The way work is charge (options)
(57) Abstract:Usage: the invention (and its variants) refers to the hardening of products and batch preparation, in particular to the preparation of the charge in the scheme of acceptance of metallurgical raw materials and its delivery to the smelter in the form of granules, pellets or pelletized material. The inventive method of work charge in the first embodiment based on the mixing of the mixture and a binder with the electrochemically treated water with subsequent heat treatment of the pellets. Electrochemical water processing is carried out in a diaphragm electrolytic cell, the electrodes of which sum voltage of the asymmetrical alternating current of industrial frequency, and binding and the activated water is used in a ratio of 1 : 1 to 3. The second option electrochemical water processing is carried out in a diaphragm electrolytic cell, the electrodes of which sum voltage of the asymmetrical alternating current with a frequency of 720 - 780 Hz, and as a binder obtained using the activated water. In both cases, it is advisable to AC asymmetric power to choose parameters current density of 1.0 - 1.3 a/DM2when the ratio of forward and reverse half cycles of the current 7 - 11.th while maintaining the strength of the pellets of the charge on crushing. 2 S. and 3 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il. The invention relates to the field of hardening of products and batch preparation, in particular to the preparation of the charge in the scheme of acceptance of metallurgical raw materials and its delivery to the smelter in the form of granules, pellets or pelletized material.A method of producing pellets (RF patent N 2041270, B. I. N 22, 1995, MCI C 22 B 1/243), including the dispensing and mixing of the components of the mixture with an inorganic binder, pelletizing and strengthening the firing, in which the binder used overburden clay, activated sodium salts of phosphoric acid, by their joint grinding in the amount of 0.7-1.1 and 0,04-0,1%, respectively.However, this method is implemented using reagents that require large maintenance costs reagent and a series of operations on the dosage of the reagents, joint grinding.There is a method of work (granulation) of the charge in the copper-smelting production (Technical specifications and technical description of the production batch of Zhezkazgan smelter in Kazakhstan TU-48-3820-26-88 1988 ), based on the hydration mixture solution of lignosulfonate in water (density: 1,14-1,16 g/cmrpm with subsequent heat treatment of the obtained pellets at a temperature of 150-200oC. the resulting strength of the pellet crush strength is 4.5-4.8 kg/grThe disadvantage of this method is the use of expensive binder - lignosulfonate in large quantities, which is environmentally hazardous and inflammable substance (flash 210-220oC) and increased energy consumption due to the need of heating lignosulfonate because of its viscosity.The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is the way work is mixture, comprising mixing the components of the charge, their hydration in okomkovatelej electrochemically treated in an electrolyzer water (USSR author's certificate N 1011716, C 22 B 1/14, 1983). Water before applying to the mixture separated into two ionized part, and then one of the ionized parts containing hydroxide ions, used to moisten the mixture.However, this method also requires additional operations to obtain the required strength products, increased energy and production and material costs, availability of different binders to maintain the required strength of the articles.The main problem solved by the proposed group izopet reduce the amount of binder used while maintaining the strength of the pellets of the charge on crushing.In the first variant of the proposed method this object is achieved in that in the method of work charge on the basis of mixing the mixture and the binder with the electrochemically treated water, followed by heat treatment of the mixture, electrochemical water processing is carried out in a diaphragm electrolytic cell, the electrodes of which sum voltage of the asymmetrical alternating current of industrial frequency, and binding and the activated water is used in a ratio of 1:1-3.In the case of work charge for metallurgical production suitable as a binder in the first version to use lignosulfonate.In the second variant of the proposed method this object is achieved in that in the method of work charge on the basis of mixing the mixture and the binder with the electrochemically treated water, followed by heat treatment of the mixture, electrochemical water processing is carried out in a diaphragm electrolytic cell, the electrodes of which sum voltage of the asymmetrical alternating current with a frequency of 720-780 Hz, and as a binder obtained using the activated water.In both cases, to achieve the necessary strength okuskovannogo material the/SUP> when the ratio of forward and reverse half-cycle current 7-11.The merger of the two technical solutions in one application due to the fact that they solve the same task - the creation of a method of work charge, allowing to reduce the cost of the process work by reducing the amount of binder while maintaining the strength of the pellets of the charge on crushing.At the same time the essence of the invention for each of the options is equal, and significant differences that provide the desired combination of technical characteristics, can not be combined General signs.Due to the specified combination of distinctive features, the proposed method of work of the charge (and its variants) can reduce the amount of binder used in the second embodiment, to complete its exceptions, to reduce the cost due to this process work is to preserve the strength of the pellet crush strength.The main distinctive feature - electrochemical treatment of water in the diaphragm electrolyzer with bringing to the electrodes asymmetric AC voltage with the specified security features allows you to achieve your goal and dosm the electrolyzer, to the electrodes which are summed voltage asymmetric AC current has a disordered structure, which leads to an increase of its activity, leading to increased strength of lumps or pellets by increasing adhesion between particles of the charge, which leads to the replacement of the actions of a binder, such as a lignosulfonate, an employee for hardening of the charge material. This is because in the process of electrolysis increases the concentration of protons, which have a small mass and a very small (10-6nm). A molecule of water amfepramona, her inherent ability to lose or to attach a proton, with the formation of ions H3O+and OH-. Using protons leads to the formation of H-bonds between water molecules and surface atoms of oxygen grain mixture that promotes adhesion between particles.Preparation of pellets on the electrochemically treated water alternating asymmetric shock in comparison with water activated by the means indicated in counterparts and prototype possible to increase the concentration of the finished crystallization centers in the system and the tendency to growth of germ formation, which ultimately leads to a significant increase strength Aymmetrical current eliminates the phenomenon of passivation of the electrodes and "poisoning" of the surface of the diaphragm, which ultimately leads to a more efficient activation of the water and to reduce energy and material costs.In Fig. 1 shows an installation for work mixture with electrochemical water treatment.In Fig. 2 depicts a graph of the strength of the pellets from the current density.In Fig. 3 shows a graph of the strength of the pellets from the degree of dilution of the binder is activated by water.In Fig. 4 presents a graph of the strength of the obtained pellets from the frequency of asymmetric current.In Fig. 5 shows the dependence of the strength of the pellets from the degree of dilution of the binder is activated by water at a frequency 720-780 Hz.Installation implementing the method (and its variants) contains a diaphragm electrolytic cell 1 is composed of an anode (AK) and cathode (CC) cameras, the first 2 and second 3 tanks, a pump 4, a mixer 5, granulator 6, the feed mixture 7, the first 8, second 9, the third 10 and fourth valves 11 adjustment, power source 12, a pipe 13, the conveyor 14.The implementation of the method according to the first embodiment is carried out as obrazovka in the metallurgical industry, having a density of p, equal to 1.14-1,16 g/cm3and water, to activate which carried water to the cathode chamber QC diaphragm electrolytic cell 1 from the first tank 2 and the anode chamber AK from the second tank 3 through the first 8 and second 9 valves adjustment, and work the mixture is water, passing only through the cathode chamber (AC) cell 1, and the water passing through the anode chamber (AC) cell is not drained, and circularity repeatedly through the anode chamber (AK) and the tank 3 by a pump 4. This allows to reduce the energy consumption by reducing the resistance of the water, and reduce wasteful consumption of water, so as to drain water from the anode chambers is not more than 1 time per week.To circulate the raw water is pre-served in the second tank 3, after filling in which the third adjustment valve 10 block access of water, after which the water is circulated through the anode (AK) camera cell 1 and the second tank 3 through the pump 4.Using the first valve 8 and the fourth gate 11 are adjustable such water flow and passage of such amount of the binder to ensure that they are mixing in secreto", "open 1/2", "open 2/3", "open 3/4".The second 9 and third 10 valve adjustment has two positions; "open" and "closed".The fourth adjustment valve 11 also has 5 positions: "open", "closed", "open 1/2", "open 1/3", "open 1/4".Installation of the third valve 10 in the open position, is filling the vessel 2, and 3. After filling the tanks 2 and 3, the third valve 10 is installed in the closed position and the second valve 9 in the "open"position.After connecting the pump 4 circulates water through the anode chamber (AK). Changing the position of the first 8 and 11 fourth gates, you can alter the degree of dilution of the binder is activated by water, and the position of the fourth valve 11 open 1/3" corresponds to the position of the first valve 8 open 2/3", and the position of the fourth valve 11 open 1/4" corresponds to the position of the first valve 8 open 3/4".After installing hydroprotech to the electrodes of the electrolytic cell 1 through the current leads of the power source 12 serves voltage asymmetric AC power frequency and set the density to one of the current values in the interval j = 1 - 1.3 a/DM2the attitude of Pramogu metricname current input voltage in the implementation of this method (and its variants) served as the strength obtained during experiments pellets lumps of the mixture, dried to zero moisture.From the plot of the strength of the pellets from the current density (see Fig. 2) shows that the best results Pp= 4.5 kg/g obtained in the range of the current densities of 1 - 1.3 a/DM2. Select the interval density asymmetric AC power frequency 1 - 1.3 a/DM2because the decrease in current density less than 1.0 A/DM2leads to deterioration of durability of pellets, similarly, when the current density > 1.3 a/DM2there is an increase in gassing, heat of solution, which reduces the efficiency of the installation.The ratio of the forward and reverse half cycles of the current selected within 7-11. When ICR/Iarrover 11 the impact of asymmetric AC current to the electrochemical system is close to the pulse, thus losing the advantages of the reverse half-cycle, which is the efficiency of depassivation electrodes, removing the phenomena of "poisoning" of the membranes.When ICR/Iarr< 7 flow forward and reverse electrochemical processes (discharge-ionization) tend towards equilibrium, which ultimately affects the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the activation process.
2, ICR/Iarr= 7 - 11, as a percentage of lignosulfonate and water 25/75 - 50/50.Implementation of the second variant differs from the first by the fact that the pelletizing of the mixture was carried out on the water treated in the cathode chamber (QC) diaphragm electrolytic cell 1 at the end of its electrodes alternating asymmetric current density of 1 to 1.3 A/DM2, the ratio of forward and reverse half-cycle of the ICR/Iarr= 7 - 11 with a frequency of 720-780 Hz.Schedule C the LASS="ptx2">From the plot of shows that the strength of the pellets is significantly higher than the strength of the pellets obtained in the first embodiment. This is due to the behavior of electrochemical systems under the action of the asymmetrical alternating current. The main ones are, on the one hand, the processes occurring on the surface of particles of the charge, such as, increasing the wettability of the surface, the removal of the conditions of growth of the already formed centers of crystallization and the emergence of new, deformation of the hydration shells of the ions and the reduction of the polarization of particles, which contributes to the formation of micelles and increase adhesion between the particles, on the other hand, ions of the first solution have the structure of hydrated clusters, then some water is lost and there are germs of sediment.From the graph (Fig. 4) also shows that changing the frequency of the alternating asymmetric current within less than 720 Hz and 780 Hz leads to a sharp deterioration in strength of the resulting pellets.The process at the frequency of 720-780 Hz, current density 1 - 1.3 a/DM2, ICR/Iarr= 7 - 11 and the ratio of binder and activated water 1:1, respectively, allows to obtain pellets with high vannoy water, treated in the cathode chamber (QC) diaphragm electrolytic cell 1 when the density of the asymmetric AC voltage 1 - 1.3 a/DM2, ICR/Iarr= 7 - 11, F = 720 - 780 Hz is shown in Fig. 5.From the graph it is seen that the strength of the pellets varies little with the degree of dilution of the binder that allows you to completely eliminate it from the process when the process water treatment at above the current settings.After setting the corresponding parameters of the AC voltage in the specified intervals, in the process of installation get activated water. Next, the feed mixture 7 on the plate granulator 6 serves the charge. Simultaneously with the charge on the plate granulator 6 to line 13 serves a mixture of a binder with activated water, the mixture in the mixer 5. During the rotation of the granulator plate 6 the mixture is moistened with a mixture of binder and activated water to a moisture content of 7-8%. As work granules lose their ability to rise to a higher level of granulator plate 6 and after the work is discharged from the granulator plate and fall onto the conveyor 14. Pelletized granules come into the oven where they are dried and similar to the first implementation variant with a distinctive feature, namely, that to the electrodes of the electrolytic cell 1 is fed through the current leads of the power source 12 voltage frequency 750-780 Hz. In this embodiment through the fourth valve adjustment block 11 filing binder and pelletizing the mixture is carried out with the use of activated water.The proposed method can find wide application in those areas of technology where the pelletizing mixture of any kind, when surfacing products and materials, mixing of concrete mixes, etc. 1. The way work is mixture, comprising mixing the components of the mixture, the moisture in okomkovatelej electrochemically treated in an electrolyzer water, characterized in that the electrochemical treatment of water is carried out in a diaphragm electrolytic cell, the electrodes of which sum voltage of the asymmetrical alternating current of industrial frequency, and the mixture is further added binder in an amount to provide its ratio to the number of activated water equal to 1 : 1 - 3.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the binder used lignosulfonate.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the AC voltage set with the parameters of the 4. The way work is mixture, comprising mixing the components of the charge and hydration in okomkovatelej electrochemically treated in an electrolyzer water, characterized in that the electrochemical treatment of water is carried out in a diaphragm electrolytic cell, the electrodes of which sum voltage of the asymmetrical alternating current with a frequency of 720 - 780 Hz and the resulting processing water acts as a binder.5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the AC voltage set with parameters current density of 1 to 1.3 A/DM2when the ratio of forward and reverse half cycles of the current 7 - 11.
FIELD: mineral fertilizers.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to granulated mineral fertilizers containing ammonium phosphates modified by surfactants and powdering substances, which do not lose their physicochemical properties during transportation and storage. Manufacture process comprises granulation of ammonium phosphate pulp, drying of granules, sorting and selection of commercial fraction, cooling and addition of modifying supplements. The latter are added in the cooling stage into zone with bed temperature by 5-10°C exceeding temperature of cooled product. Conditioning additives utilized can be either only liquid or the same mixed with dry powdering substances.
EFFECT: improved quality of surface coverage and simplified process.
2 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: inorganic substances technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of granulated potassium sulfate appropriate for use in chemical industry for manufacturing mineral fertilizers and in agriculture as chlorine-free potassium-containing fertilizer. Process according to invention comprises spraying binding component onto dry potassium sulfate powder while simultaneously mixing materials in granulator mixer followed by drying thus formed granules to residual moisture not exceeding 1%. As binding component, liquid potassium soap or 50% solution thereof is used on the basis of 8 g binder per 100 g potassium sulfate. Once spraying of binding component ended, dry potassium sulfate is supplied through screw feeder to support growth of granules.
EFFECT: enabled production of granulated potassium sulfate in the form of non-caked and non-dusting product with stable granulometric composition and loose density, which contains high amount of basal substance (at least 51% K2O).
2 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: manufacture of fertilizers; equipment for production of granulated carbamide.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of production of granulated carbamide includes spraying its melt in granulation zone at contact with cooling air flow, hardening of drops of melt in free fall, treatment of granules with modifying agent- mixture of surfactant with film-forming agent in aqueous medium in the course of free fall at temperature of from 80 to 110°C and cooling of granules thus formed. Mixture is used in the amount of 0.01-0.16% of carbamide mass in terms of dry residual. Use may be made of ionogenic and nonionogenic agents. Film-forming agent may be selected from group containing amino-formaldehyde and epoxy resins, polyvinyl acetate and animal glues. Granulation tower has hollow housing with melt sprayer in upper part and apparatus for cooling the granules in fluidized layer in lower part, as well as injectors for spraying modifying agent which are located over circumference in lower part of tower above cooling apparatus.
EFFECT: enhanced strength of granules.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 10 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of the granulated carbamide.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the method of production of the granulated carbamide and may be used at the enterprises of the nitrogen production branch of industry producing carbamide as fertilizers. The method of production of the granulated carbamide provides for the crystalline carbamide melting, introduction of the modifying agent into the melt of the carbamide and granulation. In the capacity of the modifying agent they use the sediment of magnesium-ammonium-phosphate produced at the sewage purification from ions of ammonium or from phosphate ions, which is introduced into the carbamide melt in the form of the water suspension the finely dispersed magnesium-ammonium-phosphate with the content of water including crystallization water, of no more than 14 kg per 1 ton of the carbamide melt or in the form of the dry finely dispersed magnesium-ammonium-phosphate in amount of 5 - 10 kg per 1 ton of the carbamide melt. The technical result of the invention is the increased strength of the carbamide granules at the simultaneous improvement of the agrochemical efficiency of the fertilizers.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased strength of the carbamide granules at the simultaneous improvement of the agrochemical efficiency of the fertilizers.
8 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: agriculture; chemical industry; other industries; methods of conditioning of the granulated fertilizers.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the technology of production of the mineralfertilizers with the improved physical properties slowly variable at transportations and storing. For mitigation of the blocking property of the fertilizers the granules after cooling are coated with the conditioning additivess in the separate apparatus. The method includes granulation of the pulp of ammonium phosphates, drying of the granules, their cooling with introduction at this stage by the sprinkling method of the liquid conditioning additives in the section with the temperature of the layer exceeding by 5-10°С the temperature of the being cooled product. The fluid additive is injected several times distributing it across the section of sprinkling in the form of drips with the varying dimensions. The dimension of the drips change within the limits of ddr/dgr equal to (0.05-0.15): 1). At that the dimension of the drips is increasing with the increase of the difference of the temperatures of the additive and the layer of the granules in the place of the injection. The temperature of the liquid additive is kept within the limits of 70-90°С. The treated granules of the fertilizer have obtained the qualitative coating reducing the blocking property of the fertilizer.
EFFECT: theinvention ensures, that the treated granules of the fertilizer have obtained the qualitative coating reducing the blocking property of the fertilizer.
2 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: coal industry; municipal services; other industries; methods and devices for production of the grained solid fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of production of the grained composite fuel, which is intended for usage in the communal heating supply systems or in the household purposes. The method of production of the grained solid fuel with the help of the installation includes grinding of the coal fines, introduction in the composition of the fuel of the ground vegetable additive (for example, the sawdust or the beet press), their joint grinding in the rotary roller mill, sending of the part of the produced mixture in the volume near to 1/3 to mixing with the binder and formation of the seed grains in the turbo-blade mixer. Further route the received mass of seed grains and the remaining part of the mixture in the volume near 2/3 from the mixer for granulation into the plate granulator. The binding is also routed in the granulator to form the seed grains. The produced granules of the spherical shape in the narrow range of the dimensions within 15-30 mm are dried and cooled in the sectional dryer and packed by means of the weighing-and-filling machine into the tare having the form of the cardboard boxes of the different dimensions intended for usage in the capacity of artificial fuel wood. The technical result of the invention consists in the reduced power input for the production process, simplification of the production process, improvement of ecology, the increased efficiency of production of the final product.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the reduced power input for the production process, simplification of the production process, improvement of ecology, the increased efficiency of production of the final product.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 8 ex
FIELD: technological processes; construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention solves problem of how to involve mass industrial waste phosphogypsum into production cycle as analog of construction material of natural origin. Method for preparation of granulated phosphogypsum includes mixing of initial phosphogypsum with binder and further rolling of mixture, at that binder used is return powder of phosphogypsum produced in mode of granulated material thermal treatment at the temperature of 170-200°C and its further crushing, at that portion of material recycle makes mostly up to 0.5 of total flow.
EFFECT: reduction of expenses in process of granulated phosphogypsum production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of producing moulded titanium-containing zeolite. Powdered titanium-containing zeolite is moulded with binding material in form of a basic salt of aluminium 5,6-oxynitrate. The granules undergo drying at room temperature and at temperature 100-150°C, and are annealed at temperature 250-350°C.
EFFECT: high strength of zeolite granules and low power consumption.
SUBSTANCE: method involves advance preparation of dry raw material components containing a matrix and biologically active components; micronising of prepared dry components is performed till 5-150 mcm particle size. Micronised components are supplied to a drying microgranulator in which a fluidised bed is formed and mixing of granulated raw material components is performed with further microgranulation of the obtained mixture and its drying. Microgranulation and drying stages include stable toroidal movement of fluidised bed granules. Microgranulation stage involves addition to the mixture of soluble micro- and ultramicrocomponents by fine atomisation through an atomiser together with a binding agent solution at microgranule formation stage. Addition rate is 0.02-0.04 g/min per gramme of initial dry mixture; after stable toroidal movement of fluidised bed granules is formed, binding agent feed rate is increased up to 0.04-0.08 g/min per gramme of initial dry mixture. With that, granule test sampling is performed from time to time. After granules with size of 0.8-1.0 mm are formed, binding agent feed rate is decreased to 0.01-0.03 g/min per gramme of initial dry mixture and drying is performed at the temperature of 35-55°C.
EFFECT: method ensures uniform distribution of microelements by weight of microgranules, reduction of losses of microelements at their formation and reduction of dust formation at use of premix.
9 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: pretreatment of fine crushed fluorspar concentrates useful as flux in metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes agitation of concentrate with 8-18 % humidity, calcium hydroxide or calcium oxide and treacle in wt % of 1-2 and 2-6 as reduced to concentrate mass, respectively. Obtained wet mass if extruded through nozzle, cut to the desired dimensions, dried for 10-30 min at 60-1200C, and held at positive temperature for at least 5 days.
EFFECT: method for agglomeration of fine crushed fluorspar concentrates with increased humidity to obtain product of desired strength.
FIELD: pellet production, in particular method for batch preparation.
SUBSTANCE: batch includes iron-ore concentrate and binding composition containing bentonite and 1-5 wt % of polymer (e.g. polysaccharide-based polyelectrolyte) as bentonite activator. Polymer content in each case is determined according to specific surface of iron-ore concentrate using the next equation: X = (0.5-2.5)xSs/1000, wherein X denotes polymer content in binding composition, wt %; Ss denotes specific surface of iron-ore concentrate, cm2/g. In addition batch contains 0.5-2.0 wt % of fluxing additive and when pellets are used in metallization furnace batch also contains 0.4-1.1 wt % of bauxite.
EFFECT: pellets of high quality in dry and wet states, optimum reducibility and strength.
4 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: briquetting dispersed and powder-like wastes of ferroalloy process.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes proportioning and mixing components of charge containing dispersed fractions of ferroalloys, mainly silicon-containing ferroalloys and binder on base of alkaline aqueous solutions of caustic soda with super-dispersed silica or on base of water glass. Mixture thus obtained is molded and dried and briquettes are hardened. Prior to proportioning, dispersed fraction of ferroalloy is treated with organic binder solution followed by drying in air or under action of thermal flux at continuous mixing. Treatment is performed in aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol or in aqueous solution of polyacrylate solution or in anhydrous fast-drying organic solution of 646 or 647 Grade with polyvinyl butyral resin.
EFFECT: reduction of oxidation of useful components in briquetted material; enhanced dissolvability of briquettes in molten metals and alloys.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex