Turbine for run-of-river hydro
(57) Abstract:The turbine is designed to convert the energy of channel flows, for example, into electrical energy. The turbine contains mounted on two supports horizontal shaft and two opposing rectangular blades. The last placed at equal distance from the shaft with the possibility of forced rotation around their axes parallel to the shaft with an angular speed twice smaller angular velocity of rotation of the shaft and in the direction opposite to its rotation. The width of each blade is equal to twice the distance from the axis of rotation to the edge of the shaft. The plane of the blade above the shaft coincides with a vertical plane passing through the axis of the shaft. The angle between the planes of the blades 90o. The design of the turbine improves the conversion efficiency. 4 Il. The invention relates to the field of clean energy and can be used in run-of-river hydropower plants (HPP).Known turbine for run-of-river hydroelectric power plant, for example: "Turbine Christmas", "Irlandska turbine Blinova, Migratory" and others (see W. "The inventor and rationalizer", 1970-1973).Such GI is the water turbine is a Patent of the USSR N 1174 from 7.06 1924 on a wind turbine, comprising, mounted in the support, with the possibility of free rotation shaft; a rectangular blades equally spaced from the shaft, with the possibility of forced rotation around their axes parallel to the shaft axis, with angular velocity two times smaller angular velocity of rotation of the shaft and in the direction opposite to the rotation of the shaft. Such a device is quite bulky and has a low efficiency.The purpose of this invention is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency and the use of it as turbines for run-of-river hydropower plant.This objective is achieved in that the turbine consists of two opposing blades, the width of each of them is equal to twice the distance from the axis of rotation to the edge of the shaft, which is positioned horizontally on the front and rear supports; and the blades are kinematically connected with the shaft so that the plane of the blade above the shaft, has the ability to coincide with a vertical plane passing through the axis of the shaft.The invention is illustrated in the drawing, where Fig. 1 shows a turbine and run of river hydroelectric power station as a whole; Fig. 2 - section a-a of Fig. 3 - section a-a rotated 90oFig. 4 - section B-B. it 3 bearings which are fixed to the body 4 (Fig. 1). Two rectangular flat blades 5 adobeimage profile has its axes 6 and 7 at the ends of the carrier 8 and 9, mounted on the shaft. The width d of the blades is equal to twice the distance d' from the edge of the shaft to the axis of rotation of the blades, i.e., d=2d'. This allows you to get the maximum surface area of the blade (Fig. 4). The blades are connected with a drive mechanism consisting of a cylindrical gears: the leading 10 attached to the housing 4 is stationary, the two wingmen 11 mounted on the axles 6, and two intermediate 12, sitting on the axis 13, which is fixed on Fadilah 8. Gear 12 connected kinematically driven gear with the leading. The number of teeth of the gear 11 is two times more than the gear 10. The blades are exposed in such a way that over the shaft of their plane coincident with a vertical plane passing through the axis of the shaft (Fig. 2). Case 4 turbines connected to the building 14 run-of-river hydropower plant, which can be located: the generator 15, the multiplier 16 and other equipment. The shaft of the turbine fully immersed in water, is connected to a generator via a coupling 17 and the multiplier. The generated electricity is delivered to the consumer by wire transmission line having a support 1 is over.Under the influence of river flow on the blade, as shown by the arrows (Fig. 2 and 3), the turbine is located perpendicular to the flow, rotate, rotating through the drive mechanism of the blade with angular velocity two times smaller angular velocity of rotation of the shaft and in the direction opposite to the shaft. This gives the blades the property of the sail, through which they perceive and transmit to the shaft energy flow at all points along the circle of radius R (Fig. 2 and 3), except at the point "K", in which the blades take a position parallel to the flow, with negligible resistance to rotation due to adobeimage profile. To determine the power on the shaft of the turbine compiled a graph of power transmitted by the blades on the shaft for one revolution of the turbine. At the beginning of the turn when the blade is perpendicular to the flow (Fig. 2, point "H"), it receives and transmits on the shaft all the energy of the direct impact of the water flow cross-section, equal to the working area of the blades, i.e. the maximum capacity of Nmequal
where C is the ratio of the transmit power of the blade on the shaft (theoretically equal to C = sin2where is the angle of rotation of the blade to current); - volumetric weight of water in kg/m3; F is the working area of the blade is in other corners of the blade to the flow coefficient. C decreases, and when the rotation of the turbine 180oC coefficient. C= 0 (Fig. 2 and 3, point "K"). Proportional coefficient. C is changed and the power is transmitted by the blade into the shaft. Curve 1 shows (see chart) change the power transmitted to the shaft of one blade for one revolution of the turbine. Curve 2 shows the change in power transmitted to the shaft by another blade. The total power transmitted to the shaft by two lobes (see chart) for one revolution of the turbine is constant power N on the shaft of the turbine, i.e.kW.Loss of power on the rotation of the blades there will be negligible and is not considered because the rotation of the turbine blades are able to rotate around its axis in the desired direction under the influence of the surrounding water. The number of revolutions of the shaft under load is:
Rev/sec.When determining the efficiency of the turbine is necessary to consider that the area of greatest cross-section of the turbine perpendicular to the flow (middle section), approximately 1.5 times the area of the blades (see above), excluding the area of the longitudinal section of the shaft and drove. But this turbine captures the energy of the water flow cross-section equal to the area of the blades. Then the ratio of the area of lopas the longitudinal section of the shaft and drove, get an efficiency of not less than 0,62. When used in this turbine three such blades its efficiency can be increased to 0.8.The main feature of the present invention is that the blades have the ability to sail and have a maximum surface area that can be reached in a maximum width equal to twice the distance from the edge of the shaft to the axis of rotation of the blades.The advantage of the proposed design is the simplicity of the device and increased efficiency. Turbine for run-of-river hydropower plants, containing mounted in the support, with the possibility of free rotation of the shaft, a rectangular blade, placed at equal distance from the shaft with the possibility of forced rotation around their axes parallel to the shaft, with angular velocity two times smaller angular velocity of rotation of the shaft and in the opposite direction of the rotation shaft, wherein the turbine consists of two opposing blades, the width of each of which is equal to twice the distance from the axis of rotation to the edge of the shaft, which is located horizontally on the front and rear pillars, and the blades are kinematically connected with the shaft so that that the plane of the blade, Nehoiu planes of the blades 90o.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-conventional power sources, and it can be used in plants using energy of wind, river, deep sea and other currents. Proposed plant contains one or several vertical shafts and horizontal rods with blades. Said hollow rods are installed on shafts for limited turning relative to their axes. Opposite blades of each rod are rigidly secured on rod square to each other and eccentrically relative to axis of rod. Shafts adjacent in horizontal direction are made for rotation in opposite directions.
EFFECT: provision of simple ecologically safe device operating at any direction of current in liquid and gaseous medium and at medium interface.