure can be achieved other obvious benefits that should not be considered important and/or useful for applications at atmospheric pressure.

As you can see, for example, from U.S. patent N 4,793,292, in applications under higher the CSOs pressure as efficiently as possible. This requirement was previously trying to accomplish by forming the cross section of the reactor as close as possible to the rounded shape of the pressure vessel. For example, in patent N 4,793,292 shows several varieties of the cross-section of the reactor and even alternative reactor (including the separator) made of many flat walls, to obtain the formed circular cross-section.

In working at atmospheric pressure reactors there are no special requirements for the cross-sectional shape. However, found that when in communication with the reactor under high pressure fluidized bed provide a distinctly non-circular cyclone separator or multiple separators, unlike the conventional practice of using all of cyclone separators, flip the channel to all cyclone separator can remove and place next to the non-circular reactor cyclone, resulting in a much more compact layout and provides the minimum size of the pressure vessel, and hence cost-effective design of the reactor under high pressure fluidized bed. Thus, the excluded and the potential of the population, because of the compact design of the furnace and a non-circular cyclones can be easily positioned by providing a tight fit to each other within a circular space.

The present invention is to develop an improved power plant combined cycle.

A particular object of the present invention is to develop a more compact design of the reactor under high pressure circulating fluidized bed (GCHQ (SRV)) and means of the heat exchanger, connected to the reactor with LTP in the power plant combined cycle.

The present invention also is to develop a compact design of the reactor, heat exchanger and filter hot gas in the pressure vessel in the power plant combined cycle.

Therefore, in accordance with the present invention developed power plant with combined cycle, described in the characterizing portion p. 1 of the attached claims.

Power plant combined cycle corresponding to the invention generally contains

means of a gas compressor, for example in redtwo gas turbine for the drive means of the gas compressor

the pressure vessel, round in cross section and capable of withstanding pressures exceeding 2 bar (0.2 MPa) and having a top part and a bottom part,

the reactor under high pressure circulating fluidized bed enclosed in the pressure vessel and having a chamber of a reactor, comprising, essentially, a flat wall,

means for transporting compressed gas from the compressor into the pressure vessel,

means for supplying fuel into the chamber of the reactor,

means for outputting the hot gaseous products of combustion from the above reactor and

at least one centrifugal separator located inside the pressure vessel and having an inlet channel connected to the means for outputting the hot gaseous products of combustion from the reactor chamber, the channel for release of gas coming from at least one of the separator from the pressure vessel by means of a gas turbine to allow for expansion therein, and a reverse channel for recirculation selected solids from the separator into the chamber of the reactor. The separator includes a vertical vortex chamber having a distinctly flat wall bounding an internal pretransplant, greater than or equal to 1.15.

Power plant combined cycle corresponding to the preferred specific variant of the invention, in particular, differs in that it contains a camera exchanger fluidized-bed fluidized-bed located in the pressure vessel chamber connected to the reactor chamber and compactly connected with it. Therefore, the camera of the heat exchanger has a total area of the wall with the wall of the reactor chamber. The chamber of the heat exchanger may, for example, be placed inside the reactor chamber at its bottom, with the benefit of having due to this, the second and third side walls, in common with parts of the side walls of the reactor chamber. According to another preferred specific variant of the invention the chamber of the heat exchanger may be located below the separator to have a cross section similar to the cross section of the separator, and to have areas of the second and third side walls, in common with the continuations of the side walls of the separator.

The compact layout of the cyclone separator to the reactor under high pressure fluidized bed provides several advantages. First, due to its compact nature and composition there is a place for others the x filters-"candles" or porous ceramic filters in the same pressure vessel to the reactor chamber and cyclone separator (for example, below or above the cyclone separator), so that in all cases it was not necessary to ensure the availability of the second pressure vessel for gas filtration with a significant reduction at the expense of the cost of the entire system. Compact layout leads to other benefits for working under high pressure system combined cycle. Compact design not only cyclone separator, but also the entire reactor under high pressure circulating fluidized bed (NPDES (PCFB)) leads to optimized use of space of the pressure vessel. In the process combined cycle combined operation of gas turbines and steam turbines, and so the cycle of vaporization is not analogous to the cycle of vaporization of the combustion process in under atmospheric pressure circulating fluidized bed (ADCPS (ACFB)). In the process combined cycle gas from the reactor with PGCPS can preferably not cool (unlike ADCPS, where the gases must be cooled to maintain the efficiency of the cycle gas turbine at an acceptable level.

Secondly, due to its compact nature and layout has space to accommodate compact teploobmenu thus, it will have a cross-sectional profile similar to the cyclone, which is above it, and will be able to take hot solid particles, or falling down of the non-circular hot cyclone, or flowing down the inner walls of the reactor. Then the heat transfer surface, embedded in the heat exchanger, can be used to ensure the availability of heated fluid used in the power plant combined cycle.

Thirdly, in a loop, you can benefit from the use of steam under high pressure, for example supercritical and sterndrives States, due to the possibility of arrangement of heat transfer surfaces inside the reactor using omega-panels or inside CT fluidized bed, which allows to achieve the desired state of steam and steam temperatures and regulate them, and to take advantage of the different heat transfer characteristics of the reactor and CT. In such supercritical and sverhambitsioznyh applications, you can use a single steam cycle and apply the steam separator, rather than the usual prepodavatel that supports natural circulation.

According to a preferred specific variant of the springs, feeding compressed gas (preferably air) for pressurizing the pressure vessel. Compressed air is used as the air entering the combustion zone in the reactor NPDES, enclosed within the pressure vessel. The reactor PGCPS will use as a circulating fluidized bed, in which a significant amount of particulate is entrapped gas in the upper section of the reactor chamber with NPDES, and then withdrawn from the reactor in a cyclone separator (cyclone separators). The gas is cleaned from the larger solid particles (typically > about 25 m) in the cyclone separator (cyclone separators), and the individual particles are recirculated back into the chamber of the reactor. Thus purified gas is passed (preferably after fine filtration), essentially, is not cooled in the gas turbine, preferably designed to drive the gas compressor and generator to produce electricity. Enlarged and still relatively hot gas is passed in heat recuperation steam generator (TA (HRSG)), in which the heat expanded gas is used for steam before it is released into the atmosphere. The cycle of vaporization TA in accordance with the present invention the soy is hydrated separator (compact separators), in accordance with the invention equipped with a so-called membrane walls, with many pipes connected to each other by edges. The walls of the reactor NPDES preferably cooled by vaporization in the pipe wall.

In a preferred specific embodiment of the present invention the reactor NPDES includes a heat transfer surface inside the reactor chamber, preferably at least in its upper section. Such heat transfer surfaces may be so-called omega-panels, which are suitable for the prevailing conditions. Also in accordance with this preferred specific embodiment the reactor NPDES includes a so-called compact heat exchanger (CT), preferably in the lower section of the reactor chamber. CT is preferably connected to the reactor chamber so that it is able to accept substance consisting of solid particles directly from the reactor chamber, and, of course, you can skip the substance separated from the gas in the cyclone separator (cyclone separators), in CT. Preferably, KT is the heat exchanger boiling fluidized bed, comprising a heat-transfer surface, preparing the accordance with the present invention is provided, what KP, as well as the separator of a non-circular (non-circular compact separators), communicates with the reactor NPDES by using the total evaporative membrane wall reactor NPDES. In addition, the total cycle of vaporization preferably includes a section in each of the above components. Thus, for example, thermal expansion of each of these components, essentially similar, resulting in a robust system with PGCPS. According to the present invention to create the most efficient and flexible power plant with combined cycle and process is provided by combining the system of vaporization with the TA system vaporization reactor NPDES and, in particular, provide omega-panels and heat exchange surfaces immersed in the fluidized bed of substances consisting of solid particles, CT. With this method of steam superheat and/or reheat steam can be achieved by appropriate use of the entire system. Suddenly discovered that, in particular, the reactor NPDES corresponding to the present invention, allows you to create dataparallel system for process combined cycle. This is the tea chamber of the reactor, the separator(s) of solid particles and a heat exchanger (CT) fluidized bed, in a single pressure vessel with optimised use of space inside the pressure vessel.

According to a preferred specific variant of implementation of the present invention the steam cycle process combined cycle involves the presence of evaporative membrane wall reactor NPDES, evaporative heat transfer surfaces in the passage for flue gases TA paroperegrevatelya and/or re-heating of heat transfer surfaces in the CT and in the chamber of the reactor NPDES. Pairs formed by evaporative walls and surfaces, overheat before it is fed into a steam turbine to generate electricity. In the case of turbine with several, for example two, degrees of pairs of first (intermediate) stage preferably reheat before serving for the second (subsequent/leaf) stage. The present invention allows to provide communication perekrivaya or re-heating of the heat transfer surfaces of the reactor with NPDES in the pressure vessel substantially smaller diameter by providing a compact reactor is eating an optional direction superheated or reheated steam to the heat transfer surface in the chamber of the reactor NPDES and heat transfer to surfaces in CT or Vice versa, depending on the design conditions and the workload of the plant. In conditions of low load, the amount of exhaust heat in CT can be reduced or minimized, reducing the flow of air in CT and skipping workaround stream of solid particles, usually following through him. Therefore, in accordance with the present invention the solid particles can be skipped in CT or you can skip past the CT to overheating and/or reheating of steam. Thanks to the compact design of the reactor PGCPS all necessary devices can be placed in the same pressure vessel.

Centrifugal separator located inside the pressure vessel has an inlet port connected to the means for outputting the hot gaseous products of combustion from the reactor chamber, the channel gas outlet leading from the reactor chamber to the next process stage, which is usually installed ceramic filter or other device to remove particles, and definitely outside of the pressure vessel pressure relief in a gas turbine and heat recovery at a low level. There is also a reverse channel solid particles for recirculation selected solids from separare, have distinctly non-circular wall bounding an internal space for gas, having a cross section, which is distinctly non-circular and having a roundness greater than or equal to 1.15. Space for gas typically has a rectangular cross-section, and a cyclone separator is made of essentially flat panels.

Centrifugal separator may include a first centrifugal separator, and the second centrifugal separator having the same basic components described above, the first separator. Separators can be placed on opposite sides of the reactor chamber, connecting with the side walls of the reactor chamber, or can be placed on the same side of the reactor chamber, lying one behind the other or one above the other. If they are located one above the other and if the channel to the gas outlet of one of the separator goes up, the other (preferably the upper separator) has an exit down, so that there is a common cavity, connected to the outlet channels for the gas. To optimize the layout of the reactor, a non-circular cyclones, CT and possible ceramic filters in the vessel, it is possible to provide multiple, essentially identical to the separators, set the first cross-sectional area, and each of the separators has a second cross-sectional area of its space for gas, and the cross-sectional area can be essentially the same.

Means of a gas compressor for pressurizing the pressure vessel may include means for supplying oxygen-containing gas under pressure into the vessel for pressurizing the inside of it, and the means of discharge of the gas stream also contains means for supplying siraudeau gas chamber of the reactor at its bottom. You can include omega-panel in the reactor chamber extending along its length, and you can set the separators on the longitudinal sides of the reactor chamber parallel to the omega-panels.

The reactor may further comprise a lot of ceramic filtration media type filters-"candles", monolithic or porous filters that are installed on a supporting structure inside the pressure vessel and having an inlet channel contaminated gas channel for production of clean gas and a channel for the release of ash, coupled with a channel for the gas outlet of the separator. The term "ceramic filtration media" in the sense it is used in this description, means the usual filters-"candle", monolinoleate particles from high-temperature gases, for example flue gases from the fluidized bed reactor. To accommodate ceramic filtration media can be used a number of layouts. In one arrangement, the separator is installed along the side of the reactor chamber, connected to its side wall, and a channel for release of gas is directed downwards, and the load-bearing structure and the ceramic filtering means mounted on the same side wall of the reactor chamber, and a separator below the separator, and the filters filtration media are mainly horizontally.

In accordance with another feature of the present invention developed power plant combined cycle containing an air compressor that provides compressed air at a pressure of more than 2 bar (0.2 MPa), medium gas turbine for the drive means of the gas compressor, pressure vessel, round in cross section, connected with the air compressor and capable of withstanding pressures greater than 2 bar (0.2 MPa), the reactor pressurized circulating fluidized bed enclosed in a pressure vessel having a chamber of the reactor, rectangular in cross-section, comprising, essentially, Plokhov of combustion from the reactor, centrifugal separator located inside the pressure vessel and purifying hot gaseous products of combustion having a channel for release of gas coming from the separator to the outside of the pressure vessel, and the centrifugal separator includes a vertical vortex chamber having a distinctly flat evaporative tubular wall bounding an internal space for gas, and the chamber of the heat exchanger fluidized-bed fluidized-bed CT, have distinctly flat evaporative tubular wall bounding the interior of the said chamber, which is connected with the lower section of the reactor chamber, heat recuperation unit, intended for the gas turbine to the heat recovery from the exiting gas, the cycle of evaporation with steam turbine evaporative surface, including evaporative wall, and paroperegrevatelya surface.

The main objective of the present invention is to develop a power plant with a closed loop with reactor under high pressure circulating fluidized bed and cyclone separator (cyclone separators), as well as built-in and compact the other objectives of the invention will become apparent from consideration of the detailed description of the invention and from the accompanying claims.

Brief description of drawings

In Fig. 1 is an illustration of a plant with combined cycle, equipped with a reactor under high pressure circulating fluidized bed corresponding to the present invention,

in Fig. 2 shows a longitudinal image, partially in section, partially in a projection of a possible reactor with pressurized fluidized bed corresponding to the present invention,

in Fig. 3 shows the cross-section of the reactor shown in Fig. 2, taken along the line 2-2 shown on the drawing,

in Fig. 4 shows a view similar to Fig. 3, only showing a few different specific variant of implementation of the reactor,

in Fig. 5 shows a perspective top view of the reactor shown in Fig. 4, and the pressure vessel is depicted by a dotted line,

in Fig. 6 shows an illustrative side view of another possible reactor corresponding to the present invention, depicting getfiltername elements installed on the pressure vessel near the channel to release gas cyclone separator,

in Fig. 7 shows a view in section of another specific variant Rea the fractional description of the drawings

In Fig. 1 shows an illustrative view of the process plant with a combined cycle pressurized circulating fluidized bed. The process combined cycle combines cycles of gas turbines and steam turbines, for sake of clarity are shown by dashed lines and labeled "TSGT (GTC)" " (cycle gas turbines, and CCM (STC)" (cycle steam turbine). Cycle gas turbine includes a gas compressor 1 for compressing air to a pressure above atmospheric and the compressed air in the reactor with NPDES, designated as a whole by the position 10 in Fig. 1, 2 and 3. The reactor NPDES enclosed in the pressure vessel 11, withstanding the prevailing pressure difference. The compressed gas is also fed into the reactor in space for gas between the reactor and the vessel for use as the reaction gas in the reactor. The present invention is described here as a combustion process, but it should be understood that it can be adapted for other processes, such as gasification. The air and fuel material is burned in the reactor NPDES under pressure above atmospheric in the circulating fluidized bed reactor 10 with getting hot flue gases. These ha what azizia 3. Block fine filter is adapted to withstand high temperature (typically 600 to 1000oC) and high pressure (typically 2-20 bar (0.2 to 2 MPa)) process. The filtering unit is depicted as separate from the vessel 11, but it can be built in the same vessel 11, and the reactor 10, as will be described below. The cleaned gases are passed to the gas turbine 5. Enlarged, but still hot gases are passed through the system 9 recuperating steam generator (TA) for heat recovery from the gases before they are released to the atmosphere through an exhaust pipe 8. Cycle steam turbine corresponding to the present invention, connected to TP 9 and the reactor 10 with PGCPS. Feed water is heated by the furnace gases in the TA 9 through heat exchanger 2 re-heating, and then evaporated using an evaporator 4. For reasons of simplicity, the process is illustrated only in a very simplified form. The reactor NPDES made of cooled walls, preferably of the so-called membrane walls. This is not shown in detail in Fig. 1, but prepodavatel 14 illustrates the fact that in the reactor 10 with NPDES vaporization occurs. The image of prepodovatela does not mean in this context that this applies only to (or perhaps only for the m supercritical flow. You can also benefit in a loop from the use of steam under high pressure, for example supercritical and sterndrives States, due to the possibility to have heat transfer surfaces inside the reactor using omegamania, or inside CT fluidized bed, ensuring and regulating conditions of steam and steam temperatures, and also to take advantage of the different heat transfer characteristics of the reactor and CT. In such supercritical and sverhambitsioznyh applications, you can use a single steam cycle and apply the steam separator, rather than the usual prepodavatel that supports natural circulation.

The heater or the separator 14 pair in this regard includes pipelines and other necessary means for combining evaporative means of reactor 10 with NPDES and PT 9. The resulting steam is subjected to overheating with superheater 6 PT and/or perekrivaya heat exchangers reactor NPDES. Puregrainaudio heat exchangers corresponding to the present invention, is introduced into the chamber 12 of the reactor and/or into the integrated compact heat exchanger (CT) 12' corresponding to the present invention. Received superheated steam NEA, generating electricity. Reference (D/C) is intended to illustrate the fact that there are different regulatory strategies or connection associated with the outlet channels 102, 104 of the reactor with the inlet channel 100 of the first stage of the turbine. You can apply them in such a way that at least the temperature 106 T1 of the inlet channel pair is adjustable variable. Expanded steam from the outlet port 107 (And/With) the first stage is directed back into the inlet channels 108, 110 of the reactor 10 with NPDES for reheating steam, and re-link (a/C) refers to the various connection options. Reheated steam is directed out of the outlet channels 102, 104 reactors in the inlet channel 112 (D) of the second stage for the final expansion. Steam from the turbine 5' is supplied to the condenser 116, and the condensed water in the heater 2 in the circuit of the steam cycle. Power output 118 mechanical rotation of the steam turbine 5' can be applied to rotate the generator 120 G capacity. The basic outline of vaporization can be changed in accordance with the process. Best overheat/ reheating steam in the reactor 10 with PGCPS is created in accordance with the present invention and is maintained even Vline possible reactor under high pressure circulating fluidized bed, corresponding to the invention, shown in Fig. 2 and 3 in General, but more than in Fig. 1, and indicated by position 10. The reactor 10 includes a vessel 11 high pressure, which includes a camera 12 of the reactor and one or more (such as 2 in Fig. 2 and 3) centrifugal separators (cyclones) 13. The pressure vessel, usually made of special steel, is round in cross section (as seen in Fig. 3) and capable of withstanding pressures above atmospheric in excess of 2 bar (0.2 MPa) (for example, about 8-16 bar (0,8-1,6 MPa)). The vessel 11 has an upper portion 11' and the lower part 11".

Gas compressor 1, as shown in Fig. 1, is provided for pressurizing the vessel 11 to a pressure greater than 2 bar (0.2 MPa) (for example, about 8-16 bar (0,8-1,6 MPa)). The injection pressure can be achieved by injection of oxygen-containing gas under pressure through the pipe 16 (see Fig. 2) in the upper part of the vessel 11, as the vessel 11 is sealed in the whole volume of the vessel with the possibility of reaching an essentially pressure discharge gas 16. The gas 16 is an oxygen-containing gas and is used to flow up into the chamber 12 of the reactor through its lower section to provide combustion (gasification) and/or fluidization is oznaczenie position 18 in Fig. 2) and to supply other materials in the chamber, such as absorbents for absorbing pollutants (e.g., limestone), as conventionally shown in position 19. The fuel can be coal, oil, biomass or other carbon-containing or hydrogen-containing fuel, usually in the form of solid particles or in the form of a suspension prepared from the fuel by mixing, for example, with water and sorbents. In addition, there is the usual issue of ash from the chamber 12 of the reactor, as conventionally shown by the position 20 in Fig. 2.

Centrifugal separator or centrifugal separators 13 of the reactor 10, corresponding to the invention are the same as in the initial application (U.S. patent N 5,281,398). That is, each separator 13 has a vertical vortex chamber 21 (see Fig. 2) with feasibility wall 22, the bounding vortex chamber or the inner space 21 for gas with a cross-section that is distinctly non-circular. Usually the space 21 has a roundness greater than one, preferably more than 1.1, and more preferably greater than or equal to 1.15. The preferred design with a rectangular (e.g. square) cross-section for the camera 21 as shown in Fig. 2 and 3, and the separator 13, which scontrino filled space, but it is possible to design a cheaper separators than the usual round separators.

Each separator 13 is also inside the vortex finder 23 and the reverse channel 24 for recirculation selected solids from the separator 13, for example in the chamber 12 of the reactor. Provides a channel 25 to release gas from the chamber 21, concentric with the vortex finder 23; in a specific embodiment depicted in Fig. 2 and 3, the exhaust manifold 25 for gas passes through a suitable seal through the upper part of the pressure vessel 11.

You can include various water-cooled panel for the component parts inside the reactor 10, in order to recover the heat of combustion in the chamber 12 of the reactor and to maintain the durability of these parts. Preferably, it is possible to provide, for example, omega-panel 27 that is parallel to the length dimension 28 of the camera 12 of the reactor (perpendicular to its width 29), for the recovery of heat from the chamber 12 in the form of superheated steam used in the steam turbine. Also provided water-cooled panel associated with the separators 13, such as panel 22 made of pipes for water, such as described in the initial application. In a specific embodiment, done by the 28 of the camera 12 of the reactor side by side. This is just one possible concrete option implementation possible and numerous other layout.

The reactor 10 also includes a compact heat exchanger (CT) 12' with an integrated fluidized bed. CT 12' preferably provided in the lower section of the reactor 10, below cyclone (cyclone) 13. While CT, essentially, may not require excessive space for the cross section in the pressure vessel and may be located within the vertical projection of the space of the cyclone (cyclone). In accordance with the present invention, mainly the same panel 22 is used to generate and separator (separator) 13, and CT 12'. To illustrate the availability of evaporative tubular walls depict the lower and upper manifolds 15 and 15', respectively. The side walls are essentially straight, and the rear wall is properly bent to form a rear wall of the cyclone (cyclone) and CT.

The present invention provides for creating amazingly versatile and profitable reactor under high pressure circulating fluidized bed. In accordance with the present invention can polzovania by using compact, under high pressure circulating fluidized bed corresponding to the present invention. Fuel gas is fed from the reactor with a temperature as high as possible to maximize the efficiency of the gas turbine used in a loop, so gases are not cooled after removal from the reactor. However, if there is a need to protect any parts from overheating, from gases is allocated only the necessary amount of heat. Usually the gases withdrawn from reactor NPDES, have a temperature in the range 650 - 950oC. Superheat and/or reheat steam is carried out by use of heat exchangers in the chamber 12 of the reactor and/or bubbling fluidized bed CT. According to the present invention, it is possible to provide for the education of hot gas and superheated steam in a single pressure vessel 11.

In Fig. 4 and 5 shows another reactor 10' is essentially identical to the reactor 10, with the exception of the number of cyclone separators. In this particular variant, the block 13 separators on both sides of the reactor 10' and each block consists of two devices forming the separating vortices. According to the present invention, below the CEC is immersed heat exchangers. The CT blocks are preferably made of murine General structures above them cyclones. Thus it is possible to effectively provide a support of the reactor 10 in the pressure vessel, so that this feature of the present invention is particularly advantageous in connection with the processes combined cycle.

In Fig. 6 schematically and somewhat more depicts one particular implementation of the reactor under high pressure circulating fluidized bed corresponding to the present invention, which contains a ceramic filter elements. Inside the vessel 66 high pressure is the chamber 67 of the reactor, one or more cyclones 68 of rectangular cross-section, are installed on the same or on opposite sides of the chamber 67 of the reactor, piping 69 recycling particles from the cyclone 68 and channel 70 to release gas from the cyclone 68 leading to the ceramic filter medium 71. Separate filters, ceramic filter media are shown in Fig. 6 positions 72 and is shown passing mainly horizontally, being mounted on a supporting structure 73, and having a channel 74 to the inlet of polluted gas on one side (connected to speaker what about the gas, penetrating vessel 66 high pressure and leading technology for the next stage (for example, to the turbine to allow for expansion). In the bottom of the camera 74 for contaminated gas is provided is indicated by position 77 channel for the release of ash such as fly ash or other particles, which is designed to remove particles separated from the gas passing through the filter 72. These particles, usually extracted by backwashing the filter 72 in the usual way, for example, described in U.S. patent N 5,242,472 (not shown). As can be seen in Fig. 6, air under pressure is introduced, as shown by the position 78 in the upper part of the vessel 66 high pressure, passes around the chamber 67 of the reactor with the formation of flow directed upwards, as separately adjustable fluidizing air, as shown by position 79, the fuel and sorbent, etc. are introduced into the chamber 67 of the reactor, as shown by position 80, and ash being deleted is displayed on the pipe 81 in the bottom of the chamber 67 of the reactor. Using the present invention, can be effective in terms of cost way to provide effective filtering of all gas produced by the reactor, essentially, the optimal size provided inside the vessel 66. Cashcrate embodiment, the CT provided inside the reactor chamber, because the space below the cyclone (cyclone) 68 reserved for filters. However, and here you can include this location and CT, and cameras filters, which will not lead to an increase in cross-sectional area of the pressure vessel.

In Fig. 7 shows a schematic representation of the vessel 60 high pressure designations of dimensions on it to illustrate how you can mathematically calculate the optimized size of the reactor chamber for vessel 61 high pressure with a specific diameter. The vessel 61 high pressure has an internal diameter D, whereas the chamber 62 of the reactor has a size of width w and length l On each side of the camera 62 is shown a set of cyclone separators 63; provided x separators, each of which is shown having a square cross section with dimensions d of the parties.

As is evident from Fig. 7, the cross-sectional area of the chamber 62 of the reactor is equal to Lw, whereas the area of the vortex chamber of the cyclone 63 is equal to xd2(in this case x = 8). Since it is desirable that the area of the dead zone of the chamber 62 of the reactor was equal to the area of the vortex chamber 63, the following equations;

< / BR>
< / BR>
Thus, substituting the required znachenie the reactor chamber is not always however, because other factors, such as the inlet and outlet channels of the pressure vessel, placing various accessories and so on, there may be solutions more economical and effective in terms of cost, the calculation of the maximum size of the chamber 62 of the reactor is still benefit in many cases.

The invention is also advantageous in ensuring the possibility of excluding some of the pressure vessel for filtering gases removed from the centrifugal separators, for example, using a ceramic filtration media such as those disclosed in U.S. patent N 5,114,581 and 4,793,292. Such compositions provide a greater amount of filters to their area, which reduces the space required for block filters, and allows you to set these blocks directly inside the pressure vessel, and a specific combination of the pressure vessel and rectangular cyclones corresponding to the present invention, provides sufficient interior space, allowing you to install ceramic filters in the same pressure vessel as the chamber of the reactor and the cyclone.

Thus, it can be seen that with the increased pressure circulating fluidized bed, as well as the installation of combined cycle with reactor NPDES. Although the invention has been illustrated and described as applied to his particular version of the implementation, which is considered at present the most practical and preferred, specialists in the art it will be obvious that its possible numerous modifications within the scope of the claims of the invention, which should be seen as an appropriate interpretation in the broadest sense of the attached claims and cover all equivalent structures and devices.

1. Power plant combined cycle containing means (1) a gas compressor for supplying compressed gas under pressure > 2 bar (0.2 MPa), medium (5) a gas turbine for the drive means of the gas compressor, vessel (11) high pressure round in cross section and capable of withstanding pressures greater than 2 bar (0.2 MPa) and having a top part and a bottom part (11', 11"), the reactor (10) under high pressure circulating fluidized bed enclosed in a pressure vessel having a chamber (12) reactor, comprising, essentially, a flat wall, means (16) for transportirovannoy chamber of the reactor, means for outputting the hot gaseous products of combustion from the above reactor, at least one centrifugal separator (13), located inside the above-mentioned pressure vessel and having an inlet channel connected to the means for outputting the hot gaseous products of combustion from the reactor chamber, the channel (23) to release gas coming from at least one separator to the outside of the pressure vessel by means of a gas turbine to allow for expansion therein and a reverse channel (24) for recycling separate solid particles from the separator into the chamber of the reactor, at least one separator (13) contains a vertical vortex chamber (21) having a distinctly flat wall (22), bounding the interior space (21) for gas, having a cross section that is distinctly non-circular and has a roundness greater than or equal to 1.15, characterized in that it comprises a heat exchanger (12') of boiling fluidized bed located in the pressure vessel and in communication with the reactor chamber, and the heat exchanger (12') shares a common wall section with the wall of the chamber (12) of the reactor.

2. The plant p. 1, characterized in that the chamber (12') of the HEA is to be placed swirl chamber (21), and has a second and a third wall, each of which is formed by a continuation of the corresponding flat side wall of the vortex chamber.

3. Power plant combined cycle under item 1, characterized in that the inner space (21) for gas has a rectangular cross-section, and the separator is essentially a flat panel of pipes for water on the outer periphery of the separator.

4. Power plant combined cycle under item 1, characterized in that at least one centrifugal separator contains at least two separator essentially identical and are mounted to each other side by side on one side of the reactor and connected to the walls of the reactor chamber.

5. The plant p. 1, wherein the centrifugal separator comprises at least two separator essentially identical and are mounted on opposite sides of the reactor chamber and connected with the walls of the reactor chamber.

6. The plant p. 1, wherein the centrifugal separator includes a first centrifugal separator and optionally contains three other centrifugal separator, essentially identical to the first centrifugal separator, ustanovlennom pair are facing each other on opposite sides of the reactor chamber.

7. The plant p. 1, characterized in that the chamber (12') of the heat exchanger is located inside the reactor chamber and divides the second common wall section with a second essentially flat, the wall of the reactor chamber and divides the third of the common wall section with a third, essentially flat with the wall of the reactor chamber.

8. The plant p. 7, characterized in that it further comprises ceramic filters (72) mounted on the supporting structure (73) inside the pressure vessel, and has a channel inlet for contaminated gas channel for production of clean gas and a channel for the release of ash, and the inlet channel of the contaminated gas is connected to the channel for release of gas mentioned separator.

9. The plant p. 8, characterized in that the separator is installed along the side of the reactor chamber and connected to its side wall, the supporting structure (73) and filters (72) filtration media installed along the same side wall of the reactor chamber, the separator, and the filters are mainly horizontally.

10. The plant p. 8, characterized in that the separator is installed along the side of the reactor chamber and connected to its side wall, a channel for release of gas directed Unia, as the separator, below the separator and filters are mainly horizontally.

11. The plant p. 1, wherein the gas compressor is an air compressor, and means for transporting compressed gas in the pressure vessel contains means (16, 78) to supply air under pressure into the upper part of the vessel for discharge of pressure inside the pressure vessel and means (79) for supplying fluidizing air into the chamber of the reactor at its bottom.

12. The plant p. 1, characterized in that it additionally contains one or more basically identical separators, Luggage reactor has a first cross-sectional area, each of the said one or more separators has a second cross-sectional area of its space for gas, the first cross-sectional area essentially equal to the sum of the second cross-sectional areas.

13. The plant p. 12, characterized in that when the following notation: D is the internal diameter of the pressure vessel, d is the length of each side of the camera for each gas separator, and L and W are length and width of the reactor chamber and x is the number of separators, the optimal size of the reactor chamber for a specific Anoka under item 1, characterized in that the camera reactor has a length and width and additionally contains a variety of heat transfer panels (27) provided inside the reactor chamber and passing along its length, and the separator contains at least two essentially identical separator installed on opposite sides of the width of the reactor chamber along the longitudinal side walls of the reactor chamber, parallel heat transfer panels.

15. The plant p. 1, characterized in that it further comprises a heat recuperation unit (9), adapted to the medium of the gas turbine to the heat recovery from the gas produced from the gas turbine cycle steam having a steam turbine evaporative surface and paroperegrevatelya surface.

16. The plant p. 15, characterized in that the sections of the chamber walls (12') of the heat exchanger chamber (12) of the reactor and the vortex chamber (21) contain evaporative surface, heat recuperation unit (9) includes economizer surface of the feed water for the cycle of vaporization and the heat exchanger and/or Luggage reactor includes paroperegrevatelya surface.

17. The plant p. 16, characterized in, which incorporates both the surface for re-heating steam.

18. The plant p. 1, wherein the centrifugal separator has a first cross-sectional area, and the camera exchanger fluidized-bed fluidized bed has a second cross-sectional area, the second cross-sectional area less than or equal to the first cross-sectional area.

19. The plant p. 15, characterized in that the cycle of vaporization is a single supercritical or sterndrives steam cycle.

20. The plant p. 1, characterized in that the reactor (10) with a circulating fluidized bed has a camera (12) of the reactor, rectangular in cross-section, comprising essentially flat evaporative tubular wall having a bottom section, a centrifugal separator (13) contains a vertical vortex chamber (21) having a distinctly flat evaporative tubular wall bounding an internal space for gas, and the chamber (12') of the heat exchanger has a distinctly flat evaporative tubular wall bounding the interior of the chamber connected with the lower section of the reactor chamber, the power plant further comprises a heat recuperation unit (9), adapted to the tool gas turborun, evaporative surface, including evaporative wall, and paroperegrevatelya surface.

 

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