Method of water treatment

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for cleaning and disinfection of water (potable, waste, and others) and can be used in industrial enterprises, agriculture, medical, special institutions and in everyday life. Water purification occurs under the influence of a constant electric field in the volume of the liquid and the gas layer located above it, under the impulse nature of the change of the current density in the range from 0.01 to 1.0 mA/cm2depending on the concentration of impurities in the water. The electric field is changed in the range from 10 to 30 kV/cm, and the initiation of the electric current in the gas, which is used as oxygen or air, carry out a pulsed electric discharge, the beam of accelerated electrons and the beam of ionizing photon radiation. In the result, the method increases the efficiency of water treatment, reduced energy consumption by simplifying the process of water purification. 9 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab., 3 Il.

The invention relates to the field of purification and disinfection of water (potable, waste, and others) and can be used in industrial enterprises, agriculture, medical institutions m, created above the liquid surface [1].

The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency and economiccost. Additionally, there is no job security in a known manner.

A device sterilization of water [2], containing a source of electrical energy, two electrodes, a tank with inlet and outlet manifolds, the dielectric layer and the gas gap. Consider the device enables the generation of ultraviolet radiation in the germicidal range, the impact of which is in liquid medium results in the death of microorganisms, viruses and so on, But the efficiency of this process is insufficient, since a significant part of the energy is absorbed in the intermediate elements, protecting UV lamp from destruction.

The known method of wastewater treatment [3], the most similar to that proposed, namely, that the water treatment carry out electrical discharge with electrodes in a continuous mode using a glow discharge voltage of 0.5 to 2.0 kV and a current strength of 50 to 150 mA when the thickness of the layer of the treated fluid 1,6 - 100 mm and a temperature below the temperature of the treated water.

Nedostatkami.mne persistent connections and complicated purification process.

The main goals of the present invention, the efficiency of water purification, reducing energy costs, improving reliability and simplifying the process of water purification.

The task is solved by the fact that in the known method of water purification, which consists in applying an electric field to the volume of the liquid and the gas layer above it, create a constant electric field in a pulsed nature of changes in current density, the electric field is changed in the range from 10 to 30 kV/cm and a current density change in the range from 0.1 to 1 mA/cm2depending on the impurity concentration in water at the conditions:

< / BR>
where R- active radicals, mol/cm3,

A - thickness of the active layer of the liquid, A = 0.05 mm,

B - impurity concentration, mol/l,

k1and k2constants of reaction.

When this gas cavity is of such dimensions that the ratio of the total surface gas density Spto the liquid surface SWenclosed within:

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The thickness of the processed liquid layer lies in the range from 1 to 100 mm, the most effective thickness is 20 mm

A brief description of the drawings illustrating the proposed method of water purification.

Fig. 1 diagram of the method of water purification at electrodeless electrochemical reaction.

Fig. 2 is a block diagram of an installation for implementing the method of water purification for initiating the reaction by the electrical discharge.

Fig. 3 diagram of the method of water purification at the ionization reaction beam of accelerated electrons.

The best variant embodiment of the invention.

The proposed method of cleaning fluid is a new approach to the initiation of the reaction in the liquid using active particles formed in the gas phase, based on the fact that they use an electrical discharge pulse when the nature of changes in current density, at high electric fields and low current density. This creates conditions where the influence of an electric field in the liquid. This type reactions induced in these conditions, called electrodeless (Fig. 1). the cimema liquid 3 and the electric field 4, acting as in the gas phase and in the liquid. The reaction itself takes place in a thin surface layer of a liquid, where the electrodes are not, therefore, the reaction was called electrodeless. The region of ionization created by the electrical discharge or by a beam of accelerated electrons. The block diagram of the experimental setup for initiating the reaction by the electrical discharge is shown in Fig. 2. Water treatment is carried out in the vessel 5 with a base area of 10 cm2the height of the vessel to the level of the tube was 36 mm Through the hole in the bottom of the vessel was administered electrode of platinum wire 6 with a diameter of 0.2 mm, in contact with the liquid 3. The vessel 5 is closed with a Teflon stopper 7 having apertures for the entry of the discharge electrode 8 located above the liquid surface, and two glass tubes 9 and 10 for blowing air. Purging of air is carried out to maintain a constant gas composition. The speed of the purge was 0.5 cm3/min. layer Thickness of the liquid in the vessel was changed from 5 to 30 mm On the electrodes through the ballast resistor 11 in the circuit of the discharge electrode 8, the supply voltage from the energy source 12 to 14 kV. The value of the average current was measured using a milliammeter (Fig. 2 is not shown), vkluchennosti on the resistances 14, 15 and the oscilloscope 16. When carrying out the reaction of the dividers 14, 15 off and the contact electrode 6 connected to ground through the milliammeter.

In Fig. 3 presents a scheme of water treatment at the initiation of the reaction beam of accelerated electrons 17. The reaction chamber is a tub 18 internal dimensions 80 - 120 mm2and a depth of 28 mm Side walls of the tub made of insulating material, for example, plexiglass 19. The bottom chamber was made of stainless steel 20 coated with platinum black. Top cover of camera is also stainless steel. The window for entering beam sizes h mm2made in the top cover and closed grid 21 of a steel wire with a diameter of 0.4 mm with a mesh size of 3x3 mm2. The window sizes were chosen so as to avoid a direct hit from a beam 17 on the walls of the tub 18. On the top and bottom of the reaction chamber was supplied voltage of 2.6 kV from the power source 22, plus on the bottom, minus the top cover 1 with the grid 21.

The electron beam 17 with a maximum energy of 200 Kev at a current density of 2 μa/cm2(full current size of the window of the reaction vessel of 0.25 mA) reaches the surface of the liquid 3 through the grid 21. As a source of electrons COI the surface of the window without beam scanning. During this experiment the high-voltage power to the accelerator 22, pulse, from the half-wave rectifier, the output voltage shape corresponded to a half-wave sine wave alternating current with frequency of 50 Hz with an amplitude of 200 kV. The actual energy absorbed by the liquid from the electron beam was determined by heating a layer of water of the same volume (200 ml), and the analyzed liquid. The average energy of beam electrons trapped in the liquid, obtained by calorimetric measurements, was 92 Kev.

As a result, the volume of gas generated active radicals R.and in fluid contains the substance B, resulting in the interaction of the substance B with radicals R.. The reaction rate is determined by the ratio

w1= Ak1[B][R], (3)

where k1- constant of the reaction, A is the relative thickness of the active layer of the liquid in which the interaction of radicals from the gas phase with a substance dissolved in water. In the case of water the absolute value of the active layer thickness is 50 microns. In this method of cleaning the reaction occurs in the layer A and at least spending matter in this layer, its content is updated so that the CPE is formed in the gas phase, can be used for communication between themselves, forming inactive products, with speed

w2= k2[R]2. (4)

In order to prevent significant loss of active particles, it is necessary to satisfy the condition w2<or:

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I.e., in order to active radicals were spent mainly on the interaction with the impurity contained in the water, their concentration should depend on the impurity concentration and to be quite small. Let the thickness of the layer of fluid equal to 20 mm (relative thickness A = 2,510-3) and put k1= k2and the impurity concentration is assumed to be [B]10-3mol/l, then [R] 2,510-9mol/cm3or the concentration of radicals should be substantially less than 1015particles in the 1 cm3. This particle density characteristic of a weakly ionized plasma, corona or low-voltage spark discharge current (1 mA) or arising under the action of the electron beam with a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2.

The volume of the gas phase and shape of the cavity with gas by electrical discharge form per unit time R0radicals. Their concentration is [R0>The)2and spending on the reaction of the fluid with velocity Ak1[B]([R0]/Vg). Condition (1) takes the form:

< / BR>
Hence, at a certain rate of formation of active radicals is always possible to choose such a small volume of the gas phase, when the condition (5) cannot be performed, and the resulting radicals will die mostly in the interaction, i.e. the volume of the gas cavity should not be too small, and in specific cases it may be necessary to increase it.

If the particles will be killed on the walls (this applies primarily to particles in excited States), the death rate of particles for the case of gas volume in the form of a cylinder with radius r and height h will be

< / BR>
This shows that the volume of the gas cavity if necessary, be increased by radius, leaving its minimum height. Gas cavity must have a large footprint with minimal height.

The reaction occurs in a thin surface layer, so you need to ensure efficient mixing of the solution during the reaction as an expenditure of the matter in the surface layer. Through diffusion mixing idcache on the bottom of the vessel is the second electrode. The electric field generated by flowing a constant current discharge power of 0.1 mA, may create in the fluid field strength of not more than 1/see At this field strength, the speed of the ions is 0.3 mm/min, i.e., the mixing layer thickness of 10 mm will happen in about 30 minutes So to achieve a noticeable speed stirring, the electric field in the liquid should be not less than 100 V/cm Thickness of the liquid layer, which can effectively mix will depend on the potential distribution inside the liquid and reaction time.

When initiating the reaction is carried out by means of an electrical discharge, based on the conditions that: 1) the density of active particles should be small; 2) the electric field in the liquid is not less than 100 V/cm (which is possible at a current of not less than ten milliamps), we can conclude that the discharge must be pulsed. To monitor and control the shape of the current in the electric discharge was used divider resistors 14, 15 and the oscilloscope (see Fig. 2). When the corona discharge on the surface of the liquid was generated voltage pulses with amplitudes of 100 - 200 with a repetition frequency of 100 kHz and with a spark of RA the field at the corona discharge were: liquid 100 V/cm, in Gaza 510-16In/cm2(50 Td); if spark discharge field strength in the liquid and gas were respectively 4 kV/cm and 2,510-16In/cm2.

The results of the implementation of the presented method of purification of water containing in solution the potassium permanganate KMnO4and potassium cyanide KCN, are presented in table. 1 and 2, showed the efficiency, reliability and efficiency of the proposed method.

Sources of information taken into account

1. Application France N 2421145, Ál. C 02 B 3/02, 1979

2. USSR author's certificate N 1068394, Ál. C 02 F 1/46, 1987

3. RF patent N 2043970, Ál. C 02 F 1/46, 1991

1. The method of purification of water by exposure to electric current, and a DC electric field on the volume of the liquid and the gas layer located above it, wherein the DC electric field creates a pulse when the nature of changes in current density.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the electric field created in the range from 10 to 30 kV/see

3. The method according to PP. 1 and 2, characterized in that the current density is changed in the range from 0.01 to 1 mA/cm2and it depends on the impurity concentration in the water while keeping ulste, A = 0.05 mm;

B - impurity concentration, mol/l;

k1and k2constants of the reactions.

4. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the gas layer has such a shape that the ratio of the total surface gas layer Spto the liquid surface SWenclosed within

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5. The method according to PP. 1 to 4, characterized in that the thickness of the processed liquid layer lies in the range from 1 to 100 mm

6. The method according to PP.1 to 5, characterized in that the initiation of the electric current in the gas provide pulsed electrical discharge.

7. The method according to PP.1 to 5, characterized in that the initiation of the electric current in Gaza carried out by a beam of accelerated electrons.

8. The method according to PP.1 to 5, characterized in that the initiation of the electric current in Gaza carried out by a beam of ionizing photon radiation (x-ray or UV).

9. The method according to PP.1 to 8, characterized in that the layer of gas created from oxygen.

10. The method according to PP.1 to 8, characterized in that as a layer gas used air.

 

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1 dwg

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