Run of river hydroelectric dam
(57) Abstract:Hydroelectric power plant is designed to convert the energy of the river flow into electricity. The river is divided into two streams by a vertical wall of the separator height slightly above the maximum water level in the river is in flood. The wall of the separator is constructed at an angle, for example 30 to 35oto the flow direction and forms a tapering direction, passing in the channel (flow), through which water is directed to the hydraulic unit. The wall of the separator at the beginning of the separation of the river flow has a hinged swinging door that can be installed at different angles to the direction of flow of the river for the separation of larger or smaller flow of water to the unit. The last set, with the axis of the turbine horizontally, perpendicular to the flow direction. Hydropower unit set is stationary or on a metal pontoon or two protivoiona placed concrete bases, forming an open rectangular box of ducts to water. The pontoon has the possibility of vertical movement up and down in this chamber simultaneously with the raising or lowering of the water level in the river. Hidroelectrica the s in the river. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill. The invention relates to energy, particularly hydropower and can be used in the construction of hydroelectric power plants (HPP) without lifting water from the river dams, and without any damage to the shipping and fisheries.Known power devices that convert the kinetic energy of the flow of the river into electricity. For example, Hydroelectric centuries Soloviev", the description of the invention to the author's certificate of the USSR N 1652640, CL F 03 In 13/08, published in BI N 20, 30.05.91. . The essence of this invention is as follows.Hydroelectric has installed in the stream along the Bank of the diversion channel, made in the form of an open top box. Cross section of the duct decreases downstream. At least two flow a working camera with generating units connected to the box. The input sections of the working chambers made in the form of trays with inclined flow upper walls.This invention can be taken as a close analogue to the invention.However, this analogue has a number of disadvantages, namely:
- hit in the pipelines for water supply major is dvdimage flow of water.The aim of the invention "run of River dam hydroelectric power plant" is to eliminate the disadvantages of analog, as well as the creation of a new hydroelectric power station, which has several significant advantages over hydroelectric dams.These advantages over hydroelectric dams are as follows:
- no flooding of large areas of fertile floodplain meadows and forests;
- there is no need to transfer from flooding under reservoir communications, housing, industrial plants, etc.;
- there are no obstacles for free shipping and fisheries;
- do not change the climatic conditions of the locality;
using cascade run-of-river hydroelectric dam, United in a common grid, as well as other environmentally friendly production of electricity, the possibility of ecological rehabilitation areas by reducing electricity generation at thermal power plants;
- the construction and use of run-of-river hydroelectric dam possible on any river: small, medium, and high consumption of water; in the absence of economic and hydrological contraindications on some rivers may ISOE is compared with hydroelectric dams, power. However, the use of cascade run-of-river hydroelectric dam, combined in a single power system, eliminates this disadvantage.The essence of the invention "run of River dam hydroelectric power plant" consists in the following. This hydroelectric power station represents a hydraulic structure in the river, situated at one of the banks or between the shore and the island.With the river upstream of a hydroelectric power station is divided into two streams by a vertical wall of the separator height slightly above the maximum water level in the river is in flood. The wall of the separator is constructed at an angle, for example 30 to 35oto the direction of flow, and forms a tapering direction, passing in the channel (the channel), and channel the flow velocity increases significantly, consequently, increases and kinetic energy of the flow, and the hydraulic wheel goes into a concrete channel through which the water rushes to the unit.The wall of the separator at the beginning of the separation of the river flow has a hinged swinging door that can be installed at different angles to the direction of flow of the river for the separation of larger or smaller flow of water on hydroa the river at different times of the year.Hydropower unit set, with the axis of the turbine in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the direction of flow of the stream of water with optimal submerged turbine, while hydropower unit set is stationary or on a metal pontoon, or two oppositely located concrete bases, forming an open rectangular box of ducts to water. If the off-water levels in the river do not have large quantities, it is quite acceptable option to install hydropower unit on two concrete bases that will not result in significant fluctuations in hydropower capacity.If the off-water levels in the river have significant value, the more acceptable is the installation of a hydropower unit on the pontoon, placed in a chamber filled with concrete, created at the base of the powerhouse, and the pontoon has the possibility of vertical movement up and down in this chamber simultaneously with the raising or lowering of the water level in the river and thus ensure optimal capacity of the HPP.In this case, between two pillars of the hydropower unit on the pontoon formed a kind of channel of rectangular shape, and two rectangular open top openings, equal to the width of the original channels on the pontoon.And, finally, between the two opposite inner walls filled with concrete chambers and two corresponding opposite outer walls of the pontoon, forming tray ducts for water set, for example, pneumatic shock absorbers-seals to prevent wasteful consumption of water through cracks in the channel, as well as to prevent the accumulation of sand and silt filled with concrete in the camera.In large rivers with a high consumption of water can be separated sufficiently large flow of water and direct it across multiple channels, respectively, with the same amount of hydropower units, not to identify any one unit, even if very high power (Fig.6).List of figures in the drawings.In Fig. 1 shows a plan diagram of the run-of-river dam hydroelectric - option selection part of the volume flow at one of the banks of the river.In Fig. 2 shows in plan the scheme run-of-river dam hydroelectric - variant use of the river channel between the island and one of the shores.In Fig. 3 shows in plan scheme Rurouni panorama run-of-river dam hydroelectric and navigable channel of the river.In Fig. 5 shows in partial section of a hydropower plant on the pontoon (view a of Fig.1 rotated 90), as well as in the plan.In Fig. 6 depicts a variant mnogoprovolochnogo channel with hydropower units in the plan.The proposed run of river dam hydroelectric power plant consists of the following units, components and structures.On the banks of the river, for example the left, construct a concrete wall 1, and in line construct a second concrete wall of the separator 2 at a certain distance from the wall 1 and aimed at a certain angle to the direction of flow, for example, 30-35o(Fig. 1).The second wall can be built on the island (Fig.2).The height of the walls 1 and 2 should be slightly above the maximum seasonal level I water in the river.Thus constructing a narrowing channel, and in the narrowest place on the concrete base 3 made in the form of a tray with a rectangular base formed by two concrete pillars for mounting of generator 4 through the elastic coupling with 5 bladed turbine 6, the shaft of which has a bearing her second end of the bearing 7 (Fig.1).A variant of construction of the proposed hydroelectric station of Agata part in the river has articulated swivel around a vertical axis, a shutter 9, which can be set at different angles to the direction of flow of the river to separate more or less of the total water flow of the river and areas on the unit and thereby to adjust (optimize) the capacity of hydropower in the periods of maximum and minimum levels of the river at different times of the year.To prevent ice jams in a narrowing channel and in the channel when the ice of the proposed hydropower plant has a safety fence made of concrete piles 10 (Fig.3) scored on the river bottom and spaced from each other at a distance of, for example, 2,5 - 3 meters along the line, starting from the end of a rotating metal shutters 9 and directed at an angle of 150 - 155oto the shore filled with concrete wall.During the ice flow, the water level in the river, usually close to the maximum seasonal and therefore the shutter 9 can be rotated maximally in the direction adjacent to the HPP shore and use it as an additional guard against the ice wall.Hydropower unit GES can be installed on the pontoon 11 (Fig.5), which is afloat in filled with concrete chamber 12 formed in the base of the powerhouse and has the ability to move up and down in oteoporosis walls filled with concrete chambers and two corresponding opposite outer walls of the pontoon, located in the direction of water flow, install, for example, pneumatic shock absorbers-seals 13 (Fig. 5).The proposed run of river hydroelectric dam works as follows.The wall 1 and the wall of the separator 2 is formed by a narrowing of the channel through which the whole mass of water, bounded by two walls, at its widest point under the pressure of the flow of the river by the Bernoulli law, seeking to go through a narrowing channel, acquires acceleration and kinetic energy of water flow is greatly increased and the turbine is of the highest importance.To create the optimum mode of operation of the hydropower unit weight of water, flowing along the narrowing channel regulate by establishing different angles to the direction of flow of the river sash 9 for separation from river flow optimum amount of water in a narrowing channel GES.Thus, the proposed HPP can provide optimum operation of the hydropower unit at different seasonal water levels in the river and stably supply electricity to consumers.Literature
1. Hydroelectric centuries Solovyov, the description of the invention and to. C. the USSR N 1652640, CL F 03 is undertaken in the stream along the banks of the river water intake channel, performed in an open-topped boxes with decreasing flow cross-section in the form of betonirovannaa coastal wall and the second wall in the stream, placed in the channel of the hydropower installation in the form of a bladed turbine situated on the horizontal axis, coupling and generator, characterized in that it contains a second concrete wall of the separator in the flow (or the island), located at an angle, e.g. 30 - 35oto the direction of flow turning around the vertical axis more, for example, a metal shutter for controlling the flow of water in the channel, is hinged on the end of the second filled with concrete walls of the separator, a stationary hydropower unit with the axis of the turbine, located in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the direction of water flow with optimal submerged turbine, while hydropower unit is installed motionless, for example, on two oppositely located concrete bases, forming an open rectangular tray for water, or on the pontoon, with the possibility of vertical movement up and down in a chamber filled with concrete, created at the base of hydroelectric power, and predegree, from concrete piles scored on the river bottom and spaced from each other at a distance of, for example, 2.5 - 3.0 m along the line, starting from the end of a rotating metal sash and directed at an angle of 150 - 155oto the shore filled with concrete wall.2. Hydroelectric power plant under item 1, characterized in that the intake channel in the constricted discharge part contains several ducts for water with the proper amount of hydropower units.3. Hydroelectric power plant under item 1, characterized in that between the inner opposite walls filled with concrete-camera created at the base of hydroelectric power plants, and two corresponding opposite outer walls of the pontoon located in the direction of flow of the water and forming a water flume, installed, for example, pneumatic shock absorbers-seals.
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has metallic hubs of stator and rotor, wherein crowns of stator and rotor are concentrically pressed. Crowns of stator and rotor are made of durable ceramics and are additionally equipped with connections, allowing to exclude non-controlled turning of crowns in hubs and spontaneous axial displacement thereof.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.
FIELD: turbines using kinetic energy of liquid flow.
SUBSTANCE: proposed turbine has turbine case , stay ring with cascade of stay vanes, wicket-gate mechanism with cascade of adjustable vanes, operating element with cascade of flange-mounted blades and drive shaft coupled with electric generator step-up gear, operating element chamber, and draft tube. It is also provided with straightening mechanism that has cascade of vanes, chain transmission that has sprockets and shafts; external and internal rims are made in cross-sectional areas in the form of ovals. Cascade of blades is made in the form of caterpillar cascade. Operating element blades are cylindrical in shape and hinge-joined through chain transmission whose drive sprocket is coupled with drive shaft. Flanges of operating element blades are provided with supporting rollers mounted in fixed supports and joined with chain transmission shafts at distances of two adjacent operating-mechanism blades; guides are made in the form of oval junctions joined with turbine internal rim in vicinity of their abutting against butt-ends of flanges carrying operating element blades.
EFFECT: enhanced turbine efficiency.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mobile generator plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator plant has frame that mounts power unit, foot-operated air pump, and compressed-air cylinders whose air lines communicate with generator plant. Control panel is electrically connected to output of electric generator vertically installed on generator plant housing and mechanically coupled with exciter and power unit made in the form of vertical-shaft pneumostatic motor. The latter has sealed case with inlet, outlet, and safety valves closed with cover that accommodates vertical rotor mounted in case and cover bearings and made in the form of shaft with two power drives attached thereto by means of U-shaped frames. Power drives are installed on either side of vertical shaft and spaced 180 deg. apart in horizontal plane. Each of them has a number of similar members symmetrically mounted one on top of other, their quantity being dependent of desired power. Each member is essentially rhombic plate made of light-mass and high-strength metal whose longitudinal axis is longest diagonal parallel to that of other power drive. Through ducts are provided on front ends of rhomb and L-shaped blind ducts, on its rear butt-ends. All these ducts are closed with covers kinematically coupled with drive cylinder piston. Compressed air fed to sealed housing opens covers, and unbalanced forces are built up on each member which set power unit in rotary motion. Air evacuation from sealed housing closes covers with the result that no forces are built up on drive members.
EFFECT: enhanced power output and torque.
2 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of free flow of water into electric energy. Proposed microhydroelectric station contains hydraulic turbine with horizontal axle of rotation connected with submersed sealed electric generator. Station is provided with carrying frame consisting of sections on ends of which shields are installed to form confuser at inlet of water flow, and diffuser at outlet. Slow speed generator is used as electric generator whose shaft is directly connected with shaft of hydraulic turbine consisting of separate sections mounted on bearing supports. Each section contains one or more blade propulsors displaced through equal angle relative to each other. Each propulsor has two blades pointed in opposite directions being essentially NASA section modified by provision of cavity on lower plane, maximum depth of which being from 10 to 14% of maximum height of section and installed on posts secured on shaft of hydraulic turbine for fixed displacement of blades in radial and angular directions.
EFFECT: reduced cost of manufacture and mounting.
FIELD: engine manufacturing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of operation of self-contained power station powered by diesel-generator set. According to proposed method of operation of self-contained power station powered by diesel generator set equipped with additional flywheel and disconnect clutch with automatic control members, additional flywheel is mounted on separate shaft which is connected with diesel-generator set by means of disconnect clutch. Preparatory operation is carried out to set power station into operation with subsequent overcoming of short-time starting resistances from consumer. Additional flywheel is connected to shut down diesel generator set by means of disconnect clutch. Power station is started under no load, and its coming to rated speed is detected by readings of generator shaft speed pickups. Load is connected and intensity of generator shaft speed drop is checked. Information is automatically transmitted to controller wherefrom, at termination of generator speed drop, signal is transmitted to disconnect clutch, and rotating additional flywheel is disconnected from diesel generator set, thus changing the set for accelerated mode of restoration of initial rated speed.
EFFECT: provision of power saving operation at stable conditions for overcoming designed resistance torque and short-time overloads exceeding capabilities of chosen supply source.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.
EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant is designed for generating electric energy and pumping of water. Proposed device contains floating base in form of catamaran with channel between housing of catamaran in which water wheel with blades on its outer surface is mounted, and electric generator mechanically coupled with shaft of water wheel. Diameter of water wheel is less than its length. End faces of water wheel are covered, and front profile of water wheel blades is made to logarithmic spiral. Moreover, plant is furnished with water pump, and drive of electric generator is made in form of step-up harmonic gearing whose flexible gear is coupled with end face of water pump. Output shaft of step-up gearing is aligned with shafts of water wheel and electric generator, being coupled with water pump by step-up belt drive. Drive sheave of step-up belt drive is installed on shaft of electric generator. Controllable clutches are installed on shafts of belt drive.
EFFECT: improved reliability and enlarged operating capabilities of plant.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machines or engines for liquids.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises converter for converting flow power into kinetic energy of rotation and hydraulic turbines connected in series. The hydraulic turbine is made of hollow load-bearing shaft-cylinder with conical deflectors on the bases. The semi-cylindrical blades are secured to the shaft-cylinder along the generatrix of the cylinder or at an angle to the generatrix. The load-bearing shaft-cylinder is inscribed into the inner ends of the semi-cylindrical blades, and their outer ends tightened by means of rings define multi-blade cylinder provided with variable buoyancy that is controlled by ballast in the hollow section of the shaft-cylinder. The hydraulic turbine can be submerged into water completely or partially and interposed between the bearings and connected with the actuating mechanism through flexible links, clutches, and gearings. The actuating mechanism comprise one or several massive inertia flywheels made of disk or drum or cylinder connected through clutches and gears with the consumer.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: electromechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator primarily designed to supply with power borehole instrument of face telemetering system in the course of boring has internal stator and rotor; the latter mounts turbine in its front part that has casing carrying rectangular- or trapezoidal-section helical blades. These blades are free to vary their angle of lift depending on conditions of borehole washing with drilling fluid. Blades may be made of flexible material and have two parts of which one part is joined with turbine casing and other (loose) part is free to bend in transverse plane. In addition, blades may have variable stiffness in cross-sectional area and variable height of cross-section profile; loose parts of blades may be joined with ring. Blade turn limiter responding to maximal discharge of drilling fluid may be provided on the turbine casing.
EFFECT: enhanced operating reliability and extended variation range of drilling fluid discharge through generator turbine.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic turbine generators are designed for creating stationary and portable hydraulic plants of modular type. Generators have rotor with central shaft non-rotating around horizontal axis or vertical axis (as version) on which chain drive gears are rigidly fitted, each being coupled through independent chain drive with planet pinion members arranged radially and uniformly around central shaft. Each member has blade reduction gear consisting of gear of chain drive and of large and small cylindrical gears, the latter being coaxial and rigidly coupled with gear of chain drive of blade reduction gear, and large cylindrical gear is rigidly secured on axle of blade installed horizontally for generator (or vertically, as version). Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation on brackets secured on hubs by bases. Hubs are installed on both ends of shaft for rotation and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims being drive wheels connected with energy converters by flexible drive.
EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable operation.
3 cl, 4 dwg