Device for separating solid particles impact type (options)


F23C11/02 -
F22B37/40 - Arrangements of partition walls in flues of steam boilers, e.g. built-up from baffles (in flues or chimneys F23J0013000000)

 

(57) Abstract:

Wash discharge chute device separator of solid particles drums of the type used in boilers with circulating fluidized bed (LTP), include many of the funnel-shaped discharge tray 36 located at the lower end of each of the cutting elements 38 of the separator of solid particles 16 of the shock type. Funnel-shaped discharge tray 36 prevent the accumulation caught their particles, allowing the particles captured the bumper elements 38, to fall through them, but without the flow of the combustion gas of the lower ends of the separator particles 16 of the shock type. The output part 42 of the funnel-shaped discharge tray 36 provide essentially the same square surface area for through-the fall of trapped particles as that which exists in each associated bumper element 38. The invention can be soothed wrap gas separator and thereby reduce the corrosion of convective heating surfaces. 2 C. and 15 C.p. f-crystals, 10 ill.

The invention concerns a device for separating solid particles drums of the type used in boilers with circulating fluidized bed (GCHQ), the reactor and/otgruzochnogo chute device for such separators of solid particles of shock type, do not allow the accumulation in it of trapped particles and simultaneously preventing flow carrying particles and flue gas lower ends of such separators solids percussion type.

Boiler system LTP is known and used in the production of steam for industrial purposes and/or electricity generation. See, for example, U.S. patent N 5343830 issued to Alexander and others In the reactors DSP host and not taking part in the reaction, the solid particles are captured in the reactor vessel with an upward stream of gas carrying solid particles to the exit in the upper part of the reactor, where the solid particles are separated with separators particles. Trapped particles return to the bottom of the reactor.

In one of the boiler LTP at the outlet of the furnace for separating solid particles from flue gas using multiple separators particle impact type (or concave reflective elements, or U-shaped cross-beams). In U.S. patent N 4992085 and 4891052 issued Belino and others described such traps solid particles impact type. Although these traps can have various designs, usually they are called "U-shaped cross" because they most often have a U-shaped cross-section is, where they are placed vertically in at least two rows across the outlet of the furnace, and trapped particles freely and omnidirectional fall under the capture elements along the rear wall of the casing. In furnaces typically use two rows of such separators particles of shock type, usually in combination with two or four rows below it in the direction of flow, outer (relative to the furnace shell) separators particle impact type. Below the traps also catch particles and return them to the oven, or through the hopper and the L-shaped flap, or directly inside and through the cavity, as shown in U.S. patent N 5343830 issued to Alexander and others are lower in the direction of flow outdoor traps particles impact the type required for the reason that the effectiveness located upstream of the internal separators particles percussion type is not enough to prevent excessive removal of solid material below the channel for convection gas which can lead to erosion of the convection surfaces and increase the required performance equipment for recovery and recycling of secondary particles.

As it is, to prevent the flow of the combustion gas of all or part of the separators, for example by passing under them through the hopper or cavity. If we allow this flow of gas, a portion of the solid particles "Wake up" or will be re-captured flue gas. In order to prevent this, the bunker served a large plate. In the plate there are plenty of holes in which are inserted the lower ends of the U-shaped crossbars. Later in another design used a bottom plate or flat discharge tray located across the lower ends of each of the U-shaped cross-section elements. These trays as large stove, also separate the main channel for the flue gas from the tank or cavity and do not allow the flue gas to pass over the accumulated particles. Flat discharge tray is also used to align the lower end of each U-shaped cross member with the adjacent U-shaped crossbars.

Known flat discharge trays consist of a flat horizontal plate and the vertical edges on four sides facing down and forming the side walls of each of the discharge tray. In each of the horizontal flat plates has a hole through which passes the channel matched the ez hole in a horizontal flat plate.

The holes in the flat discharge trays are limited in size and correspond to square, closed vertically placed elements of separators of solid particles drum-type or U-shaped crossbars. When a large number of items it is impossible to completely eliminate the flow of gas under separators, but it can be reduced to an acceptable level.

In another attempt to minimize the flow of gas made in the production environment modifications apply box or cone with the smaller holes around and below each hole in a flat discharge tray for discharging solid particles in the hopper. Although initially this seems a satisfactory solution, however, after a certain period of operation found that these boxes or cones become clogged due to sintering of the captured particles.

Components of certain fuels, or a fluidized bed may cause a tendency to caking or agglomeration of solid particles circulating in boilers GCHQ, and the collected solid material can accumulate in the depth of the horizontal part of the famous flat discharge tray U-shaped crossbars. This tendency to sintering of particulate material is compounded by the fact that TV is the continuation of this process, the accumulation of solid material causes an increase in the load on the U-shaped cross member, restricting the passage of gas through the lower part of the reservoir U-shaped cross above their flat discharge trays, and in extreme cases may partially restrict the discharge of particles from a single U-shaped crossbars. Limitation or disruption of gas flow through the bottom portion of U-shaped cross above the flat discharge trays, and partial restriction of discharge of the individual U-shaped crossbars can lead to a restriction of catching efficiency.

The main purpose of the present invention is to offer self-cleaning discharge tray device that does not allow the accumulation of solid material on the discharge trays, without increasing while the open area between the area above the upper part of the discharge trays (i.e., in the flue gas channel) and area under the unloading trays. By preventing the accumulation of solid material is not allowed the emergence of the conditions for sintering stranded solid material in the lower part of the bumper elements.

Accordingly one aspect of the present invention relates to a device is knogo gas boiler LTP, providing flushing particles from the space between the adjacent fender elements, as well as from the inside of the cutting element, and minimizes flow gas to the lower end of the particle separation. On the bumper element is provided a funnel-shaped discharge chute having an input part for entering the lower end of the cutting element and the output part for discharging therefrom the solid particles. The output part has an area of exhaust flow approximately equal to the square open stream bounded by the sides of the cutting element, while the input part has a square input stream is greater than the area of the exhaust stream exit part, and provides mounting means for mounting the discharge tray to the lower end of the cutting element.

The funnel shape virtually eliminates the presence of unloading the trays horizontal surfaces. The area of the discharge aperture in the bottom of the output of each funnel-shaped discharge tray approximately equal to the area of the open flow within each of the cutting element and does not exceed the holes in the horizontal flat discharge trays, as described earlier. Any flow of gases below the discharge end of voranc the material, limited to at least the degree, which is achieved with the well-known horizontal flat discharge trays. The location of the reverse side of each cutting element against the rear side of each funnel-shaped discharge tray helps prevent the flow of gases under each fender element and above falling down solids captured each fender element (which may lead to the re-capture of solid particles by the flow of the combustion gas).

The various features of novelty which characterize the invention, are specifically listed in the attached claims forming part of the present description. In order to better understand the invention, its advantages and specific benefits associated with its use, reference to the accompanying drawings and descriptive manner in which is illustrated the preferred implementations of the invention.

In Fig. 1 shows an image of the slit on the side of the upper part of the boiler LTP, showing the primary particle separator drum type, containing both furnace and outer U-shaped cross member of Fig. 2 shows a partial image of the cross section from Fig. 1, the radio funnel-shaped discharge trays, which is the subject of the present invention; and Fig. 10 shows an image side slit, similar to Fig. 1, and showing another embodiment of the present invention.

In this case, the term "boiler DSP" will be applied to the reactors LTP or furnaces, in which a combustion process. While the present invention relates primarily to boilers or steam generators, in which the furnace DSPS are used as tools for production of thermal energy, it is obvious that the present invention can be applied to another type of reactor LTP. For example, the invention can be applied in the reactor, which is used for performing chemical reactions that differ from the combustion process, or in which the mixture of gas and solid particles from the combustion process occurring in a different place, into the reactor for further processing, or when the reactor is just a cover, in which particles or solid material entrained, it is not necessarily a byproduct of the combustion process. Similarly, the term "U-shaped cross member" will be used to denote separators particles of shock type, such as described in U.S. patent N 4891052, the poco can be applied to any type of concave cutting elements or separators particles of shock type, used to capture and remove particles from the carrier particles of the combustion gases. In particular, the particle separators shock type are not flat; they can be U-shaped, E-shaped, W-shaped or may have a different shape, if only they have a concave or cupped surface opposing the incoming flow of the combustion gases and particles captured them, allowing the elements to trap and remove particles from the flue gas.

In the drawings, in General, on which the same numeric positions denoted by identical or functionally similar elements, and in Fig. 1 in particular, shown the upper part 10 of the boiler LTP with application to it being present invention. In the boiler furnace GCHQ or the reactor of the combustion process and formed with him a mixture of 12 flue gas and solid particles enclosed between walls 14 with liquid cooling. The walls of the casing pipes are usually separated from each other by a steel partition wall 15 (Fig. 1 not shown; see Fig. 2) in order to achieve a gas-tight casing. A mixture of 12 flue gas and solid particles passes upward through the reactor vessel of the boiler LTP in the upper part 10, passing a portion of the contained heat to the walls of the casing 14 with liquid cooling is I capture particles from a mixture 12 of the combustion gases and particles and return them at the bottom (not shown) of the furnace LTP. In the shown preferred embodiment of the invention the particle separator 16 shock type consists of 4-8 rows of concave or bowl-shaped cutting elements 18 which, in accordance with the previous description will in General be referred to as U-shaped cross member 18. U-shaped cross member 18 in General divided into two groups: the upper group 20, consisting of two or more rows, which is usually called penimi U-shaped cross members 20, and the lower band 22, consisting of 2-6 series. U-shaped cross member 18 is lowered from the roof of the boiler LTP and usually made of stainless steel to withstand high temperature erosive conditions inside the boiler LTP, but application and other materials suitable for such conditions, and U-shaped cross member 18 is typically designed in accordance with the provisions of U.S. patent 4992085, the description of which is included here as a reference.

U-shaped cross member 18 as the upper group 20, and the bottom group 22 are located in the upper part 10 of the boiler LTP height and width of the output parts of the boiler furnace LTP. Because the particles of a mixture of 12 flue gas and solid material, have a nature corrosive ability to protect the surfaces of the pipes 14 with jekosch separated from the adjacent U-shaped cross the gap 29. Located downstream rows of U-shaped cross-beams 18 are staggered relative to the previous series, so that U-shaped cross member 18 of the bottom row is usually combined with intervals of 29 in the previous row. The careful placement of U-shaped cross impedes the path of the mixture 12 of the combustion gases and particles, causing the accent particles on a separate U-shaped cross member 18, the free fall under the influence of gravity and return to the lower part (not shown) housing the boiler reactor LTP.

In order to facilitate the alignment of the U-shaped cross members 18 of the furnace 20 at their lower end 32 provides for a system of flat plates 30. Flat plate 30 is surrounded by a separate U-shaped elements 18 in the first row and rest against each other, providing alignment of the first row of furnace U-shaped cross-beams 18. Plates 30 are turned back by the tail portion 34, which are between adjacent U-shaped cross members 18 in the second row. These rearward-facing aft 34 rest against the sides of the U-shaped cross-beams 18 in the second row and similarly ensure their alignment. On the other hand, individual plates or trays of each of the U-shaped crossbars 18 in this series is in refractories 28 on the tube 14, forming the rear wall of the LTP, they also form a barrier, preventing the mixture of flue gas 12 solid particles to pass upwards along the lower ends of the furnace U-shaped cross members 20, thereby improving the efficiency of collection. Plate 30 can be essentially horizontal, as shown in Fig. 1, or tilted, as shown in Fig. 10, to prevent the accumulation of solid material.

In accordance with a preferred implementation of the present invention the lower band 22 of U-shaped cross members 18 provided with a stainless steel funnel-shaped discharge chute 36 at the lower ends 38 of the cross. Each funnel-shaped discharge chute 36 has an input part 40 to enter the lower end of the respective U-shaped element 18 of the separator and the outer part 42 for discharge of particles. The output part 42 section 44 of the waste stream is approximately equal to the square open stream 46 bounded by side walls, a separate U-shaped elements 18 of the separator. The input part 40 has a square input stream 48, which is larger than the area 44 of the exhaust flow, which gives each funnel-shaped discharge chute element 36 of its funnel-shaped Fort is poison 3 of the drawings) will typically be installed reflective plate 50, do not allow the passage of gas around the lower ends of the funnel-shaped discharge tray 36.

In Fig. 2 shows a partial image at the top in terms of design with Fig. 1, which illustrates the placement of staggered U-shaped elements 18 of the upper and lower groups of separators 20, 22, respectively. For clarity, shows only one of the reflective plate 50 attached to one of the funnel-shaped discharge tray 36 in the first row of the lower group 22 of U-shaped cross-beams 18. For fastening funnel-shaped discharge tray 36 to the lower end 38 of each of the separate U-shaped cross-beams 18 in the input part 40 of the funnel-shaped discharge tray 36 extend two flat, rectangular plate 52 made of stainless steel. In most cases, the plate 52 is welded at its edges to the front 54 and rear 56 to the input side walls 40 of each funnel-shaped discharge tray 36. They welded on its side surfaces to the lower ends 38 of each of the U-shaped cross-beams 18. In addition, a U-shaped cross member 18 abut against the rear wall 56 of the input part 40 and are welded at their lower ends 38 to the rear side 56 of the input part 40 of each funnel-shaped discharge the output crossbars.

In some cases, particularly shown as a funnel-shaped discharge trays of the number 6 in the bottom group 22, the fastening means also includes a pair of plates 52 extending within the inlet portion of the funnel-shaped discharge tray, but they also pass through the slots 58, placed in the rear part 56 of the input part 40. In this case, each plate welded at one end to the front side 54 of the input part 40, while the opposite end of each plate 52 passes through the slots 58 and terminates outside of the rear side 56 of the input part 40, so that can support a horizontal plate 60 on the rear side 56 of the funnel-shaped discharge tray 36. The openings 62, existing between the U-shaped elements form a passage for the particles to slide down along the inclined portion 64 of the casing of the boiler GCHQ, downstream relative to the U-shaped crossbars. On the other hand, as shown in Fig. 10, the plate 60 on the rear side 56 of the discharge tray 36 in the last row of U-shaped cross members 18 can be removed, and refractories 28 extending from the inclined portion 64, are positioned directly next to the last row of the discharge tray 36.

In each of figs. 3-9 on obinu D (in the direction of flow of the mixture 12 of gas and solid particles). Subscript character "1" next to the width W and depth D means "entrance"; the accent "0" is output. Each tray 36 has an input portion 40 of the four side plates and a height h and a funnel-shaped outlet section 42 also of the four side plates, and having the General shape of a truncated pyramid. The width Wi of each tray 36 is selected so that each tray 36 extends from adjacent tray 36 to half of the size of the clearance 39 between adjacent U-shaped crossbars 18 and/or extends toward the adjacent wall. Thus the value of Wivaries depending on where is located the tray 36. Similarly, the depth Dieach tray 36 is selected so that each tray 36 extends between the back sides of consecutive individual rows of U-shaped cross-beams 18. In some cases, such as with the front near bottom 3 group 22 of U-shaped crossbars, front side 54 is located, on the basis of its proximity to the centerline of the rear wall of the boiler LTP, as shown in Fig. 1. In other cases, such as with the last row 6 of the lower group 22 of U-shaped cross bars, trays 36 provide the above-mentioned horizontal plates 60, shown in Fig. 1, or p is stronger parts 64, as shown in Fig. 10, below. Thus, the trays 36 can be symmetrical when observed from the front, as in the case of types I-III, or asymmetric when observed from the front, as shown for types IV-VII, when the trays 36 are adjacent to the wall. In some cases, such as for types IV and VI, the part of the right side of the upper part 40 of the tray 36 can be cut to accommodate the right support plate 52. As shown in Fig. 6 and 8, this cut parts will have a height, indicated as "S". In preferred embodiments of the invention, the area bounded by U-shaped crossbars 18, has a width of approximately 6 1/4 "(159 mm) at a depth of approximately 6 3/4 " (171 mm), resulting in open free area of flow in the U-shaped strips of approximately 42 square inches (271 cm2). The height H of the discharge tray 36, applied with such U-shaped cross members 18 of approximately 14 inches (355 mm), the height h of the input part is equal to approximately 4 inches (102 mm). In such preferred dimensions of a U-shaped cross the area of the output stream is equal to approximately 42 square inches (271 cm2), except for unloading trays of types IV and VI, in which the square of the output stream is equal to approximately 44 square dimarogonas way to do this, the preferred size of a U-shaped cross the area of the input stream is from about 79 square inches (510 cm2for trays of type IV and up to approximately 159 square inches (1026 cm2for trays of type V and VII. However, as shown below, the present invention can also be applied to the U-shaped crossbars 18 other sizes.

Another important parameter that should be observed, is the true angle of deepening at the corners of the inclined sides of a truncated pyramid discharge tray 36. The angle of the recess is the true slope of the line of intersection of any two adjacent sloping sides of the discharge tray 36 and the horizontal plane. The angle of the recess 90othat would mean that the overlapping of the discharge tray 36 are vertical. If tilted only one of the sides intersecting at a corner, and the other is vertical, the angle of the recess is equal to the angle of inclination of the other, sloping sides. If tilted both sides, converging in the corner, the angle will be slightly less than the lesser the angle of any of the intersecting sides. In order to ensure the sliding of the captured solid particles down through the discharge tray 36, the angle of the angles formed by the inclined sides of the discharge tray 36, must be not less than priblizitel the internal tray 36 to the dimensions of this U-shaped cross member 18.

These two parameters design discharge tray 36, namely: (1) that the output area 44 is not less than the open area enclosed between the sides of U-shaped cross-beams 18 and (2) that the angle of the recess is preferably equal to not less than 60oyou can take U-shaped cross member 18 of any size. U-shaped cross member 18 can thus be broader and/or deeper preferred sizes with a width of approximately 6 1/4 "(159 mm) and a depth of approximately 6 3/4 " (171 mm); tray 36 must extend between adjacent U-shaped cross-beams 18 as required, and a height of h and H should vary in proportion, as this is necessary to accommodate the desired size of a U-shaped cross member 18. If desired, you can use a U-shaped cross member 18 (and trays 36) of different sizes in different places of the same separator 16, in order to solve the special problems associated with the design.

And, finally, in Fig. 10 shows the image from the side in cross section, similar to the one shown in Fig. 1, which shows: (1) inclined flat plate 30 used in the furnace to a group of 20 U-shaped crossbars 18 and earlier; and (2) the elimination of horizontal plates 60 in the rear part 56 of the last row of U provided with inclined flat plate 30 (as shown in Fig. 10), and they can also be equipped with the shown edges 31, which also rest on the lining 28 on the tubes of the rear wall of the LTP is to further restrict the flow of gas lower ends of the U-shaped cross members 18 of the furnace 20.

Thus can be seen that the present invention provides several advantages over previous designs. Because essentially all horizontal surfaces that are commonly found around the lower ends 38 of each of the U-shaped crossbars 18, eliminated, leaving only the linear edges of each of the plate elements forming the sides of the funnel-shaped discharge tray 36, which essentially eliminates the accumulation of solid material caused by sintering. Preventing the accumulation of solid particles thus reduces the load on the U-shaped cross member 18 and can reduce the cost of construction. Similarly preventing the accumulation of solid particles in turn do not allow limitations or disturbance in the flow 12 flue gas and solid particles, thus supporting the effectiveness of particulate matter at the highest level. Since the solid particles can no longer accumulate on any bottom surfaces in the main U-shaped cross member at their lower discharge ends, this also helps maintain the efficiency of the capture.

As shown previously, while the bumper elements 18 particle separator drum type 16 preferably have the configuration of the channel type (i.e. U-obrana cross-bar), and may use other types of cross-sections used for trapping and removing solid particles from the flue gas 12, as shown above, or their equivalents.

Though to illustrate the application of the principles of the present invention is shown and described in detail the specific implementations of the present invention, it should be obvious that the invention can be modified or it can be implemented in other ways without departure from such principles. As an example, but not limitation, you may use a funnel discharge tray, which is the subject of the present invention, for the new design regarding boilers LTP, or replacement, repair or modification of existing boilers LTP. This is true regardless of whether you apply for such boilers LTP known type of construction with an L-shaped flap or type of construction described in U.S. patent N 5343830. Thus, option realizaci installation. The dimensions of the U-shaped crossbars 18 and associated discharge tray 36 should be determined as described above. In some embodiments of the invention may sometimes use certain features of the invention without a corresponding use of other features. Accordingly, all such modifications and implementations properly fall within the scope of the following claims.

1. Device for separating solid particles of shock type, particulate from carrying solid particles of flue gas in boilers with circulating fluidized bed (LTP) for removing particles from the space between the adjacent fender elements of the separator of solid particles, as well as from the inside of the cutting element, and to reduce to a minimum the flow of gas around the lower end of the separator particles, characterized in that it contains a funnel-shaped discharge chute having an input part for receiving the lower end of the cutting element and the output part for discharging through her solid particles, and the output part has an area of exhaust flow approximately equal to the open area of the flow, limited by the sides of the cutting element and the input part has Alenia discharge tray to the lower end of the cutting element.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the fastening means includes two plates extending within the inlet portion of the discharge tray, welded with their ends to the front and rear plates of the input part and its lateral sides to the lower end of the cutting element, and a weld seam connecting the bottom end of the cutting element with the rear plate input side of the discharge tray.

3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the fastening means includes two plates extending within the inlet portion of the discharge tray through the slot in the rear plate of the input parts, and each plate is welded at one end to the front plate of the input part, the opposite end of each plate, ending outside the rear plate input side of the discharge tray and supports a horizontal plate behind the discharge tray, and a weld seam connecting the bottom end of the cutting element with the rear plate input side of the discharge tray.

4. The device under item 1, characterized in that the bumper element separator of solid particles impact the type of the U-shaped, E-shaped, W-shaped or has other similar concave or cupped configuration.

6. The device under item 1, characterized in that the funnel-shaped discharge chute has a front side and is asymmetric about a vertical axis when viewed from the front.

7. The device under item 1, characterized in that the bumper elements made in the form of U-shaped cross-beams, and the open area of the flow, limited lateral sides of the cutting element, equal to approximately 271 cm2the area of the output stream discharge tray is approximately 271 cm2to approximately 283 cm2and the area of the input stream the input of each of the discharge tray is from about 510 cm2to approximately 1026 cm2.

8. The device under item 1, characterized in that the funnel-shaped discharge chute has a height H of approximately 355 mm, and the input part has a height h of approximately 102 mm

9. The device under item 1, characterized in that the funnel-shaped discharge chute has an angle of recess not less than approximately the 50o.

10. The device according to p. 9, characterized in that the angle of the recess is equal to approximately the 60o.

11. Device for separating solid particles drum-type boiler with the flask gas boiler LTP, and contains many of the cutting elements to capture and remove particles from the flue gas, a device that removes particles from the space between the adjacent fender elements of the separator of solid particles, as well as from the inside of the cutting element, and which minimizes the flow of gas around the lower end of the separator particles, wherein each bumper element is funnel-shaped discharge element having an input part for receiving the lower end of its corresponding cutting element and an output part for discharging through her solid particles, and the output part has an area of exhaust flow approximately equal to the open area of the flow, limited sides of the respective cutting element, and the input part has a square input stream is greater than the area of the exhaust flow in the output part, and fastening means for fastening each of the discharge tray to the lower end of its corresponding cutting element.

12. The device according to p. 11, characterized in that the fastening means includes two plates extending within the inlet portion of each discharge tray, welded with their ends to the front and rear plates hodnoceni the lower end of each of the cutting element with the rear plate of the input portion of the corresponding discharge tray.

13. The device according to p. 11, characterized in that the funnel-shaped discharge chute has an angle of recess not less than approximately the 50o.

14. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that the angle of the recess is equal to approximately the 60o.

15. The device according to p. 11, characterized in that the fastening means includes two plates extending within the inlet portion of each of the discharge tray through the slot in the rear plate of the input parts, and each plate is welded at one end to the front plate of the input part, the opposite end of each plate, ending outside of the rear plate of the input part on the discharge tray and supports a horizontal plate behind the discharge tray, and a weld seam connecting the bottom end of the cutting element with the rear plate of the input portion of the corresponding discharge tray.

16. The device according to p. 11, characterized in that the pneumatic elements of the particle separator drum type are U-shaped, E-shaped, W-shaped, or any similar concave or cupped.

17. The device according to p. 11, characterized in that the bumper elements made in the form of U-shaped cross-beams, and the open square, the horse of the output stream of each of the discharge tray is approximately 271 cm2to approximately 283 cm2and the area of the input stream the input of each of the discharge tray is from about 510 cm2to approximately 1026 cm2.

 

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