Engraving gravure printing machine (options), the method of measuring the width of the cell, a method of engraving cells (options), a method of engraving a series of cells and a device for engraving cells

 

(57) Abstract:

The essence of invention is that determines the magnitude of the error corresponding to the difference between a set of installation parameters and the actual measurement part of the engraved area of the engraving cylinder. Then the magnitude of the error is used to adjust the engraving tool to the actual cut lines or grooves in accordance with a set of installation options. The advantage of the invention is that there is a system of detecting and correcting errors, which can be used in closed systems with feedback for engraving cylinder. The technical result of this group of inventions is to develop an engraving system that could be quickly and easily adjusted for engraving cells controlled size on the surface of the cylinder for printing engravings. 10 S. and 14 C.p. f-crystals, 10 ill.

This group of inventions relates to engraving systems that use the engraving head of a known type, described by Boileroom in U.S. patent N 4450486, CL H 04 N 1/40, 1984.

Such engraving heads contain data fluctuations. Sinusoidal drive signal is fed to a pair of oppositely placed electromagnets to rotate the shaft through a maximum arc of approximately 0.25 degrees with a frequency of about 3000-5000 Hz.

On the engraving head mounted guide Shoe, which is exactly the prescribed position relative to the oscillating cutter. Engraving head is mounted with the possibility of oscillatory motion by means of a set of flat springs attached to the stock speaker. The direct current motor rotates the shaft so that the guide Shoe is in contact with the engraving of the printing cylinder. When the guide Shoe is in contact with the printing cylinder, the cutter varies from position a light touch of the printing cylinder to a distance of approximately 100 μm from the surface of the cylinder.

As soon as the guide Shoe is in contact with the printing cylinder in a sinusoidal signal of the drive control is superimposed on the video signal for input oscillatory cutter into contact with the printing cylinder engraving, thus, cell controlled depth on its surface. Printing cylinder rotates synchronously with the oscillating movement of the cutter, and the course is about the entire surface of the printing cylinder.

The closest analogue relative to the first engraving gravure printing engraving is color gravure printing machine, comprising a rotatable printing cylinder and being with him into engraving contact with the cutter, means to create oscillations of the cutter (see PCT application WO 81/00320, CL G 11 B 3/18, 1981).

The closest analogue of the second engraving gravure printing is engraving machine, gravure printing, containing the supporting means of the printing cylinder, drive means during rotation of the printing cylinder relative to its cylindrical axis, a cutter for engraving cells on the surface of the specified cylinder of the printing means of the drive of the cutter in contact with the surface of the cylinder and controls the engraving containing money-making video designed to generate a video signal (see U.S. patent N 5029011, class B 41 C 1/02, 1991).

The closest analogue on the third engraving gravure printing is engraving machine, gravure printing, containing tools for creating vibrations of the cutter, in engraving contact with the rotating printing cylinder, means video processing and generate a signal back zavalney gravure printing is engraving machine, gravure printing, containing means drive the rotation of the shaped cylinder gravure about its cylindrical axis, engraving cutter, engraving head in which the specified cutter is installed near the specified printing cylinder, the drive of the cutter (see U.S. patent N 5029011, class B 41 C 1/02, 1991).

The closest analogue relatively fifth engraving gravure printing engraving is color gravure printing machine, comprising support means for maintaining with the possibility of rotation of the printing cylinder, means drive it in rotation about its cylindrical axis, and a cutter for engraving cells (see U.S. patent N 5029011, class B 41 C 1/02, 1991).

The closest analogue regarding the method of measuring the width of the cell is a method of measuring the width of a cell that is within a particular zone on the surface of the shaped cylinder gravure printing, which includes scanning the specified zones (see US patent N 4944593, CL G 01 B 11/06, 1990).

The closest analogue to the first method of engraving cells on the surface of the rotating cylinder printing is a method of engraving cells on the surface of the rotating printing cylinder, comprising the introduction to the RA/P> The closest analogue relative to the second method of engraving cells on the surface of the rotating cylinder printing is a method of engraving cells on the surface of the rotating printing cylinder, comprising the production of a control signal, the engraving of these cells using said control signal to enter engraving cutter in the periodic engraving contact with a specified surface (see U.S. patent N 5029011, class B 41 C 1/02, 1991).

The closest analogue regarding methods of engraving a series of cells on the surface of the shaped cylinder gravure printing is a method of engraving a series of cells on the surface of the shaped cylinder gravure printing, driven in rotation about its cylindrical axis, which consists in the development of the video signal which varies in accordance with changes in brightness in the scanned original document, a temporary value with the specified rotation of the cylinder (see U.S. patent N 5029011, class B 41 C 1/02, 1991).

The closest analogue of the device for engraving cells pre-defined desired widths on the surface of the shaped cylinder gravure printing is a device for engraving ABA engraving cutter, means for moving the engraving cutter in a direction parallel to the surface of the cylinder, and the drive of the cutter to enter the specified cutter in the periodic engraving contact with this surface in such a way as to otgravirovany a series of cells and controls (see U.S. patent N 5029011, class B 41 C 1/02, 1991).

In engraving systems described by Buplerum, the operator carries out the time-consuming procedure of adjustment of the machine by trial and error from one end of the printing cylinder before it will start the engraving process. This procedure adjustment includes adjustment of the gain of amplifiers sinusoidal control signal to the drive signal for "black" print cell depth, together with connecting grooves of different depth and erasures nerviruem white cells. Each change of control variables are interrelated with the other, and, therefore, this adjustment is an iterative process. Even after achieving the necessary adjustment errors on the depth of the cell can accumulate due to mechanical deviations.

Serious errors occur when engraving cutter overstrain and breaks. This failure was moedertaal how fast and automatic recognition of such status.

The technical result of this group of inventions is to develop an engraving system that could be quickly and easily adjusted for engraving cells controlled size on the surface of the cylinder for printing engravings. It was also necessary to avoid the accumulation of errors during engraving.

This technical result in the first part of engraving gravure printing is achieved due to the fact that engraving gravure printing machine, comprising a rotatable printing cylinder and being with him into engraving contact with the cutter, means to create vibrations of the tool, according to the invention includes a camera for generating image signals representing images of cells that were engrave the specified tool, tools, video processing for the signal processing of the specified image and generate a feedback signal indicating the size of the cells, which were engrave the specified cutter, and calculation tools, which upon receipt of the specified feedback signal to produce the adjustment of the cutter.

This technical result in part of the second engraving gravure printing dostigaetsja actuator into rotation of the printing cylinder relative to its cylindrical axis, cutter for engraving cells on the surface of the specified cylinder of the printing means of the drive of the cutter in contact with the surface of the cylinder and controls the engraving containing money-making video designed to generate a video signal, according to the invention, the video signal specifies the number of brightness levels in the image, which displays the specified cell, and controls the engraving includes the tools for setpoint input settings setting that indicates the desired relationship between the brightness levels and widths of these cells, calculation tools, which upon receipt of the specified setpoint and the specified signal to produce a series of commands on the engraving width of the cell and measurement tools designed to measure the widths of the cells, engrave incisors, and to generate a corresponding feedback signal width of the cell, and these calculation tools when applying for them the specified feedback signal width of the cell to produce the adjustment specified commands engraving width of the cell so that the widths of the cells in the specified feedback signal subject to the specified value, prie calculation tools provides tools to develop a range of values of the error, representing the difference between the widths of the series engrave cells, which displayed a feedback signal width of the cell, and the respective widths of a series of commands for the specified engrave cells, as well as money-making parameter adjustments corresponding to the sum of the values specified error, and means that when applying for them the specified adjustments to regulate these commands engraving width of the cell, and, furthermore, due to the fact that these measurement tools include a video camera for generating image signals representing images of cells that were engrave cutter, and means for rendering, designed to handle the specified image signal to produce the specified feedback signal width of the cell.

This technical result in the third part of engraving gravure printing is achieved due to the fact that engraving machine, gravure printing, containing tools for creating vibrations of the cutter, in engraving contact with the rotating printing cylinder, means video processing and provide the feedback signal, according to the invention is equipped with the zobrazenie, display images of cells that were engrave tool, tools, video processing, is performed for the signal processing of the specified image and means to generate a feedback signal indicating the size of the cells, which were engrave cutter, means for generating error signals representing the difference between the specified sizes and values, commands, and tools warning triggered when exceeding the specified error signals of the predetermined limit values, and also due to the fact that it further includes calculation means for counting the number of consecutive cases of exceeding the error signal of the specified pre-set limit, and means for prohibiting generation of the specified warning up until the specified number reaches a predetermined value, due to the fact that these calculation tools contains tools that produce the specified warning in the case when the value of the specified signal error displays the error of the width of the cell is greater than approximately 10 μm, and, in addition, due to the fact that these funds prohibition produce the specified warning when achiev the Oh gravure printing is achieved by that engraving gravure printing machine containing means drive the rotation of the shaped cylinder gravure about its cylindrical axis, engraving cutter, engraving head in which the specified cutter is installed near the specified printing cylinder, the drive of the cutter, according to the invention has a video camera with auto focus to create images of cells that engrave using a cutter, means the rendering processing of these images and to generate a feedback signal, which carries information about the widths of cells that engrave using the cutter, and calculation tools for the production of a specified control signal width of the cell in accordance with the desired width of these cells and to regulate the specified control signal width of the cell in accordance with the difference between the specified desired width and a width defined by the specified feedback signal, and the drive of the cutter upon receipt of the specified signal width control cells creates vibrations of the cutter and enters it into engraving contact with the specified printing cylinder, and also due to the fact that it further comprises a lead screw for maintaining synchronism with the specified rotation and due to the fact, that it further comprises means for counting cells for the implementation of the calculation of these cells and to generate Gating signals to activate the specified camera to create images of a predetermined one of the cells.

This technical result in the fifth part of the engraving gravure printing is achieved due to the fact that engraving gravure printing machine, comprising support means for maintaining with the possibility of rotation of the printing cylinder, means drive it in rotation about its cylindrical axis, and a cutter for engraving cells according to the invention is equipped with means of measuring the width of the cell containing the camera to scan the selected cells, which engrave by means of engraving machines, and to create their images, video processor for processing the above images and to generate measurement signals, which carry information about the width of these cells, and Gating means, operating synchronously with the specified drive means for selecting the specified cells.

This technical result in part of the method of measuring the width of the cell is due to the fact that in the method of measuring the width of the emitting scan a specified area, according to the invention for scanning a specified area using a video camera, which is used to generate a signal indicating sequentially scanned brightness levels along a series of parallel scan lines extending across the width in a specified area, and also include determining the maximum and minimum levels specified video signal for each of a series of adjacent subbands, collectively commensurate with the specified area, the calculation of the localized threshold between the United one of the maximum and minimum values for each of these subbands, the threshold processing of the specified video in the subzone on the basis of the subband to determine the transition points, where the signal undergoes changes brightness that cross localized thresholds, specify a series of pairs of lateral boundary points for the specified cell, based on the linear study of these transition points, the discovery that one of these pairs of boundary points contains a boundary point of maximum separation, and calculating distances between the boundary points of maximum separation as the result of measurement of the specified width, and also due to the fact that the I operation detection is limited by considering pairs of boundary points, located between the upper and lower bounds, due to the fact that the upper and lower bounds set by converting the gray pixels, and this portion is the above video shows the scan area, the intermediate switch black/white, the upper and lower boundaries are defined by upper and lower limits of these gray pixels, and, in addition, due to the fact that these localized thresholds set at brightness levels that are in the middle between the brightness levels displayed the specified minimum and maximum levels specified video.

This technical result in part of the first method of engraving cells on the surface of the rotating printing cylinder is achieved by a method for engraving cells on the surface of the rotating printing cylinder, comprising an introduction to the work of the cutter to etch the number of cells on the specified surface according to the invention provide measurements of the width of these cells, calculating a series of values of the error representing the difference between the measured widths and the corresponding desired values for specified widths, and regulation of the specified error was negligible.

This technical result in part of the second method of engraving cells on the surface of the rotating printing cylinder is achieved by a method for engraving cells on the surface of the rotating printing cylinder, comprising the production of a control signal, the engraving of these cells using said control signal to enter engraving cutter in the periodic engraving contact with this surface, according to the invention the control signal is produced as the control signal width of the cell, which includes a series of commands width of the cell, thus provide measurements the actual width of the cells, which were engrave, and the adjustment of the specified control signal width of the cell in accordance with the difference between the actual width of the cell and specified commands, the width of the cell, and also due to the fact that the specified operation is the measure includes the creation of images of these cells, the detection of transitions in these images, which are combined with the borders of these cells, and the use of these transitions for the definition of these valid widths, and due to the fact that the specified operation adjustment vklyuchae control signal width of the cell if the value of the specified parameter adjustments.

This technical result in part of the way engraving a series of cells on the surface of the shaped cylinder gravure printing is achieved by a method of etching a series of cells on the surface of the shaped cylinder gravure printing, driven in rotation about its cylindrical axis, which consists in the development of the video signal which varies in accordance with changes in brightness in the scanned original document, a temporary value with the specified rotation of the cylinder according to the invention includes creating a histogram indicating the number of instances where at a certain level each series of discrete signal representing the specified video, production control setting cell width, corresponding one of the specified signal levels, which is indicated by the specified histogram as happens most often, the production of the control signal width of the cell, based on the specified signal and the specified width control cells, and using the specified control signal width of the cell for the implementation of the engraving, as well as due to the fact that this parameter controls the width of the cell is solee common signal level, and due to the fact that it further comprises measuring the actual width of the cells, engrave upon receipt of the specified most common level signal, and adjusting the specified control signal width of the cell in accordance with the difference between the actual width of the cell and the desired width.

This technical result in part of the device for engraving cells pre-defined desired widths on the surface of the shaped cylinder gravure printing is achieved due to the fact that the device for engraving cells pre-defined desired widths on the surface of the shaped cylinder gravure printing, which includes engraving cutter, means for moving the engraving cutter in a direction parallel to the surface of the cylinder, and the drive of the cutter to enter the specified engraving cutter in the periodic engraving contact with this surface in such a way as to otgravirovany a series of cells, and controls, according to the invention provided with measuring means for measuring the actual width periodically select one of these cells, and controls are designed so that when the entry is valid width of these selected cells less than the desired width, and reducing the contact when the actual width of these selected cells is greater than the desired width.

In this group of inventions describes how to setup engraving device for engraving cylinders with the actual depth of cut according to a predetermined set of parameters; this method includes the following operations:

(a) determination of the magnitude of the error corresponding to the difference between the team of the cell size and the measured value obtained size engrave cells;

(b) adjustment command, the cell size of the cells in such a way as to avoid the observed errors.

In the present invention are also described development device and method of measuring the width of the engrave cell recognition of transitions from black to white in the scan lines of video information.

The present invention also offers engraving device and method of engraving, in which many of parametric signals are fed into a computer to generate commands for the width of the engraving. The input AC signal and the input signal are fed into the computer, where they are multiplied by the coefficients produced computerised with the processed signal to the AC signal to obtain a drive signal engraving cutter. The specified cutter engrave cells of the desired geometry.

The system uses a video camera to obtain a frame of video information including image cell high light, engrave video signal a certain level. A chain of video processing measures the width of the displayed cell and sends the result to the computer. The computer adjusts the multiplier and white offset, using the correction parameter is generated in a closed loop by accumulation of the difference between the expected width of the cell and measured the actual width of the cell.

The invention also provides a method and device for fast and automatic error detection width of the cells that fall outside certain limits. The frequency of occurrence of such large magnitude error indicates a failure of the cutter and automatically stops the process of engraving.

In Fig. 1 presents a diagram and partially a General view of the programmable engraving system in accordance with the present invention; Fig. 2 schematically shows the number of cells engraved on the printing cylinder of Fig. 3 shows the AC signals and the video signals to control engraving cutter and moving the cut is Irina cells and detection of breakage of the cutter in accordance with the invention; in Fig. 5 is a graphical depiction of the maximum depth of the cell in the feedback input signals in the range from 0 to 10 In Fig. 6 is a schematic representation of a video frame, including cell high light; Fig. 7 is a block diagram of the algorithm for measuring the width of the cell; Fig. 8A and 8b together presents a block diagram of another algorithm.

In Fig. 1 shows a cylinder for printing prints 10 mounted with the possibility of rotation of the driving motor 12 and the engraving engraving cutter (not shown) located on the engraving head 61. During the operation of engraving cutter moves to the printing cylinder 10 and from him to perform a number of cells along the track 30. The engine 14 lead screw 56 rotates the lead screw to move the cutter in a direction parallel to the axis of the cylinder 10. If the motor lead screw 14 operates continuously, the track 30 will have a spiral configuration. Intermittent turning of the motor 14 causes the execution of a number of spaced apart annular tracks 30.

The cutter is moved to engraving contact with the printing cylinder 10 of an electromagnetic actuator (not shown), responsive to the control signal of the drive on the bus 60. Managing signality the drive can be performed, as described in U.S. patent N 4440486 (Buhler).

The command signal has a component AC component of the video signal component and a white shift, WD, which ensure the operation of the engraving, as described below. Component of the alternating current received from the input alternating current signal which is transmitted to the computer 34 and is multiplied with the coefficient Ka. Videomastasia produced by the computer 34 by multiplying the input signal by a coefficient Kd.

The computer 34 generates the parameters Ka, Kd and WD by solving the system of three equations, as described below. Have a keypad 32 to facilitate entry of values for the constant in the above three equations. These are permanent black cell width, BW, the width of the groove CW, continuous cutter, Ks, and the black cell voltage, Vmax. If you want, you can also enter the shift boot, S.

As described in more detail below, a component of the AC signal causes the cutter to vary the sine wave relative to the printing cylinder 10 with a wavelength dependent on the velocity of the surface of the cylinder. The rotational speed of a drive motor 12 should be adjusted so that oberbauer 34 transmits the control signal to the motor lead screw 14 via the bus 24. This signal is adjusted so that the motor 14 moves the cutter along the axis at a distance equal to half the width of the black cell plus half the width of the connecting groove, plus the width of the separation wall whenever a full turnover of the printing cylinder 10.

The equation for Ka, Kd and WD assume a linear relationship between the input signal and the resulting width engrave cells. Although in many cases it is quite reasonable premise, sometimes requires additional adjustment. In this case, you can use tabulated amended, as is done in the patent application N 08/022, 127, which is reproduced here for reference.

Another problem is the drift. Although the computer 34 may be programmed accordingly and may initially give the correct value of the width of the cells, changing the gain of similar components or units mechanical change in the position of the engraving head 61 may require adjustment of the parameters in the equations used for the calculation of Ka, Kd and WD. For this purpose, the camera 46, which is focused on the track 30. The camera 46 looking at the part of the track 30, which is illuminated straberry the appropriate signals to the lamp 58 are served with the appropriate frequency and phase meter cell 42 via the bus 55. The counter 42 raster cell counts pulses generated by a clock generator 47 with a frequency greater than four times the frequency of the AC network. At the frequency of the clock pulse generator is produced at each quarter of the oscillation period engraving cutter.

The camera 46 are mounted on the frame 57, supported lead screw 56. The camera 46 can be adjusted in position relative to the frame 57 so that it has the ability to generate frames of video information, which is centered relative to the track 30. Mostly chamber 46 contains an array of elements with charge coupling, which creates a new frame of video information with each flash of the lamp 58. Mainly the lamp 58 and the video camera 46 are combined in a single unit with a common lens (not shown) so that the camera 46 may have a field of view of the surface of the cylinder, which is illuminated by the flashes of the lamp 58. Mainly a video camera 46 is a camera with auto focus, which can be focused on the surface, located in a certain distance range. Video processor 41 has the possibility of controlling the characteristics of the machine the ditch printing of different radius.

The geometrical configuration of the typical black cell, the connecting grooves of black cells, cells of high light and partition walls shown in Fig. 2. This drawing shows a number of broad and deep black cells 70 and a number of smaller and more narrow cells high light 76. Shown here are cells include parts of three engraved next to each other tracks 30. Black cell 70 have a maximum width BW. The control signal for the cutter is configured to provide a connecting groove 72 between successive cuts black cells 70. Grooves 72 have a width CW, whereas cells high light 76 has a width HW. The beveled edges of the cells 70 are the result of vertical vibrational movement of the cutter during the rotational movement of the printing cylinder 10 under the cutter. As shown in Fig. 2, a number of series engrave black cells 70 may be separated by a wall 74 from consistently engrave cells 70 (also shown as black cells) in the adjoining engraving track 30.

The number of cells whose configuration is shown in Fig. 2, is used to print a graphic image that identifies diagonally passing through the screen. The tangent screen is CA. Cutting the wavelength is a function of the surface speed of the printing cylinder 10 and the frequency of oscillation of the cutter. Thus, the angle of the screen can be adjusted by adjusting the rotational speed of a drive motor 12, however, such adjustment shall be made incremental steps in order to maintain an odd number of half-waves along the circumference of the printing cylinder. On the other hand, the angle of the screen can be adjusted by adjusting the distance between the vertical rows by changing the operating speed of the stepper motor screw 14.

The control signals drive the cutter and the resulting vertical movement of the cutter shown in Fig. 3. Control signal to the actuator is obtained by the addition of an alternating current signal 80 to the video signal 82. Shown here, the video signal 82 has, for example, white videosover 86, black videosover 88 and videosover high light 90. The video signal and the alternating current signal is combined with a shift in such a way that the cutter rises and loses contact with the cylindrical surface throughout the time when the video signal 82 has a white level 86. Minimum rise of white equal to WD.

When the video signal 82 moves with white urovnem position the cutter makes oscillatory movement between the minimum depth of a CD and a maximum depth of BD. When the cutter is at a depth of CD, he etches a connecting groove 72. When the video signal 82 is moved to a high level of light, indicated by the numeral 90, the cutter makes oscillatory movement between a position outside engraving contact with the cylinder 10 and the position of engraving with a maximum depth of HD. The alternating current signal 80, the video signal 82 and white offset signal generated by the computer 34.

In the described embodiment of the invention, the computer 34 generates a command of the width of the engraving W to drive the engraving cutter in accordance with the expression:

W = KaA(sin(*t)-1)-WD+KdV)/Ks

where Ka is the gain of the alternating current (AC);

A - maximum value of the input signal AC;

angular frequency of the input signal AC;

t - time;

V - the value of the video;

Kd is the gain of the video signal;

WD - depth white;

Ks is a constant engraving cutter.

The values of A and stored in the computer 34, and usually do not change. Ks is an adjustable input parameter and is entered using the keyboard 32.

Videoselena receive from the equation

Kd = Ks (BW - HW) / (Vmax- Vh),

the iza video as will be described later, and HW are selected from the memory as a tabulated function of Vh.

The depth of the white is found from the expression:

WD = Kd VmaxKs BW

gain AC is calculated in accordance with the expression:

Ka = -A(Ks CW + WD - Kd Vmax)/A.

When (Sin (*t) = 1 and V = Vh, then the command to select the width causes the cutter to engrave the widest part of the bright cells. This is the ideal case when no error

HW = (-WD + Kd Vh)/Ks.

However, there is usually an error engraving E, so that the measured width of the brightest cell is:

HW = (-WD + Kd Vh)/Ks - E.

The computer 34 performs the compensation of this error E using the adjustment option C when the development team on the width of the engraving. This parameter adjustments produced in the system with a closed feedback loop, which includes a video processor 41 and the chamber 46.

Before engraving set the value of C, is equal to the original value or to zero. During grawerowanie computer 34 causes the video processor to generate a series of values of HM for a number of cells that gravious at times, when V = Vh. For each such measurement, the computer 34 calculates the error of the width of virada errors in the form of progressions adjustments. Also used by the gain G, so that

C = (G*E).

In the simplest embodiment of the invention the calculated value of C is simply added to the team on the width of the engraving. When this corrected command width takes the form

W = KaA(sin(*t)-1)-WD+KdV)/Ks+C

The adjustment value C is produced only in response to the measurement cells, which were engrave, when V was set to Vh. However, in the calculation of W is always present contribution from the last calculated values of C. regardless of the type of use adjustment option C, its value increases from zero initial installation to a value which substantially eliminates any error on the width of the brightest engrave cells, and significantly reduce errors engraving width for cells of other types. For all cases closed-loop G is set to a value which provides a narrow but stable control range. In most cases, a value close to 1.0, is satisfactory.

As can be seen from Fig. 5, the maximum depth of the cell is directly proportional to the input signal. As the black cell. For the example shown here, the computer 34 wondered width high light HW = 0.25 in BW. Therefore, the depth of the HD cells to high light is 25% of BD. The diagram also reflects the setting of 3 for Kh. Under these conditions, the video signal having the amplitude equal to 30% of the "black" signal, provides cut to a depth, which is only 25% of the depth of the black cells. As a result the maximum depth of the cell is equal to zero when the value of the input video signal is of the order of 0.7 Century, When the video signal having a smaller magnitude, the cutter out of contact with the printing cylinder. For the "white" of the input video cutter away from the engraving cylinder on the minimum distance WD, which is white offset.

It is important that the position of the camera 46 could be adjusted so that you can see exactly specific location of the track 30. It should be noted that when the engraving head strobiles single cell. To this end, the cutter engraving is included on the test track at one end of the cylinder 10. The camera 46 strobirovaniya thus, to create a sequence of images that are analyzed by the processor 41. Simultaneously, the computer 34 calculates the gates of the camera who knows the test track, it shall transmit to the computer 34, the signal on the preservation of the count. This result of calculation is used in a computer to control the timing of the gate line 55, to obtain images of the certain cell, relative to which it is known that she was engrave at certain points in time.

In Fig. 4A and 4B illustrate the above method of controlled engraving and error correction. The method begins at start point 400 and is implemented in block 402, in which the computer 34 using the keyboard 32 are introduced black width BW, channel width CW, permanent engraving cutter Ks and the maximum value of the video signal Vmax. The correction parameter C is initialized with a zero value (block 404), then the computer 34 processes the header block of video data to determine the most frequently occurring value videopresence. The value is set equal to Vh (block 406). This value Vh is used as the address for reading the desired value of HW memory (block 408). Then, the computer 34 performs calculation of Kd (block 410), WD (block 412) and Ka (block 414). Although it is not shown in Fig. 4A and 4B, the computer 34 can at the same time to develop a team for the ü previously. After it can be started engraving printed raster cells.

It should be borne in mind that the video signal has a digital form, so there is always one or another discrete level. The computer performs the sampling of the video signal and creates a histogram of the video signal by counting the number of signals at each level of quantization of the signal. To signal the brightest cells suggest that Vh associated with this level of videopresence, which has the largest number of occurrences of the event.

In the normal process of engraving the computer 34 performs reading of the image elements (block 416) and generates commands for the width of the engraving machine for engraving cells (block 418). After completion of etching any cell, the computer 34 checks the completeness of the work (point 420) and exits (point 422), if the engraving is completed. If the engraving is not completed, then updates videohistory (block 424) and checks to determine whether to adjust Vh (point 426). If so, it is appropriate adjustment (block 428) and the new value HW is read from the memory (block 430). After that, the computer 3 is Xia whether the current pixel is brightest pixel. If the current pixel is brightest pixel, then the measurement of the width of the cell (block 442) and calculate the error width (block 444). Otherwise, the program returns to block 416, where it reads the value of the other pixel.

The measured error is used in block 450 to update the correction parameter, but only in the case when the error does not exceed a predefined limit. The check is performed at the point 446 "limit Exceeded". If you exceed the value of the maximum permissible error, then is the marginal increment in the counter (block 456), and then checks to determine not exceeded the limit for three consecutive measurements (point 458). If so, then the program goes from point 460 and the etching is terminated. At this point of time can be included appropriate tools alarm to inform the operator about the need for verification of damage engraving cutter.

Typically, to determine C should be used, the function of integration so that option was approaching a non-zero constant state value. However, the integrated correction parameter mojean rather as a multiplication factor for the team width of the cell, than as the ratio of addition. It can also be used as a multiplier or as an offset for any of the variables used in the calculation commands the width of the cell. The preferred use depends upon the nature of the subject to correct the error. In a system in which the error changes when we change the value of the video signal, the calculated value of C can be added to Kd, but only with the proviso that whenever regulated by C, is re-calculation of the WD and Ka. In another embodiment, when there is a drift in the initial position engraving cutter, C can be added to the WD, then re-calculate Ka. In those cases, when a variable correction used with polarity, which shifts the value of the width of the cell in the right direction, the adjustment continues until E becomes equal to zero.

Then the value of BW is used when calculating the parameters of engraving. Using the keyboard 32 in the computer 34 may also be entered parameter adjustment S associated with the distance between the engraving head 61 and the printing cylinder 10. If there is such a parameter, it is treated as a shift width, multiplied by Ks and added to BW, CW and the flexible calculate the magnitude of the error E for cells which were engrave in response to receipt of the video signal V having a value equal to Vh. In the above-described embodiment of the invention, the computer 34 from time to time produces the adjustment Vh to find a match with the value V, which has the highest accumulated current number. There is also the possibility to resume counting from time to time, so as to localize in practice, the algorithm setup the brightest cells. This may be desirable for graphic reproductions of very large size. As described above, the preset value HW combined with each quantized value Vh. HW can be selected from a stored table or calculated from an appropriately composed empirical expressions.

The "outside limit" may be displayed when error is detected, the width of the cell, which exceeds any predetermined value. In a typical application of the invention is desirable maximum permissible error may be of the order of about 10 microns. If this limit is exceeded by more than the prescribed number of times, then the machine stops, as previously mentioned. At this point, the operator checks the engraving is which may accumulate on its surface. Then the operator starts a new sequence test engraving. After this engraving machine is returned to the circulation, prior to the turnover, which was originally found the "outside limit". The coils with the error are then re-engraving, and then engraving machine stops, the operator can check the result. If re-engrave the ranks of acceptable, then the work continues. Otherwise, replacement of cylinder seals.

In Fig. 6 shows a typical video frame 600 that includes an image of the cells to high light 606, which was engrave before generating the gate that created the frame 600. The frame 600 includes a number of horizontal lines that are too numerous to display them on the drawing. Representative horizontal videotrace denoted by reference number 602. These lines are which using no subsampling the image of the cell occupied by the gate. The actual dimensions of the cell are measured by these lines.

Video processor 41 processes the line 602 sequentially from top to bottom. The video goes through the strengthening of localized threshold. This technique provides is determined by the bright and dark pixels for each site. Then set the threshold black/white at the level of the average brightness between the bright and dark pixels. Those pixels of the plot that are lighter than the threshold are considered to be white, and those that are darker than the threshold to black. Handled all rectangular areas, and the brightness of each pixel is black or white depending on the brightness level, related to localized threshold.

As it processes each line of video information on a threshold value, it checks for the presence of transitions from black to white and from white to black. In Fig. 6 transitions from black to white are shown by symbols indicated by the number 610, while the transitions from white to black are shown by symbols indicated by the number 611. Thus, a set of boundary lines, as shown in Fig. 6 rooms, 604, 605, 606, 607, 608 and 609. These boundary lines define the white area 650.

Video processor 41 recognizes the white area 650 610 transitions from black to white, followed by a transition 611 from white to black. For each pair of transitions of the video processor 41 sets the first linked list. If the programming is done, for example, in C, then a is connected is rdinate X on the left and right borders of the white area, marked by a pair of transitions. Linked list for each line scan 602 are connected with these associated lists of the previous line scan by comparing the boundary points.

Of the first six videotrak 602 shown in Fig. 6, appears only white one interval (one linked list). However, on the seventh horizontal line indicated by the number a, there are two additional transition point 611D, 610d. These two new transition points mark the boundaries of the cell 60 high light. You can see that the appearance of the cells to high light 60 calls a "splitting" white area 650. Video processor 41 responds to this splitting of the establishment of the second and third binding lists to replace the first processed linked list.

When splitting, the video processor knows that there is a high cell light 606. Video processor compares the left border of the third linked list with the right edge of the second linked list to determine the width of the cells to high light 606. Cell width high light is calculated for each line scan 602 and compared with the width of the cell high light calculated for the previous line. Every time is when the intermediate black area (b) and two legs white area 650 is not closed. At this point, the measurement will be aborted and the processor stores in the memory the observed maximum HW. Then the video processor 41 transmits this value HW in the computer 34. The computer 34 binds the resulting value is HW specific command on the engraving, which was sent to the cutter before the gate, which generates a video frame.

In Fig.7 described above, the measurement process is shown in the form of a graph. Thus, the measurement HW begins at the starting point 136 and passes through the scanning unit 138. As described above, the capture or scanning frame is triggered strobe signal on the bus 55.

After scanning frame video processor checks the line number at the point 140. If you have reached the lower border of the frame to return to a point 142. If the lower edge of the frame has not yet been reached, the program proceeds to block 144, where it sets the transition point 610, 611. The program then gets the white areas in the node 146 for use in the above-described communication lists. The program then looking at the splitting point 148. If you observe a splitting of the two resulting communication list generated in the host 152 host 154 is selected.

The program checks the status of the check point 156 and, in slugnet and there is no need to measure the width of the cell. Therefore, the program simply increments the line number in the block 164 and returns to the point 140.

If the check point 156 indicates that the check box is selected, the program checks at point 158. If the merge is detected, the program exits the loop measurement. If the merger had not taken place, the program checks the distance separating the two legs white area 650. This is the distance at point 160 is compared with previously stored in the memory of the separation distances. If the new separation distance is greater than any of the previously recorded distance, HW is set equal to this distance. Referring to Fig. 6, we see that the first separation distance is the distance between points 611d and 610d. This distance increases to until the program reaches a point 611a and 610a. At this point the separation distance maximum and further HW correction is not performed.

Then the video processor 41 sends the measured value HW back into the computer 34 to control the width of the cell with a closed loop.

In Fig. 8A and 8b presents another variant of the invention, in which the measured cell width, the width of the grooves and the magnitude of the error E. In this embodiment, the video processor 41 determines) the Expected what is the actual measurement and the scan cell is in the center of the frame 600.

After you define all boundary points of transition are determined by the maximum and minimum distances between the transition points, which lie on the same horizontal scan line 602. These quantities are usually deducted by the video processor 41, which results in obtaining a value related to the distance between the walls of the cells to high light 606. Then the video processor 41 scales these values in the dimensions of the picture elements of the video camera 46 (Fig. 1).

It should be noted that the minimum distance defined by the video processor 41, corresponds to the width of the grooves. If the video processor 41 determines that the minimum distance is less than zero, it is assumed that the groove is missing and this location is high light. As in the case of the maximum distance, the minimum distance between transitions from black to white and from white to black, which lie on the same line 602, scaled to the size of the picture elements of the video camera 46 (Fig. 1).

In Fig. 8A shows the measurement process, beginning with a start block 170 and the continuing explosion of data frame in block 172. After esta small localized sectors in this embodiment of the invention help the video processor 41 and the computer 34 to process the data faster. This is similar to the measurement process described above with reference to Fig. 7. For each localized sector are determined threshold point (block 176), which allows you to find the transition point from white to black and from black to white (block 181). Then the maximum and minimum transition point specific line scan are identified by the video processor 41 in block 182. These maximum and minimum points of transition are considered as the corresponding lateral cell borders. In block 183 memory areas which store video information, covering the area between the maximum and minimum transitions for each line, filled gray pixels.

At point 184 video processor 41 checks - do I have the memory of the sides of the 625 and 627 (Fig. 6). If achieved, the parties 625 and 627, the video processor 41 determines that the measurement cells or grooves is not performed (block 186). If the parties 625 and 627 are not achieved, the video processor 41 determines the memory is full to the brim 621 or bottom 623 at point 188. If the top 621 or bottom 623 reached, the video processor 41 calculates the width of the groove and the width of the cell in block 190, using the maximum and minimum values determined in block 186. If the top 621 or bottom 623 not tostesterone video processor 41 out of the process at the point 194, then the error E is determined by the computer 34, as described above.

It should be noted that the described system can be used during initial installation or during normal operation of the engraving device. Thus, the described system and method can provide a display of the actual measurements in "real time" and the correction of errors E of any size in real-time.

It should be borne in mind that the method of measuring cell in accordance with the present invention allows measurement of cell size when printing cylinder 10 in a stationary state (that is, not as it rotates). It should also be noted that the proposed system and the measurement method can measure cell size when open-loop feedback. Thus obtained measurement results can be displayed on the display to a human operator, who can then manually adjust the corresponding parameter adjustments.

Although the described method and device for its implementation relate to preferred variants of the present invention, the experts it is clear that the invention is not limited to the invention, encompassed by the following claims.

1. Engraving gravure printing machine, comprising a rotatable printing cylinder and being with him into engraving contact with the cutter, means to create vibrations of the tool, characterized in that it contains a video camera for generating image signals representing images of cells that were engrave the specified tool, tools, video processing for the signal processing of the specified image and generate a feedback signal indicating the size of the cells, which were engrave the specified cutter, and calculation tools, which upon receipt of the specified feedback signal to produce the adjustment of the cutter.

2. Engraving machine, gravure printing, containing the supporting means of the printing cylinder, drive means during rotation of the printing cylinder relative to its cylindrical axis, a cutter for engraving cells on the surface of the specified cylinder of the printing means of the drive of the cutter in contact with the surface of the cylinder and controls the engraving containing money-making video designed to generate a video signal, characterized in that the video signal for the tion includes the tools for setpoint input parameters setpoint, specifies the desired relationship between the brightness levels and widths of these cells, calculation tools, which upon receipt of the specified setpoint and the specified signal to produce a series of commands on the engraving width of the cell and measurement tools designed to measure the widths of the cells, engrave tool, and to generate a corresponding feedback signal width of the cell, and these calculation tools when applying for them the specified feedback signal width of the cell to produce the adjustment specified commands engraving width of the cell so that the widths of the cells in the specified feedback signal is subject to a specified value, when this cutter is made with engraving cells controlled width.

3. Engraving machine under item 2, characterized in that the above calculation tools provides tools to develop a range of values of the error representing a difference between the widths of the series engrave cells, which displayed a feedback signal width of the cell, and the respective widths of a series of commands for the specified engrave cells, as well as means of production paramei specified adjustments to regulate these commands engraving width of the cell.

4. Engraving machine for PP.2 and 3, characterized in that the said measurement means includes a video camera for generating image signals representing images of cells that were engrave cutter, and means for rendering intended for processing the specified image signal to produce the specified feedback signal width of the cell.

5. Engraving machine, gravure printing, containing tools for creating vibrations of the cutter, in engraving contact with the rotating printing cylinder, means video processing and provide the feedback signal, characterized in that it is provided with a device for detecting damage of the specified cutter, which includes a video camera for generating image signals representing images of cells that were engrave tool, tools, video processing, is performed for the signal processing of the specified image and means to generate a feedback signal indicating the size of the cells, which were engrave cutter, means for generating error signals representing the difference between these dimensions and the command value, tools and alerts that are triggered when above the ina under item 5, characterized in that it further includes calculation means for counting the number of consecutive cases of exceeding the error signal of the specified predetermined limit, and means for prohibiting generation of the specified warning up until the specified number reaches a predetermined value.

7. Engraving machine under item 6, characterized in that the above calculation tools contains tools that produce the specified warning in the case when the value of the specified signal error displays the error of the width of the cell is greater than approximately 10 microns.

8. Engraving machine under item 6, characterized in that the said means of prohibiting produce the specified warning when the count exceeds the number 3.

9. The method of measuring the width of a cell that is within a particular zone on the surface of the shaped cylinder gravure printing, which includes scanning the specified area, wherein to scan a specified area using a video camera, which is used to generate a signal indicating sequentially scanned brightness levels along the row pair is high and the minimum levels specified video signal for each of a series of adjacent subbands, collectively commensurate with the specified area, the calculation of the localized threshold between the United one of the maximum and minimum values for each of these subbands, the threshold processing of the specified video in the subzone on the basis of the subband to determine the transition points, where the signal undergoes changes brightness that cross localized thresholds, setting a series of pairs of lateral boundary points for the specified cell, based on the linear study of these transition points, the discovery that one of these pairs of boundary points contains a boundary point of maximum separation, and calculating distances between the boundary points of maximum separation as the result of measurement of the specified width.

10. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that it further comprises the operation of establishing upper and lower bounds of the specified cell, while this discovery is limited to consideration of pairs of boundary points, which are located between the upper and lower bounds.

11. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the upper and lower bounds set by converting the gray pixels, and this portion ukazoo switch black/white, these upper and lower bounds are defined by upper and lower limits of these gray pixels.

12. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that the said localized thresholds set at brightness levels that are in the middle between the brightness levels displayed the specified minimum and maximum levels specified video.

13. Method of engraving cells on the surface of the rotating printing cylinder, comprising an introduction to the work of the cutter to etch the number of cells on a given surface, characterized in that provide measurements of the width of these cells, calculating a series of values of the error representing the difference between the measured widths and the corresponding desired values for specified widths, and regulation of the cutter in such a way as to produce the subsequent engraving of cells so that these error values was negligible.

14. Method of engraving a series of cells on the surface of the shaped cylinder gravure printing, driven in rotation about its cylindrical axis, which consists in the development of the video signal which varies in accordance with changes is characterized in that he includes creating a histogram indicating the number of instances where at a certain level each series of discrete signal representing the specified video, production control setting cell width corresponding to one of the specified signal levels, which is indicated by the specified histogram as happens most often, the production of the control signal width of the cell, based on the specified signal and the specified width control cells, and using the specified control signal width of the cell to perform engraving.

15. The method according to p. 14, wherein the specified parameter controls the width of the cells is a desirable width for cells that gravious when receiving video signals having specified the most common level signal.

16. The method according to p. 15, characterized in that it further comprises measuring the actual width of the cells, engrave upon receipt of the specified most common level signal, and adjusting the specified control signal width of the cell in accordance with the difference between the actual width of the cell and gellately the production of the control signal, engraving these cells using said control signal to enter engraving cutter in the periodic engraving contact with this surface, characterized in that the control signal is produced as the control signal width of the cell, which includes a series of commands width of the cell, thus provide measurements the actual width of the cells, which were engrave, and adjusting specified control signal width of the cell in accordance with the difference between the actual width of the cell and specified commands, the width of the cell.

18. The method according to p. 17, wherein the specified operation is the measure includes the creation of images of these cells, the detection of transitions in these images, which are combined with the borders of these cells, and the use of these transitions for the definition of these valid widths.

19. The method according to p. 17, wherein the specified operation adjustment includes the summation of these differences for the development of parameter adjustment and modification of the specified control signal width of the cell if the value of the specified parameter adjustments.

obakoy print about its cylindrical axis, engraving cutter, engraving head in which the specified cutter is installed near the specified printing cylinder, the drive of the cutter, characterized in that it has a video camera with auto focus to create images of cells that engrave using a cutter, means the rendering processing of these images and to generate a feedback signal, which carries information about the widths of cells that engrave using the cutter, and calculation tools for the production of a specified control signal width of the cell in accordance with the desired width of these cells and to regulate the specified control signal width of the cell in accordance with the difference between the specified desired width and a width defined by the specified feedback signal, and the drive of the cutter upon receipt of the specified signal width control cells creates vibrations of the cutter and enters it into engraving contact with the specified cylinder printing.

21. Engraving machine on p. 20, characterized in that it further comprises a lead screw to move a specified engraving head in a direction parallel to the specified cylindrical axis, when sahraa further comprises means for counting cells for the implementation of the calculation of these cells and to generate Gating signals to activate the specified camera to create images of a predetermined one of the cells.

23. Device for engraving cells pre-defined desired widths on the surface of the shaped cylinder gravure printing, which includes engraving cutter, means for moving the engraving cutter in a direction parallel to the surface of the cylinder, and the drive of the cutter to enter the specified engraving cutter in the periodic engraving contact with this surface in such a way as to otgravirovany a series of cells, and control means, characterized in that it is provided with a measuring means for measuring the actual width periodically select one of these cells, and controls designed if on receipt of signal from the said measuring means affect the drive of the tool, increasing the contact when the actual width of these selected cells is less than the desired width, and reducing the contact when the actual width of these selected cells is greater than the desired width.

24. Engraving gravure printing machine, comprising support means for maintaining with the possibility of rotation of the printing cylinder, means drive it in rotation about its cylindrical axis, and resi video camera to scan the selected cells, which engrave by means of engraving machines, and to create their images, video processor for processing the above images and to generate the signals, which carry information about the width of these cells, and Gating means operating synchronously with the specified drive means to select these cells.

 

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FIELD: metal working in number program controlled machines.

SUBSTANCE: cutter includes active portion and stem. Cutter apex is arranged in its axis belonging to front surface. Main and trailing back faces are equally inclined relative to cutter axis and they cross front surface by positive back angles relative to main and trailing cutting edges having their own angles in plan view. Trailing back surfaces form second pair of surfaces inclined by the same angles relative to cutter axis. Inclination angles of main and trailing back surfaces relative to cutter axis is determined by value of back angle of main cutting edge. Trailing back surfaces are inclined by less angles relative to cutter axis. Active portion of cutter has at least with two chamfers equally inclined relative to cutter axis.

EFFECT: enhanced strength of cutter, improved stability of manufacturing process.

5 cl, 19 dwg

FIELD: micro- and(or) nano-technology.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of removing allowance in central zone of working during rough pass and then finishing surfaces of lateral faces of shaped fragments of pattern along the whole depth of rough working pass. It is realized at using only one lateral edge of cutter to be rotated around its lengthwise axis in curvilinear and broken portions of its cutting path while providing optimal three-dimension position of front surface of cutter relative to cutting surface. Rough passes are performed by means of cutter while using in first pass simultaneously two lateral cutting edges and then using only one of said cutting edges turned to formed lateral face of shaped fragment of pattern. In order to enhance accuracy and quality of working by providing possibility of removing allowance in zones of pattern with broken cutting path during process of removing allowance remained after rough working at finishing, in zones of internal angles of broken portion of cutting path and in zone of portions with small joining radius cutter is lifted for providing outlet of its working part onto upper plane of functional layer of article. Then cutter is turned by angle normalized by cutting path going-on line and it is again fed-in to allowance portion remained after lifting cutter by initial depth. Cutter is lifted and descended while simultaneously imparting to it main cutting motion into zone of removed allowance. Planing cutter includes stem and working part restricted by flat front surface with lateral cutting edges and profiled back surface with lead angle equal to zero for forming end portion of working part. Cross section of working portion is in the form of axially symmetrical figure. Generatrices of back surface are inclined by the same angles relative to axis of cutter stem. End portion of working part is flat one and it is the form of oval-half whose plane is spatially inclined by acute angle relative to front surface. Rib formed by crossing of end portion and front surface serves functionally as third cutting edge; it is oriented by angle 90° relative to lengthwise axis of cutter.

EFFECT: improved accuracy and quality of planing by such cutter.

7 cl, 20 dwg

Planing cutter // 2311271

FIELD: working materials by cutting, engraving relief structures.

SUBSTANCE: cutter includes stem and cutting part in the form of trihedral truncated pyramid having lateral faces inclined by acute angle relative to lengthwise symmetry axis of stem; small base of said pyramid is apex of cutter. In order to improve efficiency, said truncated pyramid is regular one. Each lateral face of such pyramid is designed for using as front surface depending upon its spatial position relative to cutting direction. Symmetry axis of cutting portion may be matched with lengthwise symmetry axis of stem.

EFFECT: improved design of cutter.

2 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: printing industry.

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EFFECT: development of data medium having high extent of counterfeit protection.

29 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of scratch-off printing dies. Proposed device comprises the following elements: cylindrical element for article to be processed to be secured thereat, at least, one drive module to make cylindrical element reciprocate about its rotational axis, and, at least, one processing module to remove material from the article at, at least, definite sections thereof. Note here that processing module is equipped with, at least, one processing tool including milling module for mechanical engraving, laser module for laser engraving and turning module.

EFFECT: compact design, complex-shape patterns.

29 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: printing industry.

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EFFECT: provision of complex design, high protection from counterfeit.

36 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

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EFFECT: higher accuracy of processing.

42 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

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EFFECT: expansion of functional resources.

21 cl, 14 dwg

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