Protective coating for reinforcing the side slopes of roads, slopes and coastal embankments
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a device for strengthening the side slopes of roads, slopes and coastal embankments and can be used as protective coatings lattice frames. Protective coating for reinforcing the side slopes of roads, slopes and coastal embankments contains many cross-shaped elements with a flat toe with eyelets, United them overlapped and bonded passed through them rod anchors with provision of fixing the position on the main ground. Depending on the slope of the embankment cross-shaped elements connected with the formation of a skeleton with increased or decreased niches to fill the ballast ground. Cross-shaped elements made of thermoplastic material such as polyethylene, nylon or vinyl plastic. Technical result provided by the invention, is to exclude leakage of material and erosion of the slope, increasing the stiffness and increase the adhesion of the coating to the substrate. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 12 ill. The invention relates to a device for strengthening the side slopes of roads, slopes and coastal embankments and can be used as them in view of what Dosov roads, slopes and coastal embankments, contains many cross-shaped elements made with the possibility of their frame with niches to fill the ballast ground, and clips of their situation (RF patent N 2032022, IPC E 02 D 17/20, 1995).Cruciform elements of this protective coatings require precision manufacturing to ensure reliable fixing in the Assembly work, which increases labor and material costs.Known protective coating of the cross-shaped elements to strengthen the side slopes of roads, slopes and coastal embankments with education or frame with niches to fill the ballast ground (patent EPO N 0273 541 B1, E 02 D 17/20, 1991).The specified protective coating suitable for strengthening the side slopes of roads, slopes and coastal embankments with the installation of its predominantly at the base of the embankments, as a cruciform elements are intended to prevent the spread of soil and are heavy.Closest to the invention in its essence and the achieved result is a protective coating for reinforcing the side slopes of roads, slopes and coastal embankments containing many cruciform elements flat is every fifth cruciform element from one to three neighboring toe cruciform elements and binding together they eyes of rod clamps, passed through them with the opportunity to implement their ends in the main ground (see, for example, CH A, 13.08.82).The disadvantages of the known constructions is the presence of gaps between the flat cross-shaped elements when mounting them stand vertically, which does not exclude the penetration of loose fine-grained material (sand) and it leaks through such coverage; the unsuitability of flat cross-shaped elements to strengthen inclined slopes, because the depth of their niches too small, the amount of NIS depth is determined by the thickness of the flat part of the cross-shaped elements; by strengthening inclined slopes with several layers of crossed elements inefficient in their use because of the gaps between them and wasteful use of materials, gaps will lead to the diversion of fine-grained material and erosion of slopes.The present invention is the elimination of leakage of material and erosion of the slopes, increased stiffness, increased the adhesion of the coating to the ground.The problem is solved due to the fact that the protective coating to strengthen the side slopes of roads, slopes and coastal embankments, contains many cross-shaped elements with flat every fifth cruciform element from one to three neighboring toe cruciform elements and binding together they eyes of rod clamps, passed through them with the opportunity to implement their ends in the main ground, according to the invention adjacent flat heel with eyelets at each cross element offset height from the reference surface, one relative to another by the thickness of the flat heels, and cross-shaped elements provided with ribs longitudinally spaced with their crossbars, and lugs made on their supporting surfaces.This cross-shaped elements can be made of a thermoplastic material such as polyethylene, nylon or vinyl plastic.These distinctive features are essential, because each of them separately and together is aimed at solving the problem and achieving a new technical result.The presence of a flat toe with the lugs on the cross elements improves the reliability of fastening of cross members between themselves and with the main soil to form the frame of the protective coating with different sizes niches during installation to fill the ballast ground lugs are fastened to each other and the ground of a single rod-like anchor. Depending on the inclination of the side slopes of roads, clonminam niches. If the angle of the slopes, the slopes of the highest, can be selected frame with the smallest size of niches in this case, each flat heel of each cross-shaped element attached overlapping three flat heel adjacent cross members. If the angle of the slopes, the slopes of the least, it will select the frame with the largest sizes niches. In this case, each of the heel of each cross-shaped element is attached overlap one flat heel adjacent cross member. When the flat heel of each cross element are attached on two flat heel adjacent cross members, in this case, it turns out the frame cover with intermediate sizes niches between the maximum and minimum dimensions. The presence of rod anchors increases the reliability of fastening of cross-shaped elements together in their superimposed overlapping flat heels and fixation on native soil. This combination of functional properties increases the efficiency and reliability of the use of protective coatings in the proposed design. Run flat toe offset one relative to the other in each cross-shaped element extends the range of installation Otomi each of them on the supporting surface has a lug. Supply cruciform elements edges, longitudinally arranged slats in the form of a cross, which increases rigidity and allows you to choose the profile of increased stiffness at the lowest weight of the frame cover, which reduces the consumption of materials for the manufacture of cross-shaped elements. Performing cross-shaped elements from a thermoplastic material such as polyethylene, nylon or vinyl plastic, accelerates the production of cross elements industrial way, increases the service life of the protective coating that provides resistance to the effects of atmospheric environments and weather conditions.One set of new essential features with commonly known essential features in the proposed protective coating allows to solve the problem and achieve new technical result, expressed in the creation of different structures coverage increased reliability and durability, ease of manufacturing industrial method that characterizes the proposed solution significant differences from the prior art, analogs and prototypes.The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the protective coating derho with four flat ankle-length with lugs in Fig. 3 is a cross-shaped element in the top view three-ankle-length with lugs, Fig. 4 - node connection flat toe adjacent cross-shaped elements of Fig. 5 - installation scheme cruciform elements with the increased size of the niches in the frame of the cover of Fig. 6 - installation scheme cruciform elements with the smallest size niches in the frame of the cover of Fig. 7 - installation scheme cruciform elements with dimensions niches in the frame of the coating, which is intermediate between the smallest and largest sizes of niches in the frame of the cover of Fig. 8 is a diagram of the protective coating of the cross-shaped elements, comprising three flat abutment with the lugs of Fig. 9 - arrangement of the lugs on the supporting surface cross-shaped element on the form And, in Fig. 10 is a view of the lug side of Fig. 11 - layout flat heel with an eye on the distance from the reference surface equal to the thickness of flat heel, Fig. 12 is a cross-section of the cruciform element along B-B.The invention is explained in more detailed description, indicating the positions on the drawings.Protective coating for reinforcing the side slopes of roads, slopes, coastal embankments contains many cresto the soil 4, and the tabs 5. Each cross-shaped element 1 protective cover is equipped with a flat toe with 6 eyelets 7, arranged in parallel to the supporting surface 8 made integral whole with them with the possibility of the overlap (Fig. 4) every fifth 6 cruciform element 1 from one to three toe 6 adjacent cross members 1 and binding together the lugs 7 tabs 5, made in the form of rod anchors skipped through them with the opportunity to implement their ends 9 in the main ground 10. Adjacent flat heel 6 lugs 7 on each cross-shaped element 1 is displaced in the height position from the supporting surface 8 one relative to another by the thickness of the flat heel 6. Cruciform elements 1 provided with ribs 11 (Fig. 12), longitudinally arranged with their crossbars 12. Cruciform elements 1 provided with a lug 13 (Fig. 9, Fig. 10) made on their supporting surfaces 8. Cruciform elements 1 protective coating made of a thermoplastic material such as polyethylene, nylon or vinyl plastic.The order of Assembly and fastening of the protective coating is as follows.The side slopes of roads, slopes and coastal embankments stack p (Fig. 4). Through the eyelets 7 (Fig. 4) miss rod anchors 5 and fix their ends 9 native soil 10 to ensuring the fixing position of the cross members 1. Depending on the requirements for protective covering, and the state of the principal soil 10 selected cross-shaped elements 1 with three or four flat heels 6 lugs 7, which connect the circuits of Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig. 7 or Fig. 8. Thus, cross-shaped elements 1 introducing the lugs 13, performed on their supporting surfaces 8, in the main ground 10. Then, in the gaps 3 of the frame 2 of the protective coating fall asleep ballast ground 4. Frame 2 protective cover, made of cross members 1 with flat heels with 6 eyelets 7 and rod anchors 5, securely holds the ballast ground 4 on the side slopes of roads, slopes and coastal embankments.Cross-shaped elements 1 and the protective coating using them on the basis of new technical solutions have high reliability, adaptability to manufacture and minimal complexity when installed on side slopes of roads, slopes and coastal embankments. The test results suggested a protective coating positive.It should be noted that the scope of the invention should be understood more widely as compared with the shape, dimensions and properties reflected as an entity in the description, the drawings and the dimensions, if this volume does not go beyond the combination of features set forth in the claims. 1. Protective coating for reinforcing the side slopes of roads, slopes and coastal embankments, contains many cross-shaped elements with flat heels, arranged in parallel to the supporting surface, made with the possibility of connection overlap with each fifth cruciform element from one to three neighboring toe cruciform elements and binding together in their eyes rod holders passed through them with the opportunity to implement their ends in the main ground, characterized in that adjacent flat heel with eyelets at each cross element offset height from the reference surface, one relative to another by the thickness of the flat heels, and cross-shaped elements provided with ribs, longitudinally arranged with their crossbars, and grundsatzreferat elements made of thermoplastic material, for example, polyethylene, nylon or vinyl plastic.
FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.
SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.
EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for slope consolidation and for stabilizing deep front landslide areas.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes foundation mat and piles formed in wells grouped in rows. Upper pile parts are embedded in foundation mat, lower one is restrained by not-sliding ground layers. Piles are composite along their lengths. Central pile parts are not filled with concrete. Heights of upper and lower pile parts decrease towards landslide head. Structure to prevent deep front land-slides comprises separate local pile groups connected by foundation mats and located within landslide body boundaries. Each foundation mat has tension bars anchored in stable slope layers and arranged under and above foundation mat along slope to retain thereof against displacement and rotation.
EFFECT: improved slope stability, increased operational reliability of structure built on wide landslides, reduced building time and material consumption.
FIELD: building, particularly bridge building.
SUBSTANCE: method involves compacting ground of embankment body and cones; forming drainage layers and water-draining chutes on coating; creating pad with variable rigidity decreasing in direction from bridge along embankment for length equal to approach slab length; arranging approach slab having upward gradient in bridge direction. Pad of embankment body is formed by creating cast-in-place piles along with surface compaction of upper cast-in-place pile parts and upper embankment layer, wherein transversal cast-in-place piles form strips having medium rigidity jointly with ground forming embankments. The medium rigidity is reduced from maximal value at bridge pier to minimal one at approach slab end opposite to bridge pier.
EFFECT: reduced embankment subsidence under approach slab due to decreased pad and draining material displacement in horizontal direction.
8 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of plant covers used for beautification of streets, squares, construction of sportive grounds, as well as for landscape designing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves spraying organic adhesive onto fine-mesh basalt net by means of specially designed equipment for filling meshes to thereby create strong carrier base. Net is perfectly ecologically safe and allows seeds to be uniformly sown over the entire area of lawn. Adhesive used for providing lawn is functioning as nutritive compound for seeds and is used simultaneously for protecting seeds from external influence of moisture and air during prolonged periods. After drying in first drying chamber, mixture of lawn grass seeds is sown onto carrier base through dosing hopper, followed by applying onto given mixture of organic adhesive and drying in second drying chamber. After discharge from drying chamber, ready dry lawn is cut into parts of various lengths, wound into roll and hermetically packed in polyethylene film for further storage and transportation. Lawn is placed on site by unwinding roll onto preliminarily prepared ground and spilling nutrient mixture thereon, followed by heavy irrigation to provide for sprouts emergence. Nutrient mixture and lawn grass seed mixture compositions are worked out depending on climatic zone and composition of parent ground on which lawn is to be provided.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing uniform sowing of seeds over the entire lawn area, and damage-free transportation and handling of grown lawn.
FIELD: securing of slopes or inclines, particularly for ground slopes and water pool banks stabilization, for artificial water pool building and reconstruction, for minor river recovery and erosive slope consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing masonry works of building members by laying building member layers in alternation with fabric layers. The building members are rough stones, which are connected one to another by fabric impregnated with binding material to provide elastic connection areas between stone layers. Ground stabilization device comprises masonry formed of building members alternated with fabric layers. The building members are rough stones, which are connected one to another by fabric to form elastic connection areas between stone layers.
EFFECT: increased environmental safety, improved appearance and technological effectiveness, increased elasticity of stone connection.
16 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to erect ground structures, namely to consolidate slopes, to reinforce banks of motor roads and railroads, dams, irrigation channels and river banks.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope reinforcing with members arranged in slope body involves preparing ground surface by terracing disturbed layers thereof in accordance with geological structure thereof along with substituting ground in unstable areas for draining material; compacting the draining material and reinforcing thereof with grids of polymeric material having openings of not more than 1 m; arranging zinc-coated steel mesh formed by two-for-one twisting method and having hexahedral openings; connecting the steel mesh with above grids; dividing prepared slope surface into sections with pitch not exceeding 3 m by installing the partitions of zinc-coated steel mesh formed by two-for-one twisting method having height of not more than 0.3 m; scattering loamy ground to form loamy layer having 0.1 m thickness; compacting the loamy ground; scattering vegetable soil; laying bio-textile on vegetable soil and planting greenery.
EFFECT: increased flexibility of protective coating and improved environment protection.
FIELD: agriculture, particularly steep slope terracing to adapt the slope for fruit trees and other crops growth.
SUBSTANCE: method for terracing slopes having steepness equal to or exceeding natural soil slip angle involves forming step-shaped ledges having depressions; scattering soil excavated from the slope over the ledges; stabilizing the soil with reusable rectangular netted retaining walls. The retaining wall has frame-like wall base created of welded angular or channel bars or bars of another cross-section. The wall bases are installed on the slope along lower ledge bounds and inclined at 60° angle with respect to horizon line. The wall bases are fixed by support and bearing wedges for a time equal to soil conglomeration time, wherein liquid or granular fertilizer is preliminarily introduced in soil and soil is laid down with perennial grass before ledge hardening.
EFFECT: increased slope use factor.
FIELD: building, particularly to stabilize slope landslides.
SUBSTANCE: landslide control structure comprises vertical walls built in base formed under the landslide and located along the landslide so that distance between adjacent walls decreases towards lower landslide end. Vertical walls are made of pile rows defining pleat-like system having pitch preventing ground punching between the piles. The pleats are directed so that corner apexes thereof face sliding ground and grillages of adjacent pleat flanges are connected by transversal beams.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity and increased technological efficiency of structure erection.
FIELD: building, particularly to reinforce landslide slopes, particularly extensive landslides.
SUBSTANCE: landslide control structure comprises bored piles fixed in stable slope ground layers and retained by anchoring means. To provide stability of lower landslide part inclined bars of anchor means are connected to bored pile heads. The anchor means are drilled down the slope and have fan-like structure. The anchor means are located at different levels in landslide body.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and material consumption for landslide control structure erection and increased stability of landslide massif.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to consolidate or to protect pit sides against landslide during pit operation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves laying transversal members connected to ropes along slope, wherein the ropes are fixedly secured to anchors located in upper bench berm; drilling inclined wells extending to bench slope; installing next anchor along lower edge of upper berm and drilling next inclined well cluster. Suspending net to bench slope and pulling down ropes from upper berm through drilled inclined wells so that the first rope ends extend from bench slope; lowering the rope ends to lower berm and securing thereof to transversal members arranged above the net, wherein the transversal members are installed beginning from lower berm; tightening the ropes and fastening the second rope ends to anchors.
EFFECT: increased operational safety and decreased labor inputs for bench slope consolidation.
1 ex, 2 dwg