(57) Abstract:The invention relates to agriculture, in particular for the garden greenhouses for cultivation of agricultural plants, vegetables, flowers, etc., the Greenhouse contains a section frame consisting of end walls, gable roof with at least one transom, to the rays which are at an obtuse angle are the side gable wall, door, translucent roof, side wall supporting elements, the bottom shelf of each of which is turned outward and posted to another shelf at an obtuse angle. The design of the greenhouse is characterized by the fact that the slopes of the roof are connected pivotally to education when mounting the internal angle 110 - 119othe transom is made triangular in shape, is in locking engagement with the ridge of the roof and is located above the center of gravity. In this case the angle between the shelves each side of the element is equal 102-108oand the internal angle at the base of each side wall 80-86°. The internal angle between the slopes of each side wall is equal to the inner corner between the roof and the upper slope of the side wall and is 153-157°. The length of the greenhouse L = (815N )+ 50 mm, where 815 - a single section length in mm; N is the number of partitions; 50 techno the NOC, made with the possibility of moving along it. The invention allows to improve the performance characteristics of the greenhouse and to simplify its installation. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The invention relates to agriculture, in particular for the garden greenhouses for cultivation of agricultural plants, vegetables, flowers, etc.Famous arched greenhouse containing a rigid body consisting of a gable roof, translucent cover, side gable walls with gates and side support elements (see Brandman S. E. and Fedorov Century. And. Goods for private farms/Directory. - M.: Economy. - S. 66-68, Fig. 21).Known greenhouse is a single standard size and can be used only with a specific climate zone. In addition, its installation causes inconvenience due to the fact that the building greenhouses at first entirely going, and then it is placed on the Foundation. At sufficiently high structural weight (200 kg) it can be done only a few people. Therefore, the installation of greenhouses requires more labor.Closest to the claimed invention is a greenhouse containing section frame consisting of end walls having FRAM the transparent floor, the side wall supporting elements, the bottom shelf of each of which is turned outward and posted to another shelf at an obtuse angle (see RU, patent 2067813, ITUC A 01 G 9/14, 1996).In the well-known greenhouse enclosure bunk, removable top layer of which is formed a gable roof and side walls and the bottom tier has two of the reference frame, each of which is formed of a gable wall and inner enclosures. As you can see and this greenhouse is definitely a complex structure and greater complexity during installation. In addition, on the roof of the greenhouse in pairs mounted to the transom in the form of frames with automatic opening with thermosalinograph. Installing thermosalinograph when mounting requires great accuracy. If you put one cylinder, then the possible misalignment of the frame, and the installation of two cylinders increases the cost of the greenhouse.The invention aims to remedy these disadvantages.This task is solved in that in a greenhouse containing section frame consisting of end walls, gable roof with at least one transom, to the rays which are at an obtuse angle are the side gable wall, door, translucent roof, side wall supporting elements or the second roof slopes are interconnected hinge for education when mounting the internal angle from 110 to 119othe transom is made triangular in shape and is in locking engagement with the ridge of the roof. The center of gravity of the transom is located at the top. In this case the angle between the shelves each side of the element is equal 102-108oand the internal angle at the base of each side wall - 80-86o. The internal angle between the slopes of each side wall is equal to the inner corner between the roof and the upper slope of the side wall and is 153-157o. The length of the greenhouse L = (815N) + 50 mm, where 815 - a single section length in mm; N is the number of partitions; 50 - technologically permissible length of the greenhouse in mm from the target. A door mounted on one of the end walls, are made to move along it.The connection of the roof hinge between them allows you to smoothly change the width of the greenhouse within 200 mm, which allows the installation of any defects Foundation (the Foundation) and, in addition, to adjust the angle of the roof to achieve the necessary light for plants in any light time of the day. Accommodation stingrays side walls under the specified angles, and the angle between the shelves of the lateral support elements allows to simplify installation and improve operational radicova engagement with the ridge of the roof can improve the performance parameters of the greenhouse and to reduce wind load due to its aerodynamics. Concurrent execution of the greenhouse allows you to get any length depending on operational parameters.Thus the use of the invention can be improved operational characteristics of the greenhouse and simplified installation.In the prior art (see Berson, H. polar vegetables. - M.: Kolos. - 1979. - S. 43-52) known gable and polygon greenhouses with different angles at the apex of the roof, install the side gable walls to roof slopes with different length, width and height.However, the inventors calculated the claimed parameters greenhouses and grounded structural characteristics that are not explicitly follow from the known from the prior art greenhouses and prototype, and the combination of which allows you to retrieve the specified technical result.Industrial use of the claimed design of the greenhouse is not straightforward, since the production of its elements can be produced at any industrial equipment intended for pressing and bending a metal profiles.Analysis of the known authors of information on this subject leads to the conclusion that the claimed sobriety.The design of the greenhouse is illustrated by drawings.In Fig. 1 shows the greenhouse, end view;
in Fig. 2 shows the greenhouse having end and sliding side doors, side view;
in Fig. 3 - this is the same end view.The greenhouse contains a frame 1 made of sections 2, end walls 3 and side gable walls 4, gable roof 5, the translucent cover 6 (for example glass). The door 7 may be located in or on one of the end walls 3 and/or on the side wall 4. The door can be made single-8 (on the side wall of Fig. 2), and bivalve 9 (on the end wall of Fig. 1). On the end wall 3 may be mounted sliding door 10 (Fig. 3), i.e., a door mounted for movement along the wall. In addition, side entrance can be made from any side and in any position to which released two light openings of the first and second row of glasses.Rays 11 and 12 of the roof 5 are interconnected pivotally, for example, using bolts and nuts (without knee). This allows for the installation of greenhouses depending on the climate zone and other settings to adjust the angle at the apex of the roof 5 from 110 to 119o.The installation angle of the side walls 4 to 11 stingrays and agnosti to provide the best illumination inside the greenhouse. This and other values of this angle is achieved technical result.The greenhouse is assembled from a set of standardized parts with bolted connections. Items of the same type and made of sheet steel (or waste) a method of bending and punching that when the Assembly provides the necessary geometry and dimensions of the greenhouse. Mounting holes in the parts are symmetrical, due to their interchangeability.The frame 1 of the greenhouse consists of arched racks with 13 broken generatrix collected from the supporting rods 14 (bent elbow) by struts 15 bolted.Arched rack 13 are sequentially installed on a Foundation (the Foundation) and connected by a bottom 16, medium 17 and top 18 links by bolting through the compensation slot mounting connection.After installation, the end door blocks the greenhouse frame becomes rigid spatial farm. The frame is attached to the Foundation (the Foundation) through the mounting holes of the bottom 16 of the relations that represent the lateral angular support elements, the bottom shelf of each of which is turned outward. The angle between the shelves corner altantunya farm with sufficient structural strength. The internal angle at the base of each side wall is equal 80-86o.After reconciliation, the plumb-line and cords nuts tighten bolted connections permanently and light apertures sequentially stack the sheets of glass that are held and fixed clamping lugs 19 by bolting, with simultaneous installation of skates 20, passages 21 and the triangular transom 22. Each of the latter one party is in locking engagement with the ridge, and the center of gravity is located in the upper part, so the transom is easy to open. Frame transom is in locking engagement with a specially curved ridge, but if necessary, transoms can be easily removed. The triangular shape of the transoms reduces wind load due to its aerodynamics. Blocks transoms interconnected with glass, so they can be placed in any opening of the upper row and in the required quantity. Linear contact frame transom with glass creates a reliable waterproofing of this doorway. The transom can be opened manually and to have the stand with hooks 23, which is fixed in its degree of opening. The transom can open and use thermosalinograph as that of the prototype. In view of the wide use of the Itza L is determined by the formula L = (815 N) + 50 mm, where 815 - a single section length in mm; N is the number of partitions; 50 - technologically permissible length of the greenhouse in mm from the target, i.e. the length of the greenhouse is built up sections 815 mm Width and the height of the greenhouse is determined by the length of the supporting rods 14 and the angle at the apex of the roof.The optimal length of the supporting rods 14 is defined by a standard glass sizes, so it is advisable to apply the following length of bearing rods - 1010, 1210 and 1610 mmCombining the length of the supporting rods 14, discretely change the width of the greenhouse from 3 to 5 m and height, respectively, from 2.4 to 3.6 m, the Geometry of the greenhouse provides spontaneous dropping of snow. The greenhouse does not require a high basement (150 mm above ground level), this reduces the installation and increases the luminous flux. The angles of inclination of the walls of the greenhouses create optimal conditions for the perception of solar energy at any length time of day.Method water shutoff and strengthening of glass used in the construction of greenhouses, does not require putty or other sealing elements known in practice, and based on the meniscus effect in linear contact of the retainer plate with glass and provides reliable waterproofing, as well as "floating" >The calculation of loads, the axial distribution of the compressive or tensile elements (parts) of the greenhouse frame enables the design as a spatial farm. Therefore, the elements (parts) of the greenhouse is made in a lightweight version. 1. Greenhouse containing section frame consisting of end walls having at least one transom of a gable roof, the slopes of which is at an obtuse angle are the side gable wall, door, translucent roof, side wall supporting elements, the bottom shelf of each of which is turned outward and posted to another shelf at an obtuse angle, characterized in that the roof slopes are interconnected hinge for education when mounting the internal angle 110 - 119othe transom is made triangular in shape, is located on one side in the lock engages with the ridge of the roof and is located above the center of gravity, the angle between the shelves each side of the element is equal 102-108oand the internal angle at the base of each side wall 80-86o.2. The greenhouse under item 1, characterized in that the internal angle between the slopes of each side wall is equal to the inner corner between the roof and the top of the slope side stank) + 50 mm,
where 815 - a single section length in mm;
N is the number of partitions;
50 - technologically permissible length of the greenhouse in mm from the target.4. The greenhouse under item 1, wherein the door is mounted on one end wall, configured to move along it.
SUBSTANCE: block is composed of transparent cylindrical cups produced by cutting off of throats from used plastic bottles. Columns of cups are positioned tightly one aside the other into frame equipped with device for attachment to other similar frame. Frame has plates arranged in lower and upper part of frame and provided with beads. Restricting plates are arranged at both sides of frame. One of plates is made movable and connected by side couplers to immovable plate.
EFFECT: simplified building of hothouses and greenhouses of different shape and sizes.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, constructions for protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has carcass for longitudinal walls, end panels and roof, light-transparent material for covering carcass openings, with part of carcass openings being adapted for closing and opening to provide for ventilation of green house interior, and drive for unit adapted to provide for automatic ventilation. Carcass openings are made in the form of air vents. Drive for automatic ventilation unit is equipped with system of levers pivotally secured to one another and to air vent flaps and rigidly fixed on member for securing of vacuum pipe with counterweight.
EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency in creating of advantageous conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in greenhouses and other sheltered ground constructions. Proposed guard for greenhouse containing multiple-layer guard with air spacer and glass roof, light transparent polymeric air bottles are placed between layers. Edges of film panels are fixed in detachable semirigid combination cords and are secured in sockets found on roof of greenhouse. Thanks to it control of heat protective characteristics of roof depending on weather conditions is provided.
EFFECT: reduced labor input when mounting film coating on roof of greenhouse.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: covering and packaging materials.
SUBSTANCE: covering synthetic material is three-layer polyethylene film. Two layers define hermetically sealed cylindrical cavities secured with each other along generatrix lines. Third flat layer is attached to cylinders along tangent generatrix lines. Return valve is built into each of said cylinders for filling, retaining and relieving of air. On maximal filling of cylinders with air, material obtains constructional properties helpful in constructing of flat and three-dimensional temporary sheds providing "hot-house" effect. Upon complete relieving of air from cylinders, material is wound into compact roll.
EFFECT: improved heat-insulating and physical properties of material without affecting solar radiation permeability.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing in protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has at least one greenhouse unit equipped with irrigation device. Greenhouse unit has ventilation device and soil heating device. Automatic control system for controlling said devices has at least one temperature sensor and at least one moisture content sensor, whose outputs are connected through amplifiers-converters to part of inputs of arithmetic-logic device adapted for receiving signals generated by said sensors, comparing resulting data with control data and generating control signals for switching-on said devices. Other part of arithmetic-logic device inputs is connected to outputs of replaceable permanent memory unit wherein program for selected climatic zone and program for growing of selected plant of this climatic zone are recorded. Third part of inputs is connected to position outputs for members of said devices, whose inputs are connected through control unit and amplifiers-converters to outputs of arithmetic-logic device and to inputs of indication unit. Voltage of 12 V is supplied to automatic control unit.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in growing wide range of plants of any climatic zone with automatic system for controlling of irrigation, ventilation and heating procedures.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: agriculture; protection of plants against unfavorable weather.
SUBSTANCE: load-bearing members of greenhouse roof are made in form of flexible cords fastened with film guard and suspended in taut state between end uprights on which they may be moved, freely fitted and taken off. Film guard is provided with drain recesses having semispherical holes in lower part. Some recesses are provided with drain valves made in form of two rings inserted one into other and section of film sleeve laid in between rings.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; reduction of labor consumption; possibility of mounting temporary multi-layer guard in case of light frost.
4 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: agriculture; growing plants at lesser consumption of electrical and thermal energy due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed greenhouse complex includes base, transparent heat-insulating dome-shaped coat with round transparent heat-insulation aperture in center. Coat is secured on load-bearing supports mounted vertically on base; it is manufactured from roofing blocks made from light-tight material at low heat conductivity and provided with through holes in form of truncated cones or pyramids coated from the inside with beam-reflecting material with their vertices directed inside or outside the coat. Holes are closed with inserts from the outside and inside which are made from thin transparent material; surfaces of said blocks directed inside coat and not occupied by through holes and technological holes are coated with beam-reflecting material. Areas with plants being cultivated, main and auxiliary technological equipment and plant life support systems are located inside coat and helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir consists of two vessels: one of them is filled with water and is mounted on base in center of coat and other is mounted coaxially inside first one and is insulated at sides and from beneath with low-conductivity material. Second vessel is closed at the top by its own transparent heat-insulating coat and is filled with common salt, for example. Two light reflectors which are cooled with water are made in form of truncated cones or truncated polyhedral pyramids. First of them with outer side light-reflecting surface is mounted with vertex downward above coat, coaxially with it. Second reflector is hollow; it is provided with light-reflecting surfaces; it is mounted coaxially relative to first reflector with vertex upward inside coat above helio-absorbing heat-insulating reservoir. Flat beam-reflecting panels located on area adjoining the coat concentrically relative to it are arranged in two rows. Each said panel is mounted on output link of its two-coordinated swivel mechanism provided with controllable drive. Base of drive is secured on bearing strut vertically mounted on ground surface. Provision is made for additional energy channel together with two said light reflectors which is made in form of flux of sun beams reflected by beam-reflecting panels of helio-absorbing heat-accumulating reservoir concentrated and directed downward. If necessary, it may be spread over entire surface. Controllable drives of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms are connected by their inputs to output of automatic control unit realized at base of computer center. Electrical inputs of center are connected with sensors of media contained in helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir and in space under coat, as well as with wind velocity and direction sensors and with coordinate position sensors of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements at intensified growth of plants due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
13 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, covering used for farm crops on home ground or farm, as well as in agricultural collective farms.
SUBSTANCE: covering for plants consists of uniform parts, that is, flat flexible arched members, which are mounted on base in pairs one above another in intersecting relationship, at an angle to each other. Flat flexible arched members are connected with one another through flexible members at points of intersection of arched members and between adjacent pairs.
EFFECT: simplified construction, reduced number of different-type completing parts, improved unification, and reduced costs for manufacture of covering construction.
FIELD: growing of farm crops in ground protected from environment and creation of optimum microclimate for plants.
SUBSTANCE: garden frame has carcass made from profiled metal parts connected with one another through screw-type fastening members. Poles are fixed on ground-buried supports. Horizontal longitudinal girders are connected to poles so as to form cells. Inclined and horizontal cross-pieces are connected to each other and to ceiling poles so as to define principal triangular framework. Roof panels of enclosure carry girders. Frame is furnished with pivotal transoms having light-transmitting film covering. Transoms are designed to be opened and fixed in closed position. Transoms pins of rotation are retained on inclined girders. Retainers are located on girders connecting inclined cross-pieces. Each of said inclined cross-piece is made of corner metal profile and consists of two parts with upper and lower arrangement of corner strips.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation of covering.
2 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: collapsible portable covering-isolator has carcass consisting of composite transverse frames including end and intermediate frames, ridge and longitudinal bars disposed between frames. Carcass has door frame in its end. Protective covering is fixed to carcass members. Curtain adapted for closing of covering entrance is made from material similar to that of protective covering. Upper part of transverse frame is made in the form of curved girder with lower horizontal belt. Guiding pins are rigidly fixed to girder ends in vertical plane. Lower part of transverse frame comprises two hollow columns within which guiding pins of girder are inserted from the top. Brackets with openings are rigidly fixed on pins at different levels in horizontal planes along column length. Each of supports is made in the form of cross-piece disposed in horizontal plane. Rod is attached to cross-piece from its underside, and guiding pin is inserted from the top, said rod being driven into ground and guiding pin being inserted into column from the bottom. Frames connecting bars are formed similar and equipped at their ends with pins-fingers disposed in bracket openings.
EFFECT: simplified construction and enhanced reliability in operation of covering.
23 cl, 18 dwg