Cavitation heat generator

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to heat engineering and can be used in all sectors of the economy to produce significant amount of heat energy, in particular for heating (directly in pipelines) viscous liquids like oil to reduce viscosity and improve the rheological properties. The predominant use of the invention, heating of civil objects and the power supply of the heat of the technological industries. The technical result consists in the fact that the intensification of the process of heating the liquid and increase the efficiency of the boiler is achieved through the execution of the accelerator of the fluid in the flow chamber with a nozzle inlet, a confuser and the pipe outlet of the treated liquid flowing inside the camera installed supercavities blades mounted on the hub, these vanes on the outer surface covered by a coaxial cylinder, on the outer surface of which is another group supercavities blades with the opposite direction of the swirling flow, while the inner group supercavities Lopata for a work item in the course of the stream, the pipe outlet is connected to the heat accumulator, the output of which is connected to the heat consumers and network pump, the output of which is connected through the housing to the pipe inlet. 10 C.p. f-crystals, 4 tab., 3 Il.

The invention relates to heat engineering and can be used in all sectors of the economy where it is needed to obtain a significant amount of thermal energy, in particular, the invention can be used for heating (directly in pipelines) viscous liquids like oil to reduce viscosity and improve its rheological properties. The predominant use of the invention, heating and energy supply heat technology industries.

From the prior art construction of generators large power applied, for example, when the centralized form of heat supply of industrial technology and civil buildings and structures.

Currently, as generators are increasingly used heat pumps (see , for example, a.c. USSR N 458691, 1972 [1] and the Russian patent N 2045715, 1993 [2]). When working in these devices is reverse cycle, i.e., heat is absorbed from the surrounding with knotty contour on the working body, including the device, providing circulation of the working fluid, heat exchangers, devices, providing circulation in the contours of the low-temperature coolant from the environment and high-temperature coolant, drive motor and control devices and management. The heat taken from the environment, improves the overall thermal efficiency of the installation, added warmth, obtained from the transformation of electricity. The use of heat pumps for heating a promising direction in the heating engineer. However, efficiency of these plants is relatively low, which is why they are not widely used.

Known heat pump device using the changes in physical-mechanical properties of the medium, in particular pressure and volume to produce thermal energy (see, for example, a.c. USSR N 458691, 1972 [1] and the Russian patent N 2045715, 1993 [2]).

In known devices as a medium can be used, for example, a steam-air mixture or liquid. In these devices by changing the pressure and fluid velocity generated thermal energy, thereby reducing the cost of electricity to produce heat.

Heat pump [1], performing the tion of the spherical vessel, filled working environment located in its heat exchanger network pump, providing compression environment inside the enclosure, flow and return, equipped with shut-off valves, and heat customer.

The main disadvantage of this heat pump is a very high working pressure in the case, which is about 1000 ATM. Such operating parameters of the installation have high requirements for strength of body parts, shut-off valves and piping, which leads to increased cost of installation.

In addition, the use of the installation for heating of residential premises is dangerous due to the high working pressure.

A prototype of the invention, the authors selected a heat generator [2], comprising a cylindrical part, the accelerator of the fluid, is made in the form of a cyclone, the end face of which is connected to the cylindrical body portion. In the base of the cylindrical portion opposite the cyclone mounted brake device.

Because body heat generator in the lower part equipped with a cyclone, the working fluid under pressure tangentially by doing it, passes through the spiral, and moves in the form of viroj is several times the diameter of the injection holes, and then, in the brake device. This constructive embodiment of the casing allows to reduce the speed and pressure of the environment, in accordance with known laws of thermodynamics, changes the mechanical energy of the fluid, aimed at increasing its temperature.

Increasing the efficiency of heating the liquid contributes an additional brake device installed in the bypass pipe. The differential pressure at the outlet of the brake device in the upper part of the body due to the ratio of the outlet housing and the bypass pipe provides the prevalence of hot fluid flow over the cold.

In the known device [2] used the change of physical-mechanical properties of the medium, in particular pressure and volume to produce heat.

The essence of the operation of the heat generator of the prototype is the acceleration of the flow in the cyclone and phasic firing kinetic energy on braking devices of various designs. However, the efficiency at each stage of actuation of the kinetic energy is low, it follows that the total efficiency may not be high.

Technical problem, we address the energy consumption.

The solution of the problem provided by the fact that the cavitation heat generator, comprising a housing equipped with an accelerator of the fluid and the brake device according to the invention, the accelerator of the fluid made in the form of a flow chamber with a nozzle inlet, a confuser and the pipes draining the treated liquid flowing inside the camera is working element in the form of supercavities blades mounted on the hub, which is on the outer surface covered by a coaxial cylinder and on the outer surface of the cylinder are supercavities blades, the direction of the swirling flow which is opposite to the direction of swirling flow internal supercavities blades mounted on the hub, when this braking device made in the form of interrupter flow with the drive behind the work item in the course of the stream, the exhaust pipe connected to the heat accumulator, the output of which is connected with a commercial heat consumer and network pump, the output of which is connected through the housing to the pipe inlet. Between the working element and the flow interrupter device selection of fluid flow, coupled with additional prot is and which in the course of the stream is an additional breaker flow to the actuator, exit the flow chamber is connected through the housing to the hub, is made hollow, and a collector, covering the outer surface of the flow-through chamber having perforations in the area of the work item, and in the case before the work item is installed turbulator made in the form of interrupter flow with the drive connected to drive additional breaker stream, which is connected to the drive main circuit breaker thread. Between the network pump and housing is located upstream of the cavitation activator, made in the form of confuser flow chamber, tangentially connected to the housing, inside which a hollow hub with a work element; a hollow hub connected to the heat accumulator mainly at the top. In running the camera for a work item in the course of the installed flow nozzle, predominantly perpendicular to the flow direction, the inputs of which is connected to the output of the pump power. The axis of the nozzles are angled to each other. The actuator drives the chopper is connected through a regulator with a temperature sensor, and one of the inputs of the controller connected to the sensor noise for the work item. Turbulator made in the form of interrupter po the moving parts of the breaker at an angle to the incident flow. Breaker and an additional circuit breaker is connected in such a way as to provide the offset of the beginning of the pulses in the breakers. The front edge of coaxial cylinders that have supercavities blades directed towards the flow of fluid, made a sharp, beveled inner surface is a smooth concave profile, and the front edge of the hub, directed towards the flow of fluid, made a sharp, beveled outer surface is a smooth concave profile. The output of the heat generator, before the heat accumulator, a pressure regulator. All nodes that are in contact with the liquid are made with silicone coating.

theoretical basis of the proposed thermal cavitation generator the following.

As you know chemistry, in addition to substances and their interactions, examines the interaction of energy and matter. Typically, energy sources restrict the influence of researchers on the reactivity of substances. The interaction of the current with substance flows for short periods of time and is characterized by high energy, while heat vzaimodeistvuet available for study by chemists such ranges of energies and time scales, which is unattainable in other cases. Necessary for carrying out a chemical reaction, the pressure in the liquid receive means generating in her intense sound waves. These waves create alternating areas of compression (compaction) and rarefaction, which can be formed bubbles with a diameter of about 100 μm. During the collapse of bubbles (less than 1 µs) contained in the gas can be heated up to 5500oC - the temperature close to the temperature of the surface of the Sun. For the first time the unusual action of intense sound waves propagating in a fluid - area phenomena related to ultrasonic chemistry (zvuchanie), discovered in 1927 A. Loomis. Activation zvukokhimicheskie research began in the 80's shortly after the creation of inexpensive and reliable sources of ultrasonic vibrations of high intensity with a frequency greater than 16 kHz, which is above the level of hearing person), today, ultrasound is used in medical practice, in industry for welding plastic parts and cleaning materials and even in everyday life in the alarm device (warning about the robbery), etc., These applications, however, are not associated with the chemical effects of ultrasound, which may, for example, posisilo movement of the metal particles, they will melt in the collision. Ultrasound can also create microscopic "pockets of flame" in cold liquid. These chemical effects of ultrasound caused by the physical processes through which the fluid to arise, grow up and collapse of gas and steam bubbles. Ultrasonic waves, like all sound waves that include cycles of compression and rarefaction. During compression cycles occur local increase of the pressure in the liquid, which leads to the convergence of its molecules with each other; during cycles of depression that causes local pressure reduction, causing the molecules to move away from each other. During the rarefaction cycle of the sound wave of sufficient intensity can generate bubbles. Particles of a liquid are held together by forces of attraction, which determine its tensile strength. In order to form the bubble, the value of which decreases the local pressure in a cycle of depression, should exceed the strength of the liquid in the gap. The required value of the pressure drop depends on the type of liquid and its purity. Tensile strength is absolutely clean fluid is so great that the existing ultrasonic sources can't create pad pressure drop more than 1000 ATM, while the most powerful ultrasonic generators create pressure up to about 50 atmospheres. However, the strength of the fluids in the gap decreases due to the gas tapped cracks at the microscopic solid particles present in the fluid. This effect is similar to the decrease in strength caused by cracks in solid materials. In the low pressure area of the captured gas is starting to crack, forming a small bubble, which goes into solution. In most cases, fluids are quite heavily contaminated with dust and other solid impurities. In tap water, for example, bubbles are formed at a pressure of only a few atmospheres. The bubble in the liquid is unstable: if it is large, it will float to the surface and burst; if it is small, it will compress the liquid and disappear. However, when interacting with ultrasonic wave, the bubble will continuously absorb energy during alternating cycles of compression and rarefaction. This interaction leads to growth and contraction of bubbles breaking the dynamic equilibrium between the vapor inside them and the liquid outside. In some cases, the ultrasonic waves will be to support the existence of bubbles, causing only hesitation it is the want to make ultrasound. The high-intensity ultrasound can lead to such a rapid expansion of the bubble in the cycle of depression that he will no longer be compressed in the compressing cycle. Therefore, in this process, the bubbles can quickly grow beyond one period of the ultrasonic waves.

In the case of low intensity ultrasound the size of the bubble oscillates in phase with the pressure within cycles rarefaction and compression. The surface of the bubble during the rarefaction cycle increases slightly compared to the compression cycle. Because the amount of gas diffusing in a bubble or out of it, depends on the surface area of the bubble, diffusion into the bubble during cycles of depression will be somewhat larger than the diffusion of him during compression cycles. Therefore, for each period of the ultrasonic wave, the bubble expands more than shrinks, and over time the bubbles will slowly grow. The growing bubble can gradually reach a critical size at which it is most effectively absorbs ultrasound energy. This size depends on the frequency of ultrasonic waves. At 20 kHz, for example, the critical size (diameter) of the bubble is approximately 170 μm. Such a bubble can grow fast in one of petrozuata. Without the supply of energy from outside the bubble cannot exist. The liquid squeezes him, and he collapses. At the collapse of the bubbles formed conditions for the occurrence of unusual chemical reactions. Gases and vapors inside the bubble is compressed, rapidly releasing heat, which increases the temperature of the liquid in the immediate vicinity of the bubble, and thus creates a hot microblast. Despite the fact that the temperature of this area is extremely high, the field itself is so small that heat is rapidly dissipated. According to estimates of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Sampen heating rate and the cooling fluid exceeds 109oC/S. This corresponds to the cooling rate of the molten metal when it is vypleskivaya on a surface cooled to temperatures near absolute zero. Thus, at any point in time the bulk of the liquid is at ambient temperature. The exact values of temperatures and pressures achieved during the bubble collapse, it is difficult to determine theoretically and experimentally. However, these values are fundamental when describing zvukokhimicheskie phenomena. For approximate description of the dynamics of the collapse of the bubble were x models it is impossible to accurately describe the dynamics of a bubble in the final stages of collapse. The most complex models give values of temperatures of the order of 103oC, pressure 102- 103ATM and the heating time less than 1 μs. The temperature of the collapsing bubble is impossible to measure with a thermometer, because the dissipation occurs too quickly. One way of measuring the temperature - speed detection of known chemical reactions, since the temperature associated with the negative inverse logarithm of the reaction rate. If you measure the speed of several different reactions in the generated ultrasonic environment, it is possible to calculate the temperature that can be reached after the collapse of the bubble. When determining the relative velocities of a number of zvukokhimicheskie reactions D. Hammerton identified two different temperature regions associated with bubble collapse. The gas contained in the bubble reaches temperatures of over 5500oC, whereas the liquid in the immediate vicinity of the bubble - 2100oC. For comparison, the temperature of the flame acetylene torch is about 2400oC. Although the pressure attained at the collapse of the bubble, it is more difficult to determine experimen pressure it is possible to obtain an estimate of 500 ATM, that is half the magnitude of the pressure in the deepest place of the World ocean - the Mariana trench. Despite the fact that the local values of temperature and pressure achieved by the bubble collapse extreme, you can successfully control the flow zvukokhimicheskie reactions. The intensity of the collapse of the bubbles and, consequently, on the nature of the reaction is influenced by such factors as the frequency of the ultrasonic wave, its amplitude, ambient temperature, static pressure, the nature of the liquid and the gas dissolved in it. Zvuchanie processes in liquids depend mainly on the physical effects during rapid heating and cooling caused by bubble collapse. For example, it is proved that under ultrasound irradiation of water under the action of energy of ultrasonic waves water (H2O) is split into highly reactive atoms of hydrogen (H2) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). Fast cooling stage hydrogen atoms and radicals Hydrosila recombine with the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and molecular hydrogen (H2. If the water is irradiated with ultrasound, add other compounds, it can happen many secondary reactions. Organic soy is which organic liquids when exposed to ultrasound flow of physico-chemical reactions. So, alkanes are the main components of crude oil can be broken down into smaller fragments (e.g., gasoline), usually crude oil is subjected to cracking when heated to temperatures above 500oC. However, the processing of alkanes ultrasound causes them to break down at room temperature, and the product of this process is acetylene, which cannot be obtained in sufficient quantities by simple heating. Perhaps the most amazing chemical phenomenon associated with ultrasound is its ability to create microscopic "pockets of flame" in cold liquids, the so-called swollenness. This occurs when the collapse of the bubble in the liquid occurs microblast with increased temperature, the molecules in this area can be worked with a transition to a higher energy state. When the molecules return to the ground state they emit light. E. flint in 1987, found that exposure to ultrasound hydrocarbons gives a surprising result: the color of the emitted light is the same as the flame of a gas burner. The effect of ultrasound on liquid was also used to speed up chemical reactions in solutions. An example of the ORGANOMETALLIC soedineniya plastics in the manufacture of microelectronic circuits and synthesis of drugs, herbicides and pesticides. In 1998, P. Schubert first studied the effect of ultrasound on ORGANOMETALLIC compounds, in particular on PENTACARBONYL iron Fe(CO)5. The results when compared with data on the effects of light and heat on Fe(CO)5testify to the originality of chemical processes caused by ultrasound. When Fe(CO)5is heated, it decomposes into carbon monoxide (CO) and fine powder of iron, which spontaneously ignites in air. When Fe(CO)5effect of ultrasonic radiation, it first splits into Fe(CO)4and loose fragments CO. Molecules of Fe(CO)4can then recombine with the formation of compound Fe(CO)9. The bubble collapse leads to a different result. It is accompanied by selection of the amount of heat which is sufficient for removal of several groups of CO, but then rapidly cooling the reaction stops before it is completed. Thus, when Fe(CO)5operates ultrasound, formed an unusual cluster connection Fe3(CO)12. Sonochemistry of two immiscible liquids, for example oil and water, is determined by the ability of ultrasound amongwomen of the compression and rarefaction of the substances cause the accumulation of energy by the molecules on the surface of the liquid, which overcome the adhesion forces holding them in a big drop, then drop crushing into smaller fragments, and gradually the liquid emulsify. Emulsification can accelerate chemical reactions between immiscible liquids due to the strong increase in surface contact. A large contact surface facilitates penetration of molecules from one fluid to another effect, in which some of the reactions are accelerated. For example, emulsification of mercury in different liquids leads to a particularly interesting reactions; A. fry from the University Wesley, who found that many reactions of mercury with bromoalkanes compounds represent an intermediate stage of the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds. These reactions play a crucial role in the synthesis of complex organic substances. The extreme conditions created near solid surfaces, can also be used to make chemical activity "directionspanel" metals. For example, R. Johnson studied the reaction of carbon monoxide with molybdenum and tantalum, and other metals close to him on the reactivity. For the formation of CARBONYLS of metals of Abim their formation can occur at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The bubble collapse in addition to all the above effects may be accompanied by the exit of the shock wave in the liquid. Zvuchanie processes on solid particles in the liquid to a large extent determined by such shock waves under the action of which there is a mutual convergence of the microscopic particles of metal powder with speeds exceeding 500 km/H. this experience is so intense that cause melting of the particles at the point of impact. This melting increases the reactivity of the metal, since it tends to remove metal oxide coating (film). Such protective oxide coating found on most metals and are the cause of patina on copper products and bronze sculptures. Because ultrasonic treatment increases the reactivity of metal powders, it increases their catalytic activity. For many reactions the necessary catalyst, so they proceeded with the required or at least a significant speed. The catalyst is not consumed in the reaction, but only accelerates the reaction of other substances. The influence of ultrasound on the morphology of the particles, the composition of the surface and catalytic activity were studied D. Casadonte and C. To what aka catalysts, as the powders of Nickel, copper and zinc. The surface of the individual particles are smoothed and particles are combined into broad aggregates. Experiment to determine the surface composition of Nickel showed that the oxide coating is removed, resulting in greatly increased catalytic activity of the Nickel powder. In General, exposure to ultrasound increases the efficiency of the Nickel powder as a catalyst for more than 105time. In such conditions, the Nickel powder is also active as some special catalysts used in the present time, however, it is not flammable and is cheaper.

Ultrasound is useful in almost every case, when should respond liquid and a solid. In addition, he can get through a large amount of liquid and is therefore well suited for industrial applications. In the future the use of ultrasound in chemical processes should be very diverse. As for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, the ultrasound can increase the output of products in comparison with traditional methods.

However, the highest achievements in zvuchanie may be associated with obtaining new materials with unusual properties is neuborne materials (such as silicon carbide, tungsten carbide and even diamond). Refractory materials have high thermal stability and great structural strength. They find important applications in industry as an abrasive and plug cutters with high hardness.

Extremely rapid cooling, accompanied by the collapse of the bubble, can be used to create metallic glasses. Such amorphous metals have extremely high corrosion resistance and durability.

Although chemical applications of ultrasound are still in the early stages of development, in the coming years we should expect rapid progress in the field of zvuchanie. The use of ultrasound in laboratory reactions are widely distributed, and transfer of existing technologies on the reaction on an industrial scale, apparently, is not far off. The developed technologies are recent advances in the study of chemical effects of ultrasound.

The effects above (including cavitation), caused by action on the fluid ultrasound sufficient for the occurrence of these effects intensity. With all the splendor of scale achieved physico-chemical effects of ultrasound cavitation (or ultrasounds is travelog emitter, and as the distance from the emitter of the treatment energy is sharply reduced, which prevents its wide application in industrial scale. Hydrodynamic cavitation is similar to ultrasonic cavitation under the terms of the nucleation of cavitation cavities, their development and subsequent collapse, the impact on the environment in the zone of its action, and differ only by the nature of occurrence, i.e., the "emitter". However, this seemingly insignificant distinction is significant, because the hydrodynamic cavitation is characterized by the fact that the entire mass of liquid involved in the processes of education (development and collapse of cavitation cavities. Next use the term "cavitation fluid flow regime", which (according to the authors) is most characteristic phenomena, namely the conditions of generation of cavitation bubbles close in diameter and is not dependent on the provisions regarding the "emitter"; possible conditions, when all the liquid will be turned into cavitation bubbles. Obviously, this boundary condition is more appropriate. Real enough to the vapour phase (cavitation bubbles) passed around or a little besto generated bubbles may be determined by the volume of the cavity, where cavitation bubbles. It was established experimentally that the diameter of the bubbles are approximately the same, which leads to significantly greater (than when ultrasonic cavitation) the amount of the allocated total energy. The fact that the number of cavitation bubbles by hydrodynamic cavitation of many times, makes the latter conclusion is undeniable.

The effectiveness of the cavitation treatment (of any nature) is determined by the value of the specific energy of cumulative microstruc formed during the collapse of cavitation bubbles arising from the collapse of cavities behind the cavitator ("emitter"), multiplied by the number of cavitation bubbles.

It is believed that the specific energy of cumulative jets is proportional to the square of their speed and the speed directly depends on the square root of the pressure in the flow chamber. Thus, the energy dispersion is proportional to the first degree of pressure in the chamber of dispersion, i.e.

< / BR>
where vk- the speed of cumulative jets;

P is the pressure in a flowing bubble chamber;

E - energy dispersion.

To improve the energy dispersion in cavitation systems pernicano infinite expansion of the flow will tend to the magnitude of the velocity head to extensions

< / BR>
and when the flow velocity in the flow part, for example v = 2 m/s will be P = 0.02 ATM, and at v = 10 m/s P = 0.5 MPa maximum.

More strictly from the point of view of what is happening physico-mechanical processes energy density of cavitation impact of a single cavitation bubble can be represented by dependency

E = kP/R3-R30,

where k is a coefficient;

P is the pressure in the zone of the clamping cavity;

R, R0- the radii of the bubbles at the maximum and minimum (at the moment of collapse).

Analysis of the relationship from the point of view of achieving the highest intensity of the energy release, proves the necessity of achieving greatest values of the maximum radius of formed and preparing for the collapse of cavitation bubble and the growth pressure in the zone of collapse. However, this mutually exclusive conditions. When the growth pressure in the zone of collapse of the bubble size decreases. When the pressure of the bubbles are formed large enough, however, because of the small pressure difference inside and outside of the bubble collapse occurs vigorously enough.

To increase allocated to the "emitter" of hydrodynamic cavitation, energico disk and a rotating disk with radial Windows. Install breaker thread for the "emitter" (cavitator) in the course of the stream allows you to provide (with a large flow cross-section breaker) conditions for the growth of micro bubbles of larger size - when you open the breaker (and collapse) - overlap circuit breaker (significantly increased pressure). This can be achieved only when the circuit breaker behind the cavitator in the course of the stream, and peculiar only to cavitation mixer. This is one of the distinguishing features of the present technical solution. Creating pulsations at the location of the means for creating pulsations to the cavitator leads to a change in the flow rate of a fluid, namekawa on the cavitator. This leads to a change in the size of the cavity formed behind the blades due to changes in the number of cavitation microbubble, which provides some intensification of the process of mixing. Changes of pressure between the cavitator in the cavity is not happening, because the pressure behind the cavitator in the cavity when the cavitation flow regime constant and equal to the vapor pressure of the liquid, which does not depend on the velocity of the cavitator. Therefore, the specific energy is generated during cavitation mode to use Delaema mixing;

K - coefficient of proportionality;

P, PTM- pressure in the zone of collapse and a saturated vapor pressure of the liquid;

R0, R is the bubble radius and maximum at the moment of the collapse.

It is obvious that the energy generated by cavitation flow in direct proportion depends on the pressure in the zone of collapse. Especially this dependence manifests itself when cavitation treatment of liquid which is at a temperature approaching the boiling point. In this case, the difference (P - PTM) approaches zero and, consequently, no change of velocity, the velocity fluctuations to the blades, changing the profile of the blades, etc. may not provide the conditions of mixing, i.e., bubbles will form at least large size, but they either don't would collapse, or energy will be minimal (the physical meaning of what is happening is similar to boiling water in a kettle). This issue is still almost not been studied, however, extremely relevant, because it opens new possibilities to a sharp intensification of the process of cavitation processing. When a momentary interruption circuit breaker is generated shock wave, propagating against the movement dispersible environment around the 2= Cv, where C is the speed of propagation of shock waves in the medium - density environment; v - velocity of the medium.

Even with a small flow rate at the output of v = 2 m/s the pressure at the shock front will be: P = 15501002 = 31 ATM.

Thus, if used instead of the expansion channel and diffuser to install the surge generator output, specific energy dispersion will increase

< / BR>
if P2taken at v = 2 m/s and P1at v = 10 m/s

If P1take at v = 2 m/s, the increase in energy dispersion will be

< / BR>
The shock wave moves with such a high pressure on its front towards the flow causes significant local compression. This phenomenon is used in hydrodynamic cavitation treatment of liquid (of any nature and origin, which is at the boiling point.

In light of the above, it should be clear that in the proposed device, the brake device performs a new function generator amplifier energy of the collapse of cavitation bubbles. In the case of the known methods of achieving cavitation (including ultrasonic) is a way of increasing the energy input to the "emitter". Hydratation to create the conditions for the generation of a large number of cavitation bubbles large diameter. Look at some of the processes for generating cavitation bubbles. In the process of hydrodynamic cavitation distinguish several stages: embryo cavitation bubble (education centre); the emergence of a cavitation bubble; the increasing size of the cavitation bubble due to the pressure difference inside and outside the bubble; the increasing size of the cavitation bubble due to forces of inertia - inert state; the collapse of cavitation bubbles. Each stage is characterized by a negative time of implementation or, better, the path length of the cavity. It is obvious that the length of the cavity should be sufficient to complete all stages of the process.

Next task is to increase the flooding of the cavity, i.e. the achievement of the required size of the midsection of the caverns. This can be achieved by increasing the number of emitters, arrays of emitters and so on Hydrodynamic cavitation and here opens up new possibilities for its use. Installation according to the flow axis of the blades are wedge-shaped, providing a twisting stream, generating the formation of microwire, and hence the additional education of their number. Due to the scope of the Central blades on the outer diameter of the peripheral Lona of microwires, the interaction of which with microwire generated for the blades mounted on the axle, dual relative speed mikropotokami that promotes their interaction with each other and provides full on middle filling of cavitation bubbles caverns. By reducing the flow rate of the intensity of the formation of micro bubbles is reduced until the disappearance of cavitation. The creation of stable cavitation mode in its advanced stage when the change of productivity and reduces specific energy consumption. It is established that the organosilicon coating princesses-121 contributes to partial wetting of the surface. This ensures that the slippage of the fluid along the surface of the blades of the cavitator. The occurrence of these conditions of flow resulted in a dramatic, 30-40%, to increase the length of the cavity and the number of cavitation microbubble, which provided a significant increase in the intensity of the process, completely eliminated the erosion of the elements of the mixer.

The best results are achieved when the coating thickness of 0.1 mm for silicone coating princesses-121. Tests showed resistance princesses-121 in different environments and variable temperatures. The intensity of erosion is directly proporcionada the ratio of the length of the cavity to the diameter). The magnitude of erosion is estimated by the change in mass of the cavitator for a certain period of time.

In Fig. 1 shows a General view of a cavitation generator of Fig. 2 is a flow interrupter of Fig. 3 is a view As in Fig. 2.

Cavitation generator, includes a housing 1, equipped with an accelerator of the fluid and the brake device; an accelerator of the fluid is made in the form of a flow-through chamber 2 with the supply pipe 3, the confuser 4 and socket 5 removal of the treated liquid. Inside the flow chamber 2 has a work element in the form of internal supercavities blades 6 mounted on the hub 7, which on the outer surface covered by a coaxial cylinder 8, on the outer surface of which there are supercavities blades 9, the direction of the swirling flow which is opposite to the direction of swirling flow internal supercavities blades 6 mounted on the hub 7 and the braking device in the form of interrupter flow with the drive behind the work item in the course of the stream. The exhaust pipe 5 connected to the heat accumulator 10, the output of which is connected with a commercial heat consumer 11 and a network pump 12, the output of which is connected to Patras is the howl of the pump 12 is connected with the pipe 3 through the confuser 14. The flow interrupter is made in the form of discs 15 and 16 in the radial Windows 17 and 18. The disk 15 is set stationary and the disc 16 is mounted on the actuator 19, which is connected with the actuator (motor) 20. Between the diffuser 13 and the disk 15 mounted aperture 21. Between the working element and the flow interrupter device 22 selection of fluid flow, coupled with additional flow-through chamber 23 within which a work item, providing supercavitating flow regime in the form of supercavities blades 24 mounted on the hub 25, which on the outer surface covered with a co-axial cylinder 26. On the outer surface of the cylinder 26 are supercavities blades 27. In a flow chamber 23 and the hub 25 fixed profiles 28, the flow chamber during the flow of an additional breaker flow with the drive. Referred to the breaker consists of disks 29 and 30 with radial Windows 31 and 32. The disk 29 is set stationary and the disc 30 is mounted on the actuator 33. Between the disc 25 and a flow-through chamber 23 is made constriction 34. Exit the flow chamber 23 is connected by a line 35 through the housing 1 with the hub 7, is made hollow, and the collector 36 covering the outer powernail element installed turbolister, made in the form of flow interrupter actuator 37 which is connected with the actuator 33 additional breaker stream, which is connected to the drive 19 of the flow interrupter.

Turbulator made in the form of discs 38 and 39 with the radial Windows 40 and 41. The disk 38 is set stationary and the disc 39 is mounted on the actuator 37.

Between the network pump 12 and the casing 1 is placed upstream of the cavitation activator, made in the form of confuser 14 flow-through chamber 42, tangentially connected to the housing 1, within which a hollow hub with a work item, a hollow hub 43 is connected to the heat accumulator 10, mainly at the top. A work element is designed as supercavities blades 44 mounted on a hollow hub 43, which on the outer surface covered by a coaxial cylinder 45 on the outer surface of the cylinder 45 are supercavities vanes 46.

In the flow-through chamber 42 for a work item in the course of the installed flow nozzle 47 and 43 are predominantly perpendicular to the flow direction, the inputs of which are connected with the output network of the pump 12 through the valves 49 and 50.

The axis of the nozzles 47 and 48 are angled to each other. The actuator 20 drives preetika noise 53 per work item.

Turbulator made in the form of interrupter flow, with extra guides thread, made for example in the form of plates 54 (Fig. 3) mounted on the movable part of the circuit breaker at an angle to the incident flow.

Breaker and an additional circuit breaker is connected in such a way as to provide the offset of the beginning of the pulses in the breakers.

The front edge of coaxial cylinders 8, 26, 45, have supercavities blades 9, 27, 46 directed towards the flow of fluid, made a sharp, beveled inner surface is a smooth concave profile, and the front edge of the hub 7, 25, 43, directed towards the flow of fluid, made a sharp, beveled outer surface is a smooth concave profile.

The output of the heat generator has a pressure regulator 55, the output of which is connected with the actuating mechanism 56.

All nodes that are in contact with the liquid are made with silicon-organic coating, for example of the following composition: Al2O3- 10-40 wt.%, asbestos - 10-30 wt.%, mica-Muscovite 1-10 wt.%, binding - rest.

When the pump is Otok. One part of the flow enters the vanes 44, where due to the narrowing of the orifice and the swirling flow velocity of fluid flow increases and the pressure decreases. Upon reaching the pressure value of saturated vapor after the blades 44 is formed cavitation cavity in the rear part of which is formed the field of micro bubbles. In consequence of the collapse of cavitation bubbles occur fields of cumulative microstruc with velocities of the order of 105m/s and shock pressures up to 105the ATM.

In addition, due to the swirling flow is formed of microwires, contributing to the formation of cavitation bubbles. Another part of the flow goes to supercavities vanes 46, which also occur caverns, the latter interact with the cavity formed by the blades 44. Because of different twisting threads there is a mutual influence and penetration of microwire and the resulting cumulative microstruc and their impact interaction. The total cavity is characterized by high intensity of the formation of cavitation bubbles, microstruc and microwire. Part of the fluid flow downstream of the pump 12 enters the nozzle 47 and 43 aimed a counter. Entries batch is estacionamento into the main cavern and intensifies the process. In the case when the axis of the nozzles 47 and 43 are directed at an angle to each other, the twisting of the thread and as a consequence increases the unsteady cavity that provides an increase in the number of micro bubbles. The total cavity through pipe 3 enters the casing 1, where it ends the collapse of cavitation bubbles.

Gases and vapors from the heat accumulator 10 is ejected in a hollow hub 43 and into the cavity. These gases are centres of education for more cavitation bubbles and, in addition, dearyou hot water fed commercial heat consumer 11, which reduces corrosion of metal structures.

It is established that the greatest intensity of generation of cavitation bubbles is achieved by imposing on cavitating flow regime pulsation effects, which is provided by the interrupter of the fluid flow. When the rotation of the disk 35 with radial Windows 41 is alternately overlapping radial window 40 of the disk 38, which leads to the pressure pulsation of the flow. The greatest effect occurs when the coincidence of the frequencies of the pulsations of the caverns for a work item in the flow-through chamber 42 and the pressure pulsation caused by the interrupter of the stream, i.e., when repletely unexpected effect, was that in the area between the flow chamber 42 and a flow-through chamber 2 not all the bubbles completely glopolis, part of the gas does not have time to dissolve in the liquid, i.e., before the flow chamber 2 formed activated liquid, and activating fluid is manifested in two ways; the heated liquid is more easily enters the mode of cavitation flow, but more important is the fact that all the liquid is saturated with the active centers of the nuclei of cavitation bubbles. The flow of liquid through the confuser 4, dispersed, arrives on the blades, where by narrowing the flow cross-section and tightening the flow velocity increases and pressure decreases. Upon reaching the pressure value of saturated vapor after the blades 6 is formed cavitation cavity in the rear part of which is formed the field of micro bubbles. In consequence of the collapse of cavitation bubbles occur fields of cumulative microstruc with speeds of order 105m/s and shock pressures up to 105ATM. In addition, due to the swirling flow is formed of microwires, contributing to the formation of cavitation bubbles (note the non-stationary character of the tail portion of the cavity). Another part of the fluid flow enters the su is formed by the blades 6. Due to the multi-directional twisting threads there is a mutual penetration of cavitation microstruc and their impact interaction. Furthermore, there is an interaction of microwires. The total cavity is characterized by high intensity of the formation of cavitation bubbles, microstruc and microwire. The tail part of the total caverns also has non-stationary nature. It is established that the greatest intensity of heat generation is achieved by imposing on cavitation flow mode pulse mode, which is provided by the flow interrupter. When the rotation of the disk 16 with Windows is alternately overlapping radial window 17 of the disk 15, which leads to the ripple of the stream. The greatest effect occurs when the coincidence of the frequencies of the pulsations of the tail portion of the cavity and flow pulsations, i.e. at resonance. In this case greatly increases the intensity of cavitation noise, which is transmitted to the housing of the mixer and perceived primary Converter 53 (for example, piezoelectric hydrophone). The analog output signal of the transducer 53 is fed to the input of the secondary indicating and recording device 51 having the control unit napagator the saturable reactors. The intensity of the noise, as measured by the block 53 is converted into a voltage and control 51 control the rotational speed of the engine 20 by changing the frequency of rotation of the pulsator (and hence the frequency of the generated pulses).

In table. 1 comparative (with a.c. USSR N 1083782) test data.

The area of the collapse of the cavitation microbubble determine the direct measurement of the level of cavitation noise. In the area of the collapse, the intensity of the noise is higher, and move the sensor level meter along the flow of the plot, determine the location of the zone of collapse. On the other hand, the collapse of cavitation bubbles occurs in the editing area of the flow, namely in the area of the diffuser 13. In this place there is a reduction of the kinetic energy of the flow with increasing potential energy. The flow velocity decreases and pressure increases, which determines the energy and the location of the collapse of cavitation bubbles.

The use of the interrupter leads to ripple as flow and pressure flow and, very importantly, after the work item in the course of the stream. Cavitator and the flow of liquid to the cavitator serve as a damper. After cavitator return, causing an increase of unsteady cavity, and intensify the collapse of bubbles, and due to the compressibility almost no impact in the entire cross section of flow (caverns).

The temperature measuring unit 52 adjusts the control signal of the controller 51, adjusting the rotational speed of the engine 20 when the temperature in the pipe 5.

Pulsation of the fluid pressure generated on the disk 15, affect the cavity formed for the work item in the flow chamber 2 through the aperture 21. Aperture 21 has a dual role: it serves to create high pressure for flow-through chamber 2, and under the influence of pressure pulsations of the disk 15 in front of the diaphragm generated by the secondary pressure pulsations. Thus, flowing between the camera 2 and the disk 15 is formed with two fluid volume where the shock pressure pulsations, which greatly intensifies the process of collapse of cavitation bubbles, and hence the process of generating heat. The heated liquid through the pipe 5 is diverted into the heat accumulator 10, where served commercial customers heat 11. Outlet pipe 5 is installed, the actuator 56, regulating the pressure in the pipe 5, the control input of ispolnyaem, supported the total gauge pressure in the heat, that at all stages intensifies the process.

Between the diaphragm 21 and the disk 15 mounted device 22 of the fluid withdrawal, coupled with flow-through chamber 23. Fluid through the device 22 enters the flow chamber 23, where the separation of fluid flow. One part of the fluid flow enters the vanes 24, where due to the narrowing of the orifice and the swirling flow speed of a fluid increases, the pressure decreases. Upon reaching values of saturated vapor pressure after the blades 24 is formed cavitation cavity in the rear part of which is formed the field of micro bubbles. In consequence of the collapse of cavitation bubbles occur fields of cumulative microstruc with speeds of order 105m/s and shock pressures up to 105ATM. In addition, due to the swirling flow is formed of microwires, contributing to the formation of cavitation bubbles. Another part of the fluid flow enters supercavities blades 27, which also occurs cavity, the latter communicates with the cavity formed behind the blades 24. Due to the multidirectional swirling flows is mutual the ance microwire. The total cavity is characterized by high intensity of the formation of cavitation bubbles, microstruc and microwire.

It is established that the greatest intensity of heat generation is achieved by imposing on cavitation flow mode pulse mode, which is provided by the flow interrupter. When the rotation of the disk 30 with Windows 32 is alternately overlapping radial window 31 of the disk 29, which leads to pressure pulsations of the fluid flow. The greatest effect occurs when the coincidence of the frequencies of the pulsations of the tail portion of the cavity and pressure pulsations of the fluid, i.e., when the resonance frequency. The heated fluid flowing from chamber 23 through line 35 is fed through a hollow hub 7 in the cavity for a work item in the flow chamber 2. From route 35 through the annular manifold 36, the fluid enters the region of the cavity from the outside in the intense heat generation. Heat the liquid in a flow chamber 23, the presence of nichopoulos bubbles and nerastvorim gases activate the liquid with which they fall along the axis inside the cavity and through the annular manifold 36 from the outside of the cavity and create conditions for further increase in the number of generated bubbles.

The placement of the plates 54 on the disk 39 at an angle to the incident flow provides additional turbulization of the flow behind a disk 39, which is the uniform distribution nerastvorim gases in the liquid and helps to improve its homogeneity. In addition, the arrangement of the plates 54 at an angle allows for the rotation of the fluid part of the energy flow.

The offset of the beginning of the pulses in the breakers allows you to submit the maximum number of activated fluid in the flow chamber 2 at the time of overlap of the Windows 17 and 18, increasing the amplitude of the pulsations.

Performing the inner surface of the coaxial cylinders 45, 26, 8 in the form of a smooth concave profile allows to reduce the hydraulic resistance cylinders, gently compress the stream to the axis, reducing friction on the cylinder wall. In addition, the implementation of the hub 43, 25, 7 with the outer surface in the form of a smooth concave profile forms the flow, directing it on the blades 44, 24, 6 - according to the ceteris paribus to maintain overpressure, necessary for intensive heat generation.

Use for coating internal surfaces of silicone coatings can reduce the energy consumption of the heat generator, to increase the resource of his work. Test data are summarized in table. 2. In table. 3 shows the compositions of the CPC (silicone cover).

In table. 4 shows the parameters that define a positive effect, depending on the coating composition. It should be noted that the initial erosion, even minor, leads to a chain reaction of destruction of the cavitator.

Trial offer cover showed its reliability and efficiency.

It should be noted that the known coating resistant to the effects of wetting substances, which leads to rapid wear of the coating, and, in addition, the surface of these coatings is surface roughness, which affects the efficiency of the cavitator.

At the same time offer coverage with an extremely high resistance to mechanical wear and high temperature resistance and chemical resistance, has a high smoothness. This increases the efficiency by increasing the length of AC is work (so that is, to achieve the maximum length of a cavity with a steady flow cavitation heat source while increasing the mechanical strength and chemical resistance.

Industrial applicability of the proposed invention is guaranteed, because it substantially increases the efficiency of heat generation, especially in technological processes with variable performance.

1. Cavitation heat generator, comprising a housing equipped with an accelerator of the fluid and the brake device, characterized in that the accelerator of the fluid made in the form of a flow chamber with a nozzle inlet, a confuser and the pipe outlet of the treated liquid flowing inside the camera is working element in the form of supercavities blades mounted on the hub, which is on the outer surface covered by a coaxial cylinder, on the outer surface of the cylinder are supercavities blades, the direction of the swirling flow which is opposite to the direction of swirling flow internal supercavities blades mounted on the hub and the braking device made in the form of interruption of the flow to the actuator, located the United commercial consumer of heat and a network pump, the output of which is connected through the housing to the pipe inlet.

2. Generator under item 1, characterized in that between the working element and the flow interrupter device selection of fluid flow, coupled with additional flow-through chamber, within which is mounted a work item, providing a supercavitating mode, which in the course of the stream is an additional breaker flow to the actuator, the outlet flow chamber is connected through the housing to the hub, is made hollow, and a collector, covering the outer surface of the flow chamber, provided with a perforation in the area of the work item, and in the case before the work item is installed turbulator made in the form of interrupter flow to the actuator, all drives breakers respective threads linked.

3. Generator under item 1 and 2, characterized in that between the network pump and housing is located upstream of the cavitation activator, made in the form of confuser flow chamber, tangentially coupled to the housing, inside which a hollow hub with a work item, a hollow hub connected to the heat accumulator mainly at the top.

5. The generator according to p. 4, characterized in that the axis of the nozzles are angled to each other.

6. The generator according to p. 1 - 5, characterized in that the actuator drive circuit breakers connected through a controller with a temperature sensor, and one of the inputs of the controller connected to the sensor noise for the work item.

7. Generator under item 2, characterized in that turbulator made in the form of interrupter flow, with extra guides thread, made for example in the form of plates mounted on the movable part of the circuit breaker at an angle to the incident flow.

8. Generator under item 2, characterized in that the interrupter and an additional circuit breaker is connected with the provision of the offset of the beginning of the pulses in the breakers.

9. Generator for PP.1 to 8, characterized in that the leading edge of coaxial cylinders, directed towards the flow of fluid, made a sharp, beveled inner surface is a smooth concave profile, and the front edge of the hub, directed towards the flow of fluid, made a sharp, beveled outer surface, made in VI is nerator installed the pressure regulator.

11. Generator for PP.1 to 9, characterized in that all the nodes in contact with the liquid are made with silicone coating.

 

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