Method of recovering details
(57) Abstract:Usage: for repair of railway rolling stock. The wedge is subjected to hot plastic deformation under the hammer in the closed die by impact force to areas outside surfaces of the wedge between the worn surfaces of the wedge with the redistribution metal with a non-working surfaces worn. For deformation of the wedge used stamp, which made the tabs along the axis in the working areas of the shaping surfaces of the matrix and poison corresponding to the areas located between the worn surfaces of the wedge. Before plastic deformation perform shot-blasting worn wedges. After forming the wedge is subjected to heat treatment, including normalization, the tab and leave. The method provides improved geometrical characteristics, which improves reliability. 3 tab., 4 Il. The invention relates to the processing of metal products by pressure, in particular for reconditioning of worn wedges traction clamps hitch devices of railway cars by hot plastic deformation of the body of the wedge.Known methods of repair parts plastic deformation of the heated billet into the die through the redistribution metal with a non-working surfaces worn with a subsequent heat treatment .With regard to the restoration of worn-out wedges of hitch devices known closest to the technical essence and the achieved result, the way of restoration parts , namely, that the body of the wedge is subjected to hot plastic deformation under the hammer in the closed die. When this clamping effect on the outside surface of the wedge. After forming the wedge is subjected to heat treatment including quenching and tempering. In stamp, used the day of implementation of the method, the forming surfaces of the mattresses and punch provided a longitudinal ledge located at the center along the axis, or the shaping surface is made convex with a given radius of curvature. The effect of deforming efforts on the outside surface of the wedge and the shape of the stamp is sistemu way when plastic deformation filling frayed parts carried out by displacement of metal mainly in the transverse direction and restore the geometrical dimensions mainly only on the width of the wedge. This reduces the cross-sectional area items equally across the length of the loaded area (from bearing to bearing). Therefore, although the subsequent heat treatment allows to obtain material renovated wedges on the numerical values of strength, ductility and toughness are virtually identical to the material of the wedges factory performance, structurally, the wedges are attenuated due to the deterioration of the geometric characteristics of the most loaded sections.Simultaneously with the recovery of the geometric dimensions of the working surface along the width of the wedge invention solves the problem of forming the best combination of structural size and shape along the length and the thickness of the wedge, as well as the creation of the macrostructure of the material, which provide high fatigue strength and reliability of the wedge.The essence of the proposed method of recovery of the wedge traction clamp coupler lies in the fact that the redistribution metal with a non-working surfaces of the wedge worn on hot plastic deformation of the wedge is carried out in a closed die, which is made of longitudinal protrusions along the axis at the working sites matting perform shot-blasting worn wedges. After forming the wedge is subjected to heat treatment comprising normalizing, hardening and tempering.According to the proposed method for stamping medium worn area on the workpiece at the place of application of the variable lateral loads are filled by metal flow is predominantly in the longitudinal direction of the adjacent areas. You get a wedge with variable cross-section along the length of its loading plot (from support to support) without thinning the average of the most loaded part.Fatigue strength of remanufactured parts is increased not only in comparison with the item, recovered in a known manner (which is explainable by the increase in the area of the most loaded section), but compared to neiskushennoi detail, the area of the most loaded section which is not less than the items recovered by the proposed method.Thus, there is an additional technical effect (above expected), obtained through the optimal (from the point of view of providing provedeniya properties) forms part of variable length section and a more favorable direction of the fibers achieved by changing the direction of metal flow at operationem according to the proposed method.The recovery method of the wedge traction clamp coupler implemented as follows.Perform shot-blasting worn wedges.Visual inspection rejected wedges with cracks, regardless of their number, size and location. Perform manual abrasive cleaning dents, nicks, and other surface defects.Installed and configured on the stamping hammer 5 t dies before deformation is pre-heated by a gas burner to a temperature of 150oC.Heat the wedges in a gas furnace to a temperature of 1120 - 1170oC for 15 to 50 minutes (the charge is not more than 30 pieces) and when hot put in the stamp, the shape of which corresponds to the desired geometry of the working surfaces of the wedge and on the forming surfaces of the die and punch, adjacent to the areas "a" worn wedge between the working surfaces "b", "c" and "d" (see Fig. 2 - 4), is made along the axis of the protrusions.Hot plastic deformation of the wedge carry out the redistribution metal with flowers "a" non-working surfaces of the wedge at work worn, with worn-out middle section "c" on the items in the place of application working the Cove. In the stamping process stream stamps periodically lubricate surfacerelated liquor and fanned with compressed air.Cut off the Burr on the residual heat or heated to a temperature of 850 - 900oC in press 630 soPerform shot-blasting wedges. Then the part is subjected to heat treatment comprising normalizing at a temperature of 900 - 920oC for 3 h with cooling, quenching aged for 3 h at 890 - 910oC and cooling in oil and leave the shutter speed at 570 - 630oC for 4 h and cooled in air. Heating when heat treatment is carried out in an electric furnace T-240, placing on the pallet is not more than 10 parts. The number of pallets no more than 8, push 2 pallet.After abrasive cleaning pad to a depth of 0.8 - 1.2 mm are monitoring the hardness of from 5% of the parts from the party in diameter footprint (according to THE required indentation diameter of 3.8 - 3.4 mm) and the control of mechanical properties in the amount of 1 item from the party of no more than 500 pieces.To confirm the correctness of the calculation of molding tooling and overall process restored the party of wedges in an amount of 5 pieces.Before Voss is d" (see table. 1).Dimensions after recovery are consistent with permissible values, which are in accordance with specifications 106.00.002-TO; the thickness of 31 - 33.5 mm, width 93 - 96 mmAccording to the results of mechanical tests of recovered wedges satisfy required by 106.00.002-TO mechanical properties (see table. 2).When fatigue tests wedges cyclic bending load from the press was passed perpendicular to the working surface of the wedge "c" in the middle between the supports at the edges of the wedge "b" and "d" is similar to his position in the eyes of the traction clamp on the car. The test load was chosen from the condition of ensuring the equivalence of operational loading on the spectrum of longitudinal forces experienced by the car through the automatic coupler device. Tests were carried out by repeated cycle of loading with an average load of Pcf=65 cu, maximum - Pmax=90 TC, the minimum Pmin=40 TC.The results of fatigue tests wedges cyclic bending (thousands of cycles to failure) is shown in table. 3.Fatigue strength of wedges, restored the proposed method has increased in comparison with the new wedges on average by 10%. Croo destruction, it has a smaller variance up to 15% (against the spread in 25% new wedges), which also provides them with increased operational reliability.Sources used
1. Sparrows L. N. Technology engineering and repair of machines.- M.: Higher school. 1981, S. 298 - 301.2. Description of the invention to the patent of Russian Federation N 2034690, CL 6 24 P 6/00, prior. 27.10.92, The way to restore the parts of the wedge traction clamp coupler, including his hot plastic deformation in the closed die with longitudinal projections on the working surfaces of the die and punch with the redistribution metal with its outside surfaces worn and subsequent heat treatment of the wedge, consisting of quenching and tempering, characterized in that the hot plastic deformation of the wedge is carried out in the stamp, the longitudinal projections of the working surfaces of the die and punch which is made in sections corresponding to the block located between the worn surfaces of the wedge.
FIELD: plastic working of metals in different branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes supporting plate and housing with openings and duct. Punch, upper and lower stops are mounted in housing. Said stops may be in contact with blank by their flat notched surface. Movable lower stop is arranged in openings of housing and on supporting plate; it engages with said plate by its smooth surface. Hydraulic cylinder joined by its rod with lower stop is mounted on supporting plate. Upper stop is in the form of cylinder mounted in housing in such a way that it restricts together with punch inner cylindrical cavity of hydraulic system providing motion of lower stop. Said hydraulic system also includes duct of housing and hydraulic cylinder.
EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities of apparatus due to increased range of changing relation of shear deformation to compression deformation of blank.
FIELD: plastic metal working, possibly forging variable cross section parts by extrusion in hydraulic presses with movable container.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of feeding heated blank to container; pressing out blank in container by means of pressure pad and extruding part of blank to die of die set; forming forging having constant cross section part and thickened part that is formed after upsetting remaining portion of blank; placing part of die set in container according to condition of joining their planes. Upsetting of remaining portion of blank for forming thickened part of forging is realized in cavity between joined planes of die set unit and container. Said cavity is formed due to moving die set unit relative to container before forming thickened part of forging. Upsetting operation is realized due to simultaneous motion of pressure pad and container.
EFFECT: possibility for making forging with complex outer and inner configurations, simplified assortment of technological tools, enhanced quality of forging.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: plastic metal working.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at plastic shaping of parts by orbital deformation method. Blank is made previously profiled in form of cylinder with ring flange. Dimensions of blank are defined by mathematical expression given in invention. Blank is placed between die and spherodynamic fluctuating deforming module and then is spinned. Ring flange of blank is made for providing its arrangement between die and said deforming module with clearance. Size of clearance between ring flange and die exceeds clearance between ring flange and deforming module by a factor of 10.
EFFECT: provision of deformation resonance in material in process of machining for realizing wave plasticity character in form of rotary modes of plasticity.
FIELD: plastic working of materials, possibly cold plastic deforming of parts with predetermined level of operational characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing blank onto support; end upsetting of blank and then deforming it with punch; subjecting punch to complex motion in the form of circular rolling out at simultaneous cyclic axial rocking; subjecting blank at side of its support to cyclic striking pulses acting along helical path. Due to such complex motion of punch blank is deformed by value consisting of 5 - 7 % of predetermined deformation degree. Then motion of cyclic axial rocking of punch is interrupted and pulse effort is applied to punch at frequency equal to that of forced oscillations of support. Blank is subjected to finish shaping by rolling it out with use of punch without pulse efforts. Invention provides wave nature of plastic deformation, penetration of rotor to nano-level of blank material for forming in it massifs of material of "artificial intellect".
EFFECT: possibility for forming desired operational properties in material of blank.
FIELD: plastic working of materials, possibly cold plastic deforming of parts with predetermined level of operational characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing cylindrical blank in cavity of lower die on sphere-dynamic fluctuation module and resting part by means of pusher; deforming part by rolling-around punch; imparting to said punch and to pusher motion along curves in the form of logarithmic helixes rising in the same direction. It provides realization of wave structure of plastic deformation and obtaining in blank of material zones of "artificial intellect".
EFFECT: possibility for producing parts with desired level of operational characteristics.