The method of planning treatment workings with regard to the prevention and eradication of rock bursts, particularly in the coal mines

 

(57) Abstract:

The method of planning treatment workings with regard to the prevention and eradication of rock bursts, particularly in the coal mines, relates to the field of mining. The method consists in the fact that when planning treatment workings in tectonically hard sedimentary deposits, particularly in the coal mines, for the prevention and/or suppression caused by the secretion of rock bursts and/or collapse of the masses, determine due tektonicheskogo process areas or areas with two or lineopen preliminary tectonic processing caused by the secretion of movements of the breed. Then they guide the development and/or take measures to relieve tension in the busy output of the array of species and/or to provide additional security treatment workings. 1 C. and 21 C.p. f-crystals.

The present invention relates to a method for planning treatment workings in tectonically hard sedimentary deposits, especially coal deposits, by calculating the areas of generation, length (length) output, speed of development and development procedure, while the position of the workings orientiruem and meats, as the basis for planning use collapse, stretch and reset size corresponding to the recognized geological disturbances, as well as the direction of energy folding and caused by tectonic energy attenuation crushing the crushing and compression in the rock and the resulting tectonic movements of the masses.

Such method is described in international application WO 95/14155. According to this method, take into account tektonicheski process occurs when deposits (deposits) to design units deposits, used tektonicheskie dependence occurs, subject to planning grooves array of deposits as the basis for planning of dredging, and the revised data on the form and behavior of tectonics contribute to improving the basics of planning grooves, as well as related to the planning required for this autopsies and cuts. Thus, according to a known method for scheduling slots are already in use dependencies between tectonics small and large forms or between the initiating and subsequent violations. Thus the account tektonicheskih dependencies allows you to get earlier information about do before the emer, resetting known violations (rock). Therefore, the known method according to this data, we can determine the size of changes in the direction of stretch and fall of the detected violations and to make conclusions for planning grooves; this method allows to obtain data on the discharge gap depending on the fall of rock layers, i.e., depending on the level of folding, and to prepare the planning of dredging. According to a known method may receive updated data about the behaviour tecktonik with large and small forms, which purposefully partially improved basis for planning grooves and thereby actually the scheduling of fill.

Although according to the method already possible to improve the reliability of planning in the orientation of the openings in the array deposits, however, if the development or production problems arise in connection with the risk of rock bursts or massoobmene, also associated with the occurrence of gotovilasb. For example, according to the method of planning to assess the risk of rock bursts into account only the petrography with Sandstone and arenaceous shale and stratigraphy with tolstopiatenko layers and their distance to the t critical when evaluating, in particular, matches of rock bursts with gas release.

The basis of the invention was used to further improve the known method with respect to the informativeness of the fundamentals of planning, in particular to prevent rock bursts and collapses mass.

The solution to this problem, including preferred examples and modifications of the invention disclosed in the claims appended to this description.

The basic idea of the invention lies in the fact that in order to prevent and/or eliminate caused by the secretion of rock bursts and/or collapse of the masses and without emissions to determine due tektonicheskogo process areas or areas with two or lineopen preliminary tectonic processing caused by the excavation of the movements of the breed, and then guide the development and/or take measures to relieve tension in the busy notch array of species and/or for additional security workings.

Provided according to the invention the advantage is that the use tektonicheskie based upon the occurrence of the planned array breed as the basis (bases) planning and utopiana are dependencies between tectonically with large and small forms, and between the initiating and subsequent violations. Accounting tektonicheskih dependency provides earlier evidence, is presumably the same or increases or decreases in one direction or the other stretch, for example, resetting known violations of the breed. According to the method according to the invention preferably determines the size of the changes in the direction of stretch and fall of the detected violations and from this draw conclusions about the development procedure, the direction of the notches, podviganiya stope and measures the strain voltage for the prevention and eradication of rock bursts; in addition, it is possible to obtain data on the discharge gap depending on the fall of rock layers, i.e., depending on the level of folding, and then to reconcile the calculation of the development procedure, the direction of stretch, podvigina stope and measures to relieve stresses for the prevention and eradication of rock bursts; you can also get updated data about the shape and behavior of the tectonics of the large and small forms, which can greatly improve the planning principles of order processing, the direction of stretch, podvigina stope and measures unloading to prevent and eliminate the actual rock bursts, positives and tectonics.

According to one example implementation of the invention on the planned site of the rock determine the direction of energy folding and guide the planning of the development procedure, the direction of stretch, podvigina stope and measures stress relief to prevent and eliminate rock bursts, and if necessary, additional local measures the strain voltage, such as blasting. It is well known that the energy of folding in the array breed is opposed by the back pressure created by the mass of rock; power folding overcomes this pressure and at the same time doing work due to tectonic disturbances and their forms, and recognized the direction of energy folding becomes a recognizable form of disability as the basis of the development procedure, the direction of stretch, podvigina stope and measures to relieve stresses for the prevention and eradication of rock bursts.

Due tektonicheskih processes, and thus at the expense of energy of folding in the breed originated splitting, which is partially due to the movement took shape in tectonics is ocosta shear in the direction of the violations, also they are often not formed in a tectonic disturbance. Only tektonicheskih processes there are numerous indications of where the breed is largely preserved in its original state, and where shifted or split.

As cystoplasty, in particular Sandstone and sandy shale, provides the most important criteria for evaluating the hazards of mining impact, it is important to know where the splitting overlook plastovaniya. Thereby locally tolstoplenochnaya layers can be divided (cut) thin, which is comparable with tonkoplenochnykh layers. Splitting with a gentle bedding can be perpendicular or inclined. This means that for the prevention and elimination of rockbursts sandstones and arenaceous shales in one place varies with Sandstone or sandy shale in another place, although petrographically there is a match. Only by considering tektonicheskih processes allows adequately assess the risk of cystoplasty about the mountain of blow. Equivalent geological background, taking into account the danger mountain of blow, enough can be detected only with regard to tektonicheskogo belennogo mass of rocks. Side rock cannot adequately evaluate the possibility of mining impact by using only one of the wells. Assessment is ongoing regarding the fact that there cystoplasty excluding raskalyvanii.

Therefore, according to one example implementation of the invention is checked, did cystoplasty layers by raskalyvanii and destruction Templeton structure, which is important to reduce the risk of mountain strike. It must be emphasized that in subsequent tectonics, used as a parameter influencing the threat of mining strike, not fully known. Thus, tectonic disturbances still taken into account as a parameter of influence. However, it is not considered that modern tectonic disturbances were laid as splitting and that due process of movement or to the planes of the irregularities formed in the thrusts, discharges and shifts. Due to this, the splitting plane is formed in a tectonic disturbance with the appropriate dimensions of the thrust fault, the reset and the size of the shift. Another attribute of tectonic disturbances due to splitting and final formation through PS for movements become faults. For the dangers of the mountain shot is essentially irrelevant whether plane shear violations or not. Accounting tektonicheskogo process can improve not only the usual design of tectonic disturbances. He also points to the presence of raskalyvanii, with no discharge or minispool in the millimeter or centimeter range, which is usually not taken into account in geodetic technique and therefore not included in the mine plan. Accounting tektonicheskogo process also points to stretch and fall raskalyvanii that are relevant for the evaluation of the hazards of mining impact and prevent rock bursts with vasovasostomy and without them by calculating the order of generation, the extent of development and measures the strain voltage, as well as safety measures against the collapse of the masses.

According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention splitting and fracture of rocks taken into account for the order of generation, length of production, podvigina stope, measures unloading to prevent and eliminate rock bursts with vasovasostomy or not by calculating the order of generation, the extent of development and measures the discharge from narraikow breed "like" about his past and tektonicheskom process it is undergoing due to the impact energy of folding and relieving. Due to the mountain cutting movements in the rock should be expected primarily where during tektonicheskogo process had already taken place movement. In this case, there is a plane on which these movements due to mining ramping when mining activities expand further. Energy to break the respective surfaces of motion is not required, the breed is already more or less destroyed, and thus prepared for the perception of motion.

In tektonicheskom the process of the movement in the formation of tectonic disturbances did not remain limited to violations. When this side of the violations, either above and below the violations occurred weakening the rock and crushing the crushing. This refers to the thrusts, releases and changes. With the resulting weakening of the breed and crushing is not always caused only a single tectonic disturbance, but two or even multiple violations. Loosening and crushing the crushing caused by movements in the planes of shear, which only have partial boundary thrust fault, discharges or boundaries shift.

Due ectomesenchyme, pre-treated tectonically and which are formed as two-dimensional and lineopen. However, both the formation of two-dimensional or lineopen - are essential for assessing planning workings, the length of the notches, podvigina stope and for events in relief.

In contrast to areas with crushings and impairments of breed in which there are movements in tectonic disturbance or to them, and splitting with minor movements and without them, there are areas that are compressed and compressed due to the energy of folding and pressure, which creates the breed. On such sites, there are no surfaces on which occurred the move. Instead, the breed was pressed. Voltage in the breed in tektonicheskom process was increased in areas of pressing, and the processes of movement, as they walked further sites with the fragmentation and weakening of the breed, not reduced stress.

The movement as a consequence of the mining introduction (ramping) use of the surface, which gives the breed. In areas with compression such surfaces exist, and if they are they are leet prerequisite for the emergence of local stresses breed, which is not extinguished immediately movements on or to existing planes of cleavage. At the same time occurs the initial state of aplastante and, thereby, cystoplasty, which is not processed tectonically tonkoplenochnykh structures, which can take different directions in the breed and to minimize the danger mountain of blow.

Excavation edges under certain limiting conditions increase the risk of mining strike. Excavation edges create a dividing surface between those parts of the rocks, which were directly exposed to movements in the mining, cutting, and those in which there is high pressure due to the anchor effect of the notch, with the possibility of a high rock stresses. The movement disturb or destroy the original structure of the rock. However, it is also tektonicheskom process under the action of energy of folding, if the breed are loosening and crushing and splitting. Thereby, it is possible to compare the extraction of edges and boundaries between different tense and/or loose areas, and developed plot with tectonically intense plot and ondence to the assessment and planning of calculation of mining, length of production, podvigina stope and measures tension. At the boundaries between different tense areas overlook violations molotkovichsky forms, as changed conditions for the occurrence of specific tectonic types of violations. In those places where tectonic violations go with vents, facing the plane of shear, which has not been formed violations with a certain measure thrust fault or reset. At the same time on the parts of the boundaries end up splitting that are associated with the release of tectonic disturbances.

As described above, at the boundaries between different tense areas overlook violations and cracking that could occur in these areas. This applies to areas with impairments breed and crushings. However, this is not or almost does not apply to areas with compression and extrusion, where the list (account) violations goes to zero. This applies also to the adjacent sections of the grips and pressovanii. In these areas the energy of folding was reduced by raskalyvanii and movements, and for areas with pressing this is due to the interaction of these factors.

Exp the rock pressure, due to production, decreases rapidly to the side. The movement ends with the end plane of shear, i.e., at the boundaries between different tense areas, if developed plot, stressful splitting, and on the other side, there are practically no plane of cleavage, which can perceive the movement. This leads to the type of "local stresses in the rock.

According to the following exemplary embodiment of the invention define a space, in which the output crosses the boundaries between tectonically stressed areas, and at the intersection of the developed area, which has a splitting, and on the other side did not have raskalyvanii.

According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention at the border of the mine workings in the priority field excavation is checked whether it has the boundaries between different tense areas, and the danger of local voltage excavation ceased at the destruction of more than 50 meters, The same applies to the roadway (development) field parallel grooves in the priority field production. If neighboring layers are excavation edges, the local voltage is valid for the planned production, which control more than the hour is between different tectonically stressed areas of the species in the insular attitude of formations available from excavation sites, as it is used up to the present time to recognize the dangers of the mountain of blow. So, for example, with a fairly strong splitting cannot occur the island, which in combination with increased risk of mountain strike leads to the execution of the mining activities. On the other hand it is possible that the island against the splitting is in front of the front of mining. Accounting tektonicheskogo process allows you to recognize lineonline splitting and places where these splitting intersect, and the breed is very much divided; therefore, the development procedure, the length of the working, podvigina stope and measures of relief when this can already be taken into account when planning.

According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention is checked, destroyed or raskalyvanii island developing or not.

Tectonic disturbance due to the movements that occur on these sites that have the hack box, which is not always unaffected by the damage. This is true especially in the case when the movement changes in the intensity and direction or movement stop. By taking into account tektonicheskogo touched only splitting, which, in particular in relation to a single item, there was only a slight movement. At a distance of 200 m from the largest tectonic dislocations parallel to the violations can be extended splitting that occurred in tektonicheskom process according to certain rules and the weakening of the breed have been shifted due to the energy of folding and relieving. On the borders of raskalyvanii boundaries appear without a transition, as the excavation edges. Restrictions effects develop over the recess are falling, directed towards the generated plot. Thus over the island grooves has a pyramid of rocks, which does not affect production, and thereby the area damaged by movement. With a corresponding fall (tilt) plane of cleavage obtained comparable dependence in combination with the results tektonicheskogo process and development procedure, since higher order mining process movement is leading, the limit of which falls towards the development. Thus, as is the case when the excavation island, there is a "suitcase" (coffin lid) with excessive dimensions, which consists of effortless processes of movement in the rock, which are the consequences of mining activity. Thus, around the rock Islands without raskalyvanii, processes occur that lead to the fact that under lateral raskalyvanii created high rock pressure, if movement in the planes of cleavage cause downward dynamic compression. High rock pressure, due to the excavation edge, are essential for evaluating the hazards of mining strike. These high rock pressure are influenced by the consistency and structure of the rocks is not immediately adjacent to the excavation edge and at a distance of several meters. Thus, in particular when the first generation, the effect of notch with its movement tends there's more in the direction where you already have plane shear for movement as a consequence tektonicheskogo process. Accordingly, high rock pressure is distributed over a wide area. Accordingly, it is the local pressure of at least large. In contrast to this is the area that little or no pre-tectonically not processed by the planes of cleavage, as prescolite cystoplasty layers. Here, the breed will try to implement the processes of elaborating the main roof falls only after a certain podvigina stope. Because of the still intact landing considerable pressure rocks can be moved on the face side. It is therefore recommended treatment production to start in mined-out space where the roof had already collapsed. As for the first grooves, these techniques cannot be applied, as a substitute proposed cut the rock in which the main roof, at least in the position to exist in the form of a large surface over the recess to thus minimize the danger mountain of blow.

According to this exemplary embodiment of the invention perekalivatsja from full tab with a collapse in areas where the rock is stressed by raskalyvanii. The same applies to the prolongation of the faces, and the deposition of the construction beams parallel and gate jumpers.

To recognize the dangers of the mountain shot is important to relieve tension breed upward toward the earth's surface, and prevent stresses due to the splitting planes and overlapping blocks (blocks) rocks, which are neighboring blocks. While previously the surface of the Carboniferous rocks was even surface rocks to the earth's surface or cover kratiem voltage should the new pressure of overlapping species, which was prepared by a newer roof deposits. Thus, a strong breed during smoothing plots breed first unloaded from the strain, and then due to the increasing pressure of overlapping species falls under the type "sedimentary effect." This process is at odds with the deposition of rock layers conductive layer breed, i.e. the deposition, as the breed, which was in a relatively soft condition. Sedimentary rock was at least or not able to perceive the tension, particularly in the areas of compression. The compression of the conductive layer of the breed occurred due to increasing roof deposits and, to a greater or lesser extent with the assistance of the horizontal pressure of the earth's crust. Horizontal pressure partly higher than the pressure of overlapping species. Near fallow roof breed trained to maximally discharged from stress, then again to take them. Thus, the breed near cover deposits knows the process of stress relief, which is important to reduce the risk of mountain strike. However, the process of removing the voltage is different depending on the constellation of petrography, stratigraphy and tectonics given tektonicheskogo process the activity, then about 250 m below top of reservoir is the transition that is essential for mining strike. Here especially intensively affect the boundaries between areas with compression and plots with raskalyvanii. In areas with raskalyvanii were possible discharge from the voltage due to the offset due to the smoothing of the breed. In areas with compression the process of removing the voltage held at a certain level passing below the earth's surface. Currently, the areas with raskalyvanii discharged from stress faster because the rock knows the process of removing the voltage, which is caused by the wide discharge from the pressure of overlapping species. Above zone, about 250 m below top of reservoir, this leads to the collapse of the mass, when the planes of cleavage are so above the mine workings are patterns like "suitcase", in particular with a large tolstopiatenko of rock layers. The landslide mass can also occur if the splitting appear due to the initiating action limited to the blocks reset and facing upward thrusts so that in connection with tolstopiatenko the rock layers appear "camaderie" structure.

According to one example implementation of the invention od the definition process due to the impact energy of folding, and rock pressure and movements for the formation of tectonic disturbances of large forms, and define places, dangerous in the meaning of landslide mass. In a certain way so the zones reduce the lag fixing, avoiding stops harvesters and stops in mines, in which there are no pauses due to weekends and holidays.

Rock bursts occur often, but not always, due to vasovasostomy. This occurs when the plane of shear, which contribute to the emergence of the mining strike in connection with the order of generation, speed of development and the length of the production, including the geometry of the excavation, were stopped opposing movements, and movements can be directed horizontally, vertically or horizontally, vertically or diagonally. Then on the parts of the planes of cleavage will occur mylonitization breed with the ability that the gas may feel for coal. With proper mountain pressure due to the geometry generation in Gaza appear large compression, which are released in connection with the actuation voltages. No matter what is triggering the combined result, the gas pressure or stress concentration. And VNU adjacent no. In zones of tectonic thrust fault coals more mylonitization than in neighboring areas, and thus more formed for gotovilasb.

Control gatepost and the gas pressure according to the exemplary embodiment of the invention is carried out in the area of the layer with the thrusts, and not in the neighboring areas. Mylonitization prevents flow from one layer to another.

If you encounter Islands generation and negligible influence of tectonic structures with limit excavation edges, front wastewater treatment works, ridges drifts and due to tectonics, relevance to the mining impact structures, as well as in the presence of cystoplasty reinforce the control on the subject of prevention of rock bursts according to another exemplary embodiment of the invention.

There are deposits in which the initial stress state, which was crucial for the direction of energy flow and direction of the current back pressure, had almost the same direction as measured at the present time pressure. In this case, line up comparable stress state, as they were available initially. This means that the initial stress state is of crucial th preliminary tectonic processing.

According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention determine where stress concentration, which took place in areas with compression and accordingly taking into account other relevant in relation to mining impact effects, against whom action is being taken to prevent rock bursts.

If the initial stress state with the direction of energy flow and direction of the current pressure is not consistent with this direction of pressure, then according to the exemplary embodiment checks whether and how many are considered together, the initial pressure distribution and the real pressure ratio in the prevention of rock bursts. Thus it is necessary to observe that the above discharges, regardless of whether I go whether moving up or down, there are convex when changes in the direction of the stretch only to the weakening of the breed, and when the concave changes in the direction of the stretch only crushing the crushing. This picture changes down from discharges. There in the convex direction changes stretch from discharge when moving down there squeezing or pressing, and when the upward movements of the weakening of the breed and pressing. Thus the first blow down from the discharges. When the concave changes in the direction of the stretch from colliding occur only weakening the breed under reset when moving downwards, and when the upward movements of the pressing or compression. In this case, when moving upward and appropriate, existing at the present time the pressure increases the danger of a mountain of blow.

According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention is determined by the current distribution of pressure, and is compared with the distribution of pressure in tektonicheskom process, as it follows from the modern tectonic structures, through the simulation. The comparison is based on natural law, that the modern state is a result of lower energy costs. Decisive is the first phase tektonicheskogo process. The later phase, which however got a different ratio of pressures, have found other paths (trajectories) of the movements that were used. Widely this also applies to the occurrence of areas of compression.

According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention for the first phase tektonicheskogo process determines the direction of energy flow and the subsequent splitting by type and conditions on the subject of actualia phase tektonicheskogo process are checked, as far as the first phase has changed in the sense of non-and/or was tectonically reworked. Defined this way, the structure further investigated how and when they are relevant in relation to the mountain of blow, rock hit with hazowupam or shock due to load and then introduce the necessary measures. When it comes discharges from the component of the pressure, which is the resultant pressure of overlapping species and the horizontal pressure and exits colliding (discharges). As shown by measurements, this component is directed obliquely downwards. She was also present in tectonic process. This component pressure existed when the thrusts that follows as the resulting pressure of overlapping species and energy of folding or back pressure. Between thrusts and discharges for sites of compression there is a difference consisting in the fact that when the discharge of the compression resulting from resulting in defects and energy and relieving, in areas with convex direction of stretch is applied below the reset. When the thrusts with the convex direction of stretch are superimposed, the resulting emanating from areas of disturbance. Simultaneously percent of the aqueous aside from bending in the direction of stretch, to mitigate the breed, which is transferred by friction on the surface of the thrust fault on the plot for him. Thus, the compression is reduced or even eliminated. According to one example implementation of the invention under the discharges in the zone of intersection between raskalyvanii arising from energy folding and the borders of the compression caused by the energy of folding and resulting from the pressure of overlapping species and horizontal pressure, which is perpendicular to, does not generate any output. Thus to avoid these places of occurrence excavation edges, and in the same connection at this place produce of land over compression. This should be avoided, in particular when tolstoplenochnaya the layers of Sandstone and sandy shale above and below the reservoir.

The opportunity to make a conclusion about the dangers of mining impact on the basis of tectonic structures, opens at the same time still able to attract the results of measures reducing tension as the basis for improving the design of violations. If the stress concentration is located at the boundaries between different tense areas, they should expect increased content of the drilling flour, which according to the ut to be accurately designed in the direction of the stretch from the discharge. Excluding tektonicheskogo process is not excluded, that will be held drilling to relieve stress on the areas in which occurs the drift layer diagonally splitting, which has a substantial width from 100 m In this case, the rock is destroyed. The probability of drilling large flour. Due to measures to relieve stresses breed additionally damaged and durability into question, although stress concentration in accounting tektonicheskogo process did not have to wait. This kind of slip layer need to wait on an area of up to 400 m perpendicular to the unconformity of the distance from the thrust when the thrust goes up to 200 m perpendicular to plastovaniya distance from the thrust when the thrust goes down, or the size of the thrust fault changes to the site, which lies in the slope (fall) between plots with constant dimensions of the thrust fault. The slides layer should be expected in the area with a sloped and steep shallow, if next to no steeper falling (inclined) material layers. For this purpose, the sliding layers are where the slope of the discharge changes from the top down. Under this condition, the sliding layer is above the reset on the plot, which was get pushed off by the change in the slope. The sliding layer Prosobranchia determine the area of the sliding layer, you can set the direction of sliding relative to raskalyvanii and destroyed the breed, which should not expect any stress, is excluded from measures to reduce stresses in the rock.

The concentration of the stress of being in relationship with geometry generation, geometry drifts, stratigraphy, petrography and tectonics, as they emerged through tektonicheskogo process. According to the above, it should be added debris from the load, rock breaking, followed by obrechennosti, gatavibas with gas and hatzikosta. Thus a significant part of the consolidated based in mining account for stress concentration. Summary dependence as a consequence of indisputable integrity is not viewable and partially complicated (complicated). All this encourages the development of structures of a combined according to "stress concentration", with each individual subband in private ways unloading fully covered and provides those places with branches to prevent a mountain of blow, which is suited for this composition. The same requirements also apply in the reverse direction, i.e. to the development of gas release, fixing and subsequent of the ACLs another exemplary embodiment of the invention produces a line of discharge development and last but not least development using electronic data processing. The same thing happens with the release of gas from the circulation gas, the subsequent obrusevshiy and fixing the economy. With this aim branches for communicating lines discharge in accordance with the magnitude of the effect and intensity of the impact.

According to the following exemplary embodiment of the invention for lines unloading sample data and orientation are already prepared unloading line tektonicheskoi development. They are marked by places that are respectively relevant to the subject content of gas, hatzikosta for subsequent obrushaemoj and fixing the economy. Weakening rocks occur above reset, if the movement occurs in the zone with prominent changes in the line stretch (fractures and arches) on the surface of the reset up or down. In both cases, the blocks breed driftout far from each other. This happens in tektonicheskom process during the downward movement, because the blocks of rock on either side of the zone trying to follow gravity. The same happens when the processes of upward movement, because the blocks of the breed due to the effects of poloschatosti caused by energy of folding and back, trying to move from the kinks and the actions of energy folding and relieving. Due to the weakening of the breed and eliminate it due to energy folding and backpressure created plane shear in the zone of attenuation, which moves going on due to mining introduction. In these areas should not be expected stress concentration, because the arising stresses caused by mining activities can be movements tested on the existing surface. Interconnected part of the breed it is not enough. Firedamp may not increase the danger mountain of blow. This gas then when open development in areas with the weakening of the breed can be moved in the direction of these developments, so that the gas pressure is not increased.

In areas with prominent changes in the direction of the stretch from discharges have components of movement up and down, and side to side (to the side). The components of movement to the side cause weakening of the breed. Blocks of rocks in the zone of fractures as blocks razryhlyaya because the breed is between the rectangles, which is built in the fracture line stretch plots violations on both sides of the fracture. This zone before the break does not move the unit to the side. In prot direction reset move aside as a unit. This happens as you move downward due to its own weight (weight), and when moving upward due to the effect of poloschatosti. The rectangles so are the boundaries between differently strained layers and boundary surfaces (planes) in which the movement of rock blocks go on the block. In this case, there is no motive to weaken the breed. Thus the zone of weakening the breed can be localized. The weakening of the rocks extend from the convex bend or arch in the direction of stretch reset until the middle of blocks or to a distance of 1000 m, measured in the direction of the middle of the bisectors of the angle of the fracture, and the convex angle of the bend should be more than 5 gon (gon). The prerequisite for this is that in the neighborhood there are no crushings; crushing shorten the distance to 1000 m up to 300 m Weakening of the breed are eliminated by the action of energy of folding. This means that breed in the zones of weakening of the breed are taught to "relieve stress", then at each stage of movement on the surface of the discharge to absorb stresses from both sides.

Weakening rocks occur above reset, if the processes of motion in the area of the convex changes in the direction of Postira the ka rocks on both sides of the convex kink squeeze to the right and to the left of the fracture with the support of the energy folding and consequently the back pressure. Due to friction breed drags below the plane of discharge. Thus, under discharge in the area of the convex changes in the direction of stretch in a reverse shift also occur weakening of the breed which are simultaneously reset on the basis of fracture with increasing distance from the discharge consistently lose power. In this case, it is not localizable boundaries between zones with the weakening of the breed and without impairments. The weakening of rocks up and down from the discharge zone of convex changes in the direction of stretch are further noticeable difference. On top of the reset there is a free space towards the earth's surface, in which the separate parts of the rocks moved freely by overlapping adjacent blocks in the same way as it applies to the area under the discharge. This means that the reset individual parts of the rocks that move inside the weakening of the breed, more fundamentally underneath. Part of the breed even further destroyed from all sides within the movement. Thus upward from the discharge occurs fairly planes of cleavage, which is due to movements voltage drop which are or which arise due to mining introduction to the breed.

alehouse neighboring blocks. The pressure of overlapping species from adjacent blocks forming together with the energy of folding and in accordance with the back pressure created in turn a lot of rock, the resulting pressure proceeding from the plane of the discharge is directed obliquely downwards. This resultant pressure comes from all sections of the violations, as well as in the area of the convex kink in the direction of stretch reset, i.e., from both sections of violations to the right and to the left of the kink. Plot Nalaganje begins at the point of fracture and consequently on the line of intersection between the defects reset. Plot Nalaganje side is restricted the resultant pressure coming from the line of intersection of the two plots violations and points obliquely downwards. Appearing triangular plane and appearing spatial prism is constructed as an exemplary embodiment of the invention, according to which the extension parcels reset erected rectangles. The triangular surface with overlapping components of pressure, consisting of energy folding and consequently the back pressure on the one hand and the pressure of overlapping species on the other hand, the pressure and thereby also NT pressing more than the zone is characterized by the overlapping components of the pressure, as in her movements that take place to be caused by fracture of both the defects and transferred by friction to the area under the discharge end at the boundaries of the prism.

In the area of the convex changes in the direction of stretch discharges occur weakening of the breed above discharges during movement in the planes of the reset down. In these places breed counteracts energy folding and consequently the back pressure, and which is pliable. Thus concentrates the energies of folding and pressure on the area below the reset. Breed in such cases, stronger pressed and compressed. Since the weakening of the breed is concentrated above the discharge at the site of a convex kink in the stretching direction of the reset, the rock below the discharge mainly pressed in this area. From plots of violations to the right and to the left of the kink, i.e., all weakening of the breed, apply pressure components that show from planes violations inclined downwards and are resulting energy folding and consequently the back pressure and the pressure of overlapping species. On the raised rectangular fracture between the direction of stretch plots violations on their line stretch. In these cases, the breed has the least chance to go up; as well as acting here the pressure is tilted up more than the surrounding areas. Thus there is compression at the bottom from the convex kink formed in the shape of a triangle the area extending to approximately the middle of the blocks and, accordingly, removal of 1000 m, on the basis of a convex kink in the projecting direction of the discharge and the measured average bisector of angle fracture. In this area there is little or no raskalyvanii, which fall through the motions of voltage resulting from mining activities.

When moving up on the site of compression occur weakening of the breed, which then again are eliminated due to the energy of folding and due to the action of the back pressure. Then restored to a state of tension, which was to relieve the breed. Breed learns to relieve yourself from stress.

As a result of movements on top of the planes reset arise malorechinskoe thrusts, which extend in the area of distance up to 200 m from the discharge of more or less parallel to the discharge. This is a sign of the friction at the discharge when moving upward. Thus CLASS="ptx2">

Below discharge due to friction at the distance of 100 m to the discharge of the layers of rock are captured up in the form of a curve with his head down. In the area of the convex changes in the direction of stretch arise so minor crushing in such areas under the discharge, because the range of motion up to form bent downward peak is very narrow. Thus there are new plane for splitting processes of movement as a result of mining activities. In bend downward peak during tektonicheskogo process of sliding layers are that there are everywhere where there are bends his head down and end in the zone of the axis of the bend to the breed that is not affected by bends his head down. The slide uses a strip of coal and soft rock formations, for example, shale clay as a surface lubricant. They are activated by the secretion of over bending his head down. This increases the pressure on the axis of bending, which acts on cool-lying strata of the rocks in the direction of the fall (tilt) layer. This increases locally prone to rock bursts, as close to the fold axes to plot falling flat layers of rock. Podoces reset and uplift occur on the surfaces of the discharge inclined up or down. When this occurs, the vertical and horizontal components of motion. For methods of prevention and liquidation of rock bursts with and without hazowupam (a) and massabuau in tectonically stressed the occurrence of coal in the calculation of the development procedure, the extent of production and input measures for the relief and security measures, the horizontal component of movement relevant. It increases with movement down or up and drop the plane of the discharge. When moving down at a relatively large horizontal components of motion of the breed is relatively compressed, and with a relatively small horizontal components of motion are relatively attenuated. During the upward movement is reversed. If the movement down locally more than the top, or there is only movement down, there is a pressing where there is a discharge. The predominance of upward movements are pressing in the zones in which the distance between the hanging and lying lines of intersection of the minor, and there is a weakening of the rocks where these distances are large. According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention determine the area of the pressing and as the magnitude of the effect is reverse bias. Thus, increasing the activity of control in the zone axes of the bend, if there are sprasowania due to fault conditions on reset.

When changes are reset to the discharges occur attenuation in areas with minor discharges and compaction in areas with large discharges. The alignment between the weakening of the breed and pressovaniya at the expense of the transportation of the masses on the shifts or planes of cleavage, which are driven by the energy of the folding and relieving. Near the discharge distance up to 100 m there are many raskalyvanii, in which the difference in weight is aligned due to the movement. In accordance with this breed have a motion path, on which the resultant voltage due to mining activities, can be removed at the expense of movement. At distances greater than 100 m from the discharge occurs alignment masses on separate shifts with distances from 500 m to 600 m In contrast to the large shifts or zones shift when this happens the process of movement on the shifts that are due to changes in discharge, constantly looking in one direction, and movement on the same shift or plane Kalyuga and emerging in a bypass section of splitting serve as planes of motion for the displacements, if later, the voltage decreases. According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention is not expected stress concentration in such areas, until then, until there is no movement, no change reset t > 10 m/20 m, and these changes reset contribute to the formation of the trough on the shadow side power folding parallel shifts, with shifts that extend in the direction of rejected energy flow distance up to 600 m and fall in the direction of increasing discharge violation that contributed to the formation of the trough. Then there is the bend axis at the lower end edge of the trough. Steeply layers of rock on the edge of the trough tight sliding layer, which are diagonally above violations changes reset and destroy the breed, with many planes of cleavage, ending on the axis of the bend, thereby bend axis becomes important in the sense of a mountain of blow.

Crushing the crushing appear above the discharge, if the movement occurs at the site of concave changes in the direction of stretch (bend or arch) down or up. In both cases, the blocks of rock crushing slide into each other. This promenu attraction. This happens in tektonicheskom the process up, because the blocks of the breed due to the effect of poloschatosti, which is caused by the energy of the folding and pressure, trying to bend or arch to come. Emerging crushing crush cause in many cases near the bend above the discharge malorechinskoe thrusts. Far from breaking, from about 600 m to 1000 m shifts also occur because of fragmentation cannot be infinitely large. Crushed rock is squeezed to the side. The same applies also to the areas of overlap. Crushing begin MAGNETOM fracture and is limited on the sides of the rectangles that are built in the fracture line stretch plots violations. Rectangles limit on the sides of the blocks which face respectively defects. While the section between the rectangles is counted each time the reset process, which should be on one side or the other of a break in on areas of the violation. Transportation of the masses on both sides of the fracture has a significant impact on the expected splitting and tectonics of small forms, and thus on the way to reduce stress, which are pressed, however, usamedsonline ensures that areas do not become large in order to prevent occurrence of harmful stress concentrations as a result of mining activities. But in contrast, these areas still large enough when the junk raskalyvanii benefit massabuau.

Therefore, according to the invention in one example implementation is proposed for areas of crushing, is in communication with the concave changes in the direction of stretch, to determine the splitting on the stretch, drop and power, then to check whether and to what extent missionvale in order to determine the sizes of fasteners, the trailing mounting and freely laid spaces as sites of lava.

When discharges down the process of movement that goes on at the site of the violation on reset, covers the block of rock bounded by rectangles, which are built on the stretch of land disturbance in Bogota location of the fracture. The block of rock on the other side of the rectangles represents the back pressure, which causes the motion in the direction of the site of the breach, where the movement goes on. But sleem and locally limited pressovaniem sites, deposits, limited raskalyvanii due to crushing.

When discharges down at the site of the breach on the other side of the fracture occurs mirror-reflected compare process. Thus there are two boundaries, which separate from each other different tense in tectonic against various lists of violations and raskalyvanii. If tektonicheskom process one of the boundaries is activated as the border, then another motion bypasses for the separation of parts of the crushing and Vice versa. This means that on both sides of the two boundaries are splitting, which is also formed in the breach. This may extend all or some of tectonic disturbances.

During the upward movement on the concave section changes the direction of stretch discharges from blocks of rock, which move in the direction of the concave fracture due to the effect of poloschatosti, defined by the area above one of the two sections of violations to the right and to the left of the kink. The area above one section of the infringement ends in the plot concave kink at the rectangles under construction in the fracture and consequently on the line of intersection between the two parts of the violations plane violations. the supports breed in becoming wider space in the concave area of the fracture. The breed was weakened. However, the effect of poloschatosti push the rock to fracture, because energetically it is easier to stay in the level. And only after this leads to the components of the movement to the top. Despite this process of upward movement creates free space for movements to the side. This process is responsible for the splitting. Due to the effect of poloschatosti manifested in the processes of movement upstairs, upstairs from planes reset in areas of disturbance, species found in the area of its boundary, i.e. in the area of rectangles, doorwaysare on the surface of the violations in the area of the fracture, is pressed against the adjacent plot. The neighbouring plot gets compressed, whereas when driving down pieces of rock through the processes of movement put aside, due to what has already been laid to the plane of shear. This process covers one one time and another time, another distinction both rock blocks on both plots violations.

According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention checks on reset due to movement on the surface of the reset down on the area of rectangles, which is built in Bogota fracture on the stretch colliding, splitting on both SJ which, resulting from the mining activity is reduced through movements, reducing the risk of mountain strike.

When movements up according to the exemplary embodiment of the invention take into account that in the area of rectangles on the stretch areas of the violation, due to which the blocks of rock on individual parts of the violations are limited, namely, in particular the top and bottom triangular fracture zones between the two rectangles were pressing and compression during tektonicheskogo process. In line with this, take into account that in this zone there is no splitting and thus the path of travel for movement of the breed for reducing tension. Width 100 m implement measures definition of stress.

Due to movements in the plane of the reset down in the area of the concave kink in the stretch above the reset occur crushing down due to movements in the direction. Friction in the plane of the discharge in this context carries the block of rock below discharge to the side. The block of rock below the reset relatively similar places corresponds to the block of rock above him. This means that the unit breed ends at the concave bend in the strike reset, and coming from situ is a break in the strike reset blocks of rock, associated with the processes of movement of both sections of the violation, naprashivaetsa on both sides of the fracture. Under concave break between blocks of rock lying under areas of disturbance, there is a prism of rock. It does not influence any resultant pressure, which is due to the pressure of overlapping species and energy of folding and consequently the back pressure and which is directed away from the planes reset tilt down. In contrast, applies the resulting pressure on the blocks of rock beneath the site of the violation. This resultant pressure provides in this case a relatively large compression. This compression is relatively more than in the rock wedge in the area of the concave bend in the strike reset, where no effect resulting pressure. Therefore, in the concave area of the fracture relative to the area under the plots violations can move freely sub-breed. If only the blocks of rocks under the discharge addicted in the direction of the blocks of rock that are at the top, the movement initiated by shearing (shear) emerging from the concave zone of the fracture. Thus, blocks of rocks under areas of disturbance shall be nominated from the prism under concave fracture, PME. In rock prism having a weakening of the breed that after each move, movement, pushed each other on the planes of cleavage due to the energy of folding or back pressure. Plane shear extend in the direction of the flow of energy and have a fall, which coincides with the fall of vertex concave fracture. Splitting arising in connection with pododviganiem to each other impairments breed, can be localized in relation to the relevance of the mountain of blow and massoobmene. Such only conditionally possible for borders, rock prisms under concave bend in the strike of discharges. In this area the rock is carried away, due to which there are no clear boundaries, but only has the transition from one phenomenon of voltage to another. Malorechinskoe shifts and splitting that breed inside of the prism under concave fracture eliminate local weakening of the rock face in the transition zone and on the other side strikes not at the expense of other raskalyvanii. During movement in the planes of the discharge into the concave area of the fracture in the extending direction of the discharge upward motion that point due to the effect of poloschatosti in the direction of the fracture, are transferred by friction to the blocks of breed under phase is edogo lateral separation, so in this area there are no boundaries, pressing against the danger of the mountain of blow. Shifts in the opposite direction cause under the discharge bends downward the top, which is down from the convex break up fall into the expanding space. This leads to the weakening of the breed in this area, which arise plane shear, which later voltage decrease due to movement.

Sedimentary deposits (deposits), in particular coal Deposit, selected by tectonics structural floors, which are exposed thrusts in the direction of depth, which extend more or less rectangular reset. If wavy bedding with or without mastectomies (CSOs) shift (a) and/or thrust(a) and malorechinskoe shifts and/or changes without wavy bedding is opened (exposed), while lying in the roof zone of disturbed and there are no cutaways, then laid in the depth of the big thrusts. Wavy bedding occurs due to backwater movement of rock blocks, which move on the surface of the thrust fault up, and in a place like the flow of energy over the area of the output crosses the area of backwater. In this area the rock n the I lower the pressure, resulting from mining activities.

According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention in the area above the facing thrust reduced to eliminate the mountain of blow.

Thus, in the outlet area of the thrust fault occurs clearline slide. The rock is destroyed, if clearline movement hits an obstacle. Obstacles can be a tectonic disturbance, splitting with small discharges down in the mm-range, interlayers, irregularity, abrasion and erosion. Wherever there are such obstacles, the rock is fractured and destroyed by sleepwalking slip, so that you receive sufficient pathways, which due to the movements that occur in the breed, the voltage decreases. If no obstacles are largely preserve formations when sleeprelated the slide. In this case, you need to take into account the stress growth, if, in the sense of relevance of the mountain strike due to tectonics and mining, this leads to the pillars, which have limitations in the form of a lid of a coffin. Clearline slip always where the size of the thrust fault does not change the thrust in the direction of depth.

Below the thrust fault block caving rock provides in the area of effect snehapuri that stronger prevents the movements of large subdivisions of the breed. This imposes the resulting pressure derived from the pressure of overlapping species and energy of folding and consequently the back pressure and is directed away from the plane of the thrust fault tilt down. High pressure impact down from zones with the effect of snehapuri there are enough ways to move, which voltage are reduced. This is clearalarm slide.

When the funnel effect due to friction from the rock blocks in the plane of the thrust fault blocks of rocks beneath the thrust shifted to the side of the arch (arch) in the direction of stretch of the thrust fault. Thus, under the thrust as occurs in the development of crushing. As under the no thrust movement upward to the earth's surface, mostly fragmentation becomes pressing. If you were to communicate podvig, down from concave changing the direction of stretch thrusts occur weakening of the breed. Crushing alter the structure of the rocks with the formation of planes of cleavage, which can serve to reduce the stress resulting from mining activities. The number of planes of cleavage increases due to sleepwalking slip.

According to one example implementation of the invention is a reduction measures to prevent mining strike in areas with effect snehapuri and funnel effect, and for additional sleeprelated sliding decrease even more.

Above thrust faults in the area outside the effect of snegopady and funnel effect p is in the same area to raskachivaniyam, if clearline sliding faces interlayers, uneven, vully and washouts.

The border with raskalyvanii and malorechenskiy violations destroyed because sleepwalking slip, if there are only minor ledges. Thus there is an additional plane shear and thereby the plane for movement aimed at reducing stress.

Crucial to thrust dependence on planes, which can be reduced stresses caused by mining activities due to the processes of movement, change due to the structures of the blocks.

According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention determines the direction of energy folding obstacles movements and in areas that are free to move. This aspect is based on the knowledge that the energy folding locally converted only until there is free space, as for example the earth's surface, for the occurrence of tectonic structures, and only then in a large volume can be formed plane, which decreases the voltage due to mining.

According A regarding obstacles to movement and free movement zones on a plot of thrust, and so take into account that when the obstacles, as they are down from ogranichivayas blocks discharges, reduces the number of planes of cleavage that has implications for the relevance of the mountain shot, if there are pillars with minor voltage due to tectonics and geometry generation. When free zones and the number of planes of cleavage increases.

1. The method of planning treatment workings in tectonically hard sedimentary deposits, especially coal deposits, by calculating the areas of generation, length of production, speed of development and development procedure, and position openings on tectonic violations oriented array of deposits, and to calculate the array of deposits subject to production Stripping and slicing, as the basis for planning use fall (collapse), the stretch and the size of the discharge corresponding to the recognized geological disturbances, as well as the direction of energy folding and caused by tectonic energy attenuation crushing the crushing and compression in the rock and the resulting tectonic movements of the masses, characterized in that for prevention and/or suppression caused by the secretion of gameprocess areas or areas with two or lineopen preliminary tectonic processing caused by the secretion of movements of the breed, and then they guide the development and/or take measures to relieve stresses in the busy output of the array of species and/or to provide additional security treatment workings.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that define the regions or zones with distinct in their raskalyvanii and similar violations of the solid rock.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that to determine the influence of raskalyvanii designed in areas or zones of the array deposits tolstoplenochnaya sandy and sandy-shale layers.

4. The method according to p. 2 or 3, characterized in that during the design deposits determine the areas or zones with boundaries between areas with different tectonic stresses.

5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the sewage generation in the presence of the alleged certain local borders (Ironman) stresses lead to the destruction of more than 50 m from the proposed boundaries and, if necessary, to stop it.

6. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that by means of random sampling from the plan generation formed in the array deposits developed Islands is examined for the presence of disturbances caused by raskalyvanii.

7. The method according to p. 2 the treatment formulation pereslazivayut with the notches with a solid tab in the recess with collapse, and/or pave the shorter the length of the face, and/or planning deposition of building girders or gate parallel jumpers.

8. The method according to p. 2 or 6, characterized in that at sites or in areas with resulting impairments that need to be correlated with the initial violation, arising in connection with the tectonic process due to the impact energy of folding, as well as rock pressure and movements of the rock in the treatment workings reduce lag mounting and/or avoid work stoppages of Krepostnaya and/or roadheaders.

9. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 7, characterized in that the recess encircling located between the rock of the roof and 250 m below the boundary, determine the areas with the danger of missionvale and crawls in these areas workings reduce lag mounting and/or avoid work stoppages of Krepostnaya and/or roadheaders.

10. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 9, characterized in that the reservoir horizons define respectively having differently shaped layers and strained due to the thrust facing layers carry out mining research to determine the nalitch is itochnik layers, designed in the respective reservoir horizons, intensify research and strengthen the control measures in relation to rock bursts.

12. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 - 11, characterized in that areas or zones determine the direction of energy flow and the initial stress state and compare with the current at the time of planning workings pressure distribution.

13. The method according to p. 12, wherein the determined operating in the first phase tektonicheskogo process, the direction of energy and the resulting splitting and classify them in order to reduce the likelihood of a mountain of blow.

14. The method according to p. 13, characterized in that define late phase tektonicheskogo process and by comparing with the first phase tektonicheskogo process determines to what extent the later phase had no effect on the first phase, changed or tectonically reworked.

15. The method according to p. 13 or 14, characterized in that at sites or in areas of intersection between raskalyvanii and the borders of compression determined by the energy of the folding and the resulting pressure of overlapping species and perpendicular to the discharge of the l 16. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 - 15, characterized in that the danger mountain of blow, which is determined on the basis of tectonic structures and implemented or planned production, during planning include measures to reduce the voltage at the corresponding array of the breed.

17. The method according to p. 16, wherein define areas or areas with slip layer and set the direction of the slip layer with respect to the designed raskachivaniyam of measures to reduce stress eliminate part of the array breed without the expected stress concentration.

18. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 17, characterized in that define the regions or zones of compression and is designed compression is correlated to specific in the direction of the stretch changes and reverse shifts, when installed axes rounding and compression of the specified character offset at reset, reinforce planned control measures aimed at early detection of rockbursts.

19. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 18, characterized in that the plots for crushing the crushing with the concave changes in the direction of stretch determines the splitting on the stretch, drop and power, odud is m, to determine areas and areas facing higher (nipped) thrust faults and planned for this workings reduce the cost of suppression mountain of blow.

21. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 20, characterized in that define the regions and areas with a funnel effect and the effect of the snow plow and on these sites reduce the cost of suppression mountain of blow.

22. The method according to p. 21, wherein when an additional parallel sliding layer, present on the plots, respectively, in areas with the effect of the snow plow and funnel effect further reduces the cost of reducing a mountain of blow.

 

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