# The allocation of frequencies between base stations of a mobile radio communication system

(57) Abstract:

In the allocation of frequencies between base stations of a mobile communication system based on the use of input information, at least including the number of frequencies required for the base station, and frequency permitted for use in the communication system, and information about possible noise and interference effects between base stations in case of the same and/or adjacent frequencies, sequentially perform the following operations: a) first criterion of a base station, and if necessary, additional criteria for the selection of the base station selects a base station from among the base stations, which are not yet allocated all available frequencies; b) under the first criterion of frequency selection, and if necessary, additional selection criteria frequency select frequency; C) is selected in accordance with the operation b) the frequency is designated as the selected base station, selected in accordance with the operation (a). Achievable technical result is the creation of allocation of frequencies between base stations of a mobile communication system, which provides a more uniform use of courtesy is of the frequencies between base stations of a mobile communication system using the input information, which contains at least the number of frequencies required for each base station, frequency, permitted for use in a mobile radio system, as well as information about possible mutual interference between base stations in the same or adjacent frequencies.In mobile radio base stations distributed in the geographical area covered by this system of mobile radio communications.The base station contain transceivers, intended for exchanging information with mobile stations that are within range of the base station. Because of the limited number of frequencies that can be used in the mobile radio system, we can not exclude the use of different base stations of the same frequency, and can result in mutual interference, when a mobile station receives signals of the same frequency from several base stations. In addition, we cannot exclude mutual interference due to the close frequencies.In addition to mutual interference when receiving mobile stations base station signal (direct channel) should also be considered interference with the reception of signals basophilia therefore be carried out so to provide the most free from mutual interference systems mobile radio.There are different ways for doing this task, in which base stations sequentially emit frequencies, and eliminate those frequencies already allocated to another base station if the probability of mutual interference for the data base stations exceeds a threshold value.In known from the publication N WO 90/10341 the way for individual frequencies sequentially are respectively the maximum possible group of base stations, which have not yet selected frequency and which, due to the non-exceeding the minimum requirements could have an identical frequency.The purpose of this method is the use of possibly fewer frequencies.In another method (A. Gamst, "A resource allocation technique for FDMA systems" in Alta Frequensa vol LVII No. 2), which is used in known computer program GRAND, for a single frequency sequentially to form respectively the maximum group has not yet executed queries frequencies to base stations. Here, therefore, is already considered a case where one base station requires more than one frequency. At a fixed frequency of sobran the global requirements remain to be completed. Due to the "intellectual" determine the minimum number of required frequencies, the method allows even successfully control the objective of minimizing the number of frequencies used.In the review of GLOBECOM'85 (IEEE Global Telecommunication Conference) described the method of allocation of channels (frequencies) cells (base stations). The allocation of frequencies is accomplished by selecting the cell (base station) using the selection criterion cell. The selected cell using the criterion of the choice of channel is allocated a suitable channel. If using this method, you are unable to definitely select the appropriate cell and/or the channel selection is performed randomly or is group selection, i.e., one channel is assigned to each of the selected cells.The traditional target of known methods is to minimize the number of frequencies used is questionable. The user of the mobile communication system is generally permitted to consume a set number of frequencies that must be used to provide virtually free from interference with the operation of the mobile communication system.The known methods have the disadvantage that the first frequency is used too often, and Poslednyaya) are graphs of frequency allocations, which substantially impede the operation of the mobile communication system at the expense of disposable mutual interference.Object of the invention is to provide a method for allocation of frequencies between base stations of a mobile communication system, which provides a more uniform use of the available frequency spectrum.The solution to this problem described in paragraphs 1 and 2 of the claims.In a preferred form of execution under item 1, the method according to the invention differs in that it carries out the following steps:a) first criterion of a base station, and if necessary, additional criteria for the selection of the base station selects a base station from among the base stations, which are not yet allocated all available frequencies;

b) according to the first criterion of frequency selection, and if necessary, additional selection criteria frequency select frequency;

in) is selected in accordance with step b) the frequency is designated as the selected base station, selected in accordance with step a).An alternative method under item 2 is that the choice of frequency in accordance with section b) provide for schaut using the so-called value function, mutual interference, the frequency is chosen so that the conditional distribution of frequencies improves the function of the rates of mutual interference was minimal.The advantage of the method according to the invention is that the frequency taking into account the possible influences of disturbances between the base stations are distributed in the mobile radio system, i.e. within the geographical area, largely evenly.To describe the influences of disturbances suitable preferably the likelihood of mutual interference. The method according to the invention optimally uses in addition to the probability of mutual interference other available information.Determining the probability of mutual interference in itself known and is described, for example, in the above-mentioned publication N WO 90/10341. Here the probability of mutual interference is determined by the portion of the area coverage system, for which the signal-to-noise ratio is less than the specified value. In other ways interfering probability plot area can be estimated using attributable to his share of information exchange.The method according to the invention may be the preferred way carried out using a computer program, predug channels, the first adjacent channels, the second adjacent channel, and so on (reverse or direct communication channel or both simultaneously);

2) data about frequencies, in principle, permitted for use in the network;

2) the following data for each base station:

a) the number of required frequencies;

b) locally authorized frequencies;

C) locally-Smoking frequency;

d) degree of difficulty;

d) workload processed;

e) loading ( the ratio of workload to bandwidth);

4) for the case of identical channels, the case of the first adjacent channel, and so on, respectively permissible probability of mutual interference and lower the threshold above which the probability of mutual interference are viewed as relevant;

5) the maximum number of passages in the procedure for the allocation of frequencies;

6) specific to the system (e.g., for the GSM system) additional data, such as the spacing of the private separation between the channels defined by the properties of the transmitting link.From 1) and 4) in this program required at least one case (the same channel, first-adjacent channel, and so on). Next, you'll need: 2), 3A) preferably then, when one pass was able to satisfy the need for the frequency of each base station with respect adverse conditions or if you have made the maximum number of times a procedure of frequency allocations. In the latter case, by the way, under certain conditions, can only be a partial solution, based on which the user can re-Orient themselves in relation to their input. One pass of processing procedures on the allocation of frequencies consists of a number of individual allocations of frequencies for which the corresponding base station is allocated one frequency.The result of this method is in the end a list of frequencies, respectively distributed between base stations. In addition, the list may contain additional data, such as the probability of mutual interference occurring after the distribution of frequencies, or available frequencies that can be allocated on demand.Although in the framework of the invention can, in principle, to choose and another sequence, was preferred to first select the base station, and then select the frequency for the pre-selected base station.Improvement of the method according to the frequency of one base station), which on the basis of selecting the base station and frequency taking into account the possible influences of disturbances, in particular the maximum allowable probability of mutual interference is no longer allowed.The implementation of the method according to the invention can be interrupted at any level, then the subsequent allocation of frequencies can be produced currently running the scheduler. In one refinement of the method according to the invention provided, however, that the steps a)-C) is repeated until all base stations will not be allocated the required number of frequencies or while in case of additional needs will not be able to allocate more frequencies, and that in the latter case, the allocation of frequencies is repeated using a different input information. This provides a substantially optimal procedure of frequency allocation method according to the invention.In the method according to the invention preferably provides that the first criterion of selection of the base station serving the maximum number of co-allocated base station frequencies in relation to the number of required base station frequencies.The improvement of the method according to the invention is that information is th station is the sum of the probabilities of mutual interference for a selected base station from the use of the same and/or adjacent frequencies relative to other base stations. Due to this there is a further optimization of frequency allocation.As already mentioned above, as the input information may be a degree of difficulty highlight the desired frequency for each base station. Often, however, the difficulty with which this station you can select the desired frequency, is known only in the process of distribution of frequencies, i.e., after one or more passes along the procedure of distribution of frequencies.According to another improvement, therefore, provided that the input information contains for each base station, the degree of difficulty, which after separation frequency, do not satisfy all the requirements for frequency, change in such a way that the degree of difficulty for those base stations that have not been distributed to the desired number of frequencies, deterministic or non-deterministic way improve and that take into account the degree of difficulty in the selection of a base station in accordance with step a).Another enhancement is that for frequency selection in accordance with step b) the criterion of frequency selection is set to this frequency to the highest of the following classes: class 1 permitted for selected is the number of jointly mobilizing this base station frequencies to the number required by this base station frequencies would give a value less than 1; to class 2 of the remaining frequencies include those to highlight the selected base station for the relationship of the maximum number of jointly mobilizing another base station frequencies among even this required another base station frequencies would give a value less than 1; class 3 includes all other frequencies, is still not distributed, however, approved for use in the network.Another improvement also contributes to the overall improvement of the situation in relation to mutual interference is that mutual interference resulting from implemented so far of frequency allocations, is assessed through rates mutual interference, and as an additional criterion for selecting the frequency of use of this choice, which leads to a minimal increase in the value function mutual interference.This improvement eliminates another disadvantage of known methods, where the matrix of the probabilities of interference derive the compatibility matrix, which includes probabilistic values as strictly defined data "permitted" or "not allowed". Further development of the idea of the invention involves within a specified range of values obtained using wamono be neglected. The probability of mutual interference above the range of estimates correspond strictly to the specified value "not allowed".Within the estimation range selection frequency fundamentally resolved. However, it is considered desirable if the allotment due to the still high mutual interference. This leads, among other things, to the fact that the allocation of frequencies each area covered in the whole frequency geographical area served by the procedure of distribution of frequencies as well as it allows the corresponding situation of mutual interference.Under this alternative way of increasing the value function mutual interference determines it is preferable that the input information contains, in addition, the load L and the workload V separate base stations and that the increase E the value function of the mutual interference in the form of the sum of the estimated noise and interference effects with significant probability of mutual interference P

_{AB}and P

_{BA}between the pre-selected base station A and the other base stations B based on the number of Z required in the base station frequency is calculated as follows:

< / BR>

Depending on the circumstances, in particular, the probability of mutual interference can include the probability of interference is Tanzi, for which at least one of the two probabilities mutual interference (in the case of a direct channel interference from cell A to cell B, the interference from cell B to cell A; in the case of the reverse channel interference in A cell due to mobile station B, the interference in the cell B due to the mobile station A) lies in the same channel or in the case of adjacent channel above the respective limit of relevance.For such a pair A and B both aimed relations "A prevents B" and "B prevents A" is evaluated separately. These relations are called actualname omegawiki relations. For "B prevents A", for example, for each frequency allocated to the base station A, check whether the base station B is the same neighboring frequency (1-I, 2-I, and so on). For each such case, mark the appropriate probability of mutual interference. After this treatment all frequencies of the base station A all noted the likelihood of mutual interference summed, multiplied by the load of the base station A, the load of the base station B and the workload of the base station A and finally divided by the number of the selected base station B frequencies.The result is the evaluation of interfering relationship "B prevents A". It can be interpreted as the estimated value BA is and base station B during the time of its use. The sum of the estimated current noise and interference relationships is the result of the function rates mutual interference.Another improvement of the method according to the invention is that as an additional selection criterion frequencies take into account the frequency of occurrence of individual selected frequencies in the mobile radio system.In order to be able in any case to complete the selection, according to another improvement of the method provides that in the selection of the base station and/or the frequency selection used a random (non-deterministic) method, if after using all of the previous selection criteria there are several base stations and/or frequencies for which the procedure of the frequency distribution is not completed.The preferred form of the method according to the invention is that for the selection of a base station in accordance with step a) as the first criterion of selection of the base station using the ratio of the maximum number of jointly mobilizing this base station frequencies to the number required by this base station frequencies, base station selected with the least regard; several has the lowest ratio of base stations as is, and select the base station with the highest degree of difficulty; in the absence of unambiguous selection of the second selection criterion base station as the third criterion of selection of the base station use the sum of the probabilities of interference affecting a given base station due to the use of the same frequency and/or adjacent frequencies relative to other base stations, and selects the base station with the largest sum of probabilities of mutual interference, and in the absence of clear selection after using the third criterion of the selection is performed by random selection among the remaining stations.In another preferred form of implementation provides that for frequency selection in accordance with step b) the first criterion of the frequency selection is set to this frequency to the highest of the following classes: class 1 permitted on selected base station frequencies include those to highlight the selected base station for the relationship of the maximum number of jointly mobilizing this base station frequencies to the number required by this base station frequencies selected base station would give a value less than 1; to class 2 of the remaining frequencies against the another base station frequencies among even this required another base station frequencies would give a value less than 1; class 3 includes all other, still not distributed frequency, however, approved for use in the network.In the absence of clear selection on the first selection criterion frequency as a second selection criterion frequency takes into account the potential increased rates mutual interference calculated by the values of the probability of mutual interference between pre-selected base station and other base stations, which are not more than the maximum permissible probability of mutual interference and are not discussed below as well as actual probability of mutual interference, as a third criterion for the choice of frequency is the frequency produced before frequency allocations, and choose the frequency with the lowest frequency, and in the absence of a clear choice for the third criterion of frequency selection perform a random choice among the remaining frequencies.In another method, the allocation of frequencies base stations mobile communication system, which emanate from the input information containing at least the number required for a given base station of frequencies allowed in the mobile radio communication frequency and the probability of mutual interference Minie base station and the allocated frequency and the allocation of frequencies quantitatively take into account the probability of mutual interference.Distinguishing characteristics this way contribute to the optimization of the mobile communication system in relation to the probability of mutual interference and can be used in conjunction with the other phases and criteria for selecting base stations and frequencies.Preferably in this method, take into account only the probability of mutual interference within the range of values lying between treated as actual minimum value and considered as the maximum permissible maximum value.An example embodiment of the invention is explained in more detail below using the drawing, which shows the following:

Fig. 1 - the matrix of probabilities mutual interference between the four base stations, received as input;

Fig. 2 is a graphical image noise and interference effects between base stations;

Fig. 3.1. - 3.8 - table of the relationship between the various frequencies of the base stations and the residual bandwidth required to even frequencies for the respective step of the method.For clarity, we consider a small system mobile radio with four base stations A, B, C, D, which represents, e.g. the distribution of frequencies for mobile radio systems with hundreds or even thousands of base stations. In addition, in the example of execution for clarity provided by only eight exhaust frequencies.In the example, assume that depicted in Fig. 1 the probability of mutual interference have been pre-defined. In the case of a direct communication channel they indicate that communication between the base station and in its range mobile station interferes with another base station. In Fig. 1, for example, when using the same frequency base station D prevents the base station C with a probability of 12%. The probability of mutual interference 10% is considered the maximum, whereas the probability of mutual interference less than 1% are not considered as relevant.The probability of mutual interference to existing base stations of a mobile communication system in a highly simplified example of execution is not shown clearly. It is assumed that they are either irrelevant, or lead to the ban of certain frequencies of the base stations A, B, C or D. Due to the probability of mutual interference of interfering effects between the base stations a, B, C, D shown in Fig. 1 in graphical form. When this solid connecting line means a ban on the use of the same frequencies. The dashed line with the corresponding Chi is Ino, the higher the probability of mutual interference.Let for base stations A-D as follows:

A requires two frequencies, has no right to use frequencies 3, 5 and 8 and has a degree of difficulty 22;

B requires two frequencies, has no right to use frequencies 2, 3 and 5 and has a degree of difficulty 20;

C requires one frequency, has no right to use frequency 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and has a degree of difficulty 30;

D requires two frequencies, has no right to use frequencies 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and has a degree of difficulty 18.The possibilities for use of frequencies is shown in Fig. 3.1 in the form of a table, and the bar above the figure indicates that the corresponding frequency for the base station is prohibited.Let for a given mobile radio systems it is known that in the existing area frequencies are used more often than a higher number of frequencies. Let the workload and the workload of individual base stations have the same value of 1. The method can be carried out a maximum of ten passes on the procedure of frequency allocations.Two frequencies, used together on one base station must be due to the properties of the junction of the transmitting means, the spacing between channels is 3, so n is AI.Once you know all of the input data, in the method according to the invention, the first passage on the procedure of distribution of frequencies. Here first of all you should select the first base station. For this purpose the purpose of checking the primary criterion for selection of the base station calculates the ratios of the residual bandwidth to the number of required frequencies for base stations A-D.For base station A, this means:

frequency 1 can be used; the frequency 2 is denied due to frequency 1, frequency 3 denied due to frequency 1, and in General; frequency 4 can be used; frequency 5 denied due to frequency 4, and in General; frequency 6 denied due to frequency 4; frequency 7 can be used; the frequency of 8 prohibited, due to the frequency 7.It follows from this residual bandwidth is 3 and the ratio of residual bandwidth to another desired frequency 3/2. This attitude, as well as the corresponding relationships for base stations B, C and D shown in Fig. 3.1 the right.Based on the primary criterion of selection of the base station allocation of frequencies should start with one of the base stations A, B, or D. For selection among these base stations use the second value of the kr"ptx2">For the base station A frequency of 3, 5 and 8 is prohibited. None of the allowed frequencies(1, 2, 4, 6, 7) wouldn't now impossible to release the second desired frequency for the base station A, i.e., class 1 free. Similarly, a free class 2. Because the class 3 consists of more than one frequency, these frequencies continue to sort by the second most important criterion of selection frequency. Because base stations C and D are not yet allocated frequency, changing the function of the prices of mutual interference for the frequency of the base station A must be zero. Therefore, further selection on the third by value criterion of frequency selection. After the comments made about the frequency of use of an existing network, it is necessary to select a frequency of 1. This frequency has the consequence that the base station A has no more right to use the frequencies 2, 3 and that the frequency of 1 because of the high probability of mutual interference (see Fig. 1) cannot be used at the base station. This is the state after the first individual selection of frequency is shown in Fig. 3.2. The frame around the number means that the corresponding frequency is selected.In Fig. 3.2 shows, in addition made after the first individual allocation of new frequency calculation Rel the I frequencies are selected so the base station B. For it is prohibited frequency 1, 2, 3, and 5. Frequency selection 6 now would have made it impossible allocating a second frequency of the base station B. Therefore, the frequency of 6 belongs to class 1. Class 2 free, whereas class 3 includes a frequency of 4, 7 and 8. Since the base station C has not received any frequency, changing the function of the prices of mutual interference for frequency of class 3 should be zero. Based on the above mentioned criterion of repeatability choose a frequency of 4 and distinguish it from base station B, as shown in Fig. 3.3. In addition, in Fig. 3.3. shows the new relationship of the residual bandwidth for the required frequencies. Then for the third individual selection frequency priority selection criteria are considered base stations A, B and D. as the second most important criterion of selection of the base station selection falls to the base station A.Since both frequency 6, 7 belong to the class of 3 and still missing frequencies to base stations C, D cannot change the value function of the mutual interference, the frequency of the 6 chosen again by the criterion of repeatability. After this third individual selection frequency is an intermediate result, is shown in Fig. 3.4

For the quarter would mean, that the base station D could not allocate more two frequencies. Frequency 7 belongs therefore to the class of 2, whereas the frequency of 8 applies to class 3, and select it. After this fourth individual selection frequency results in the state shown in Fig. 3.5.For the fifth individual selection frequency selection falls to the base station D. still remaining for this base station frequencies belong to the class 3. For frequencies 1 because of its use at the base station A is an increasing function of the price of mutual interference, which is not the case for frequencies 2 and 7. According to the criterion of repeatability of these frequency select the frequency of 2. After this occurs the condition depicted in Fig. 3.6.For the sixth individual selection frequency again selected base station D. the number 7 belongs to class 3. It therefore allocate the base station D, which is shown in Fig. 3.7.It is evident from Fig. 3.7, in addition, it is seen that the frequency should be allocated only another base station C, for which a free two frequencies, namely frequency 1 and 4. For both frequencies increases the cost function mutual interference.This increase in case of allocation of frequency 1 is calculated as follows: first, calculate ponyshoe ratio multiplied by the load L of the base station A, the load L of the base station C and the workload V base station A and divide by the number required in General for the base station A frequency. As the load L, and the workload V were taken at 1, it should

(8111)/2=4.Accordingly calculate the increased rates of mutual interference for a relationship "A prevents C", which gives

(8111)/1=8.For all other potential disturbances relationship calculation is 0. The sum of estimates (rates mutual interference) increased thus 12. In case of allocation of frequency 4 as a result of such calculation of the cost function, mutual interference is reduced by 3. From this it follows that the second most important criterion for the allocation of frequencies it is necessary to select a frequency of 4. After this seventh individual selection frequency results in the state shown in Fig. 3.8. Thus, the first pass through the process of frequency allocation is completed. Because there are no more base stations have not satisfied the need for frequency, ends with the implementation of the method in General. Is depicted in Fig. 3.8 the end result meets all adverse conditions and gives the plan of frequencies, providing maximum free from mutual interference.

it consists of more than one frequency, according to the following criteria frequency select the next subset and the last operation sampling frequency to repeat until the subset consists of a single frequency, in the third stage, the selected frequency is allocated for the selected base station.

_{AB}and P

_{BA}between the pre-selected base station A and the other base stations B based on the number of Z required in the base station frequency is calculated as follows:

< / BR>

13. The method according to p. 11, characterized in that the probability of mutual interference can include the probability of mutual interference on adjacent channels.14. The method according to p. 1 or any one of paragraphs.3 to 11, characterized in that eredvisie radio network.15. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 - 13, characterized in that the selection of the base station and/or the sampling frequency using the selection randomly, if after using all of the previous selection criteria there are several base stations and/or frequencies.16. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 14, characterized in that for selecting a base station in accordance with the second step as the first criterion of selection of the base station using the ratio of the maximum number of jointly mobilizing this base station frequencies to the number required by this base station frequencies, the base station selects the lowest of several lowest ratio of base stations as a second selection criterion using the respective stations of the degree of difficulty and select the base station with the highest degree of difficulty, in the absence of unambiguous selection of the second selection criterion base station as the third criterion of selection of the base station use the sum of the probabilities of interference to the base station due to the use of the same frequency and/or adjacent frequencies relative to other base stations, and selects the base station with the highest Riteria selection carry out the selection at random from the remaining stations.17. The method according to p. 1 or one of the PP.3 to 15, characterized in that the sampling frequency in accordance with the second stage of the first criterion of selection frequency is set this frequency to the highest of the following classes: class 1 permitted on the selected side of the station frequencies include those to highlight the selected base station for the relationship of the maximum number of jointly mobilizing this base station frequencies to the number required by this base station frequencies selected base station would give a value less than 1; for class 2 of the remaining frequencies are those, highlight the selected base station for the relationship of the maximum number of jointly mobilizing another base station frequencies among even this required another base station frequencies would give a value less than 1; class 3 includes all other are still not distributed, however, approved for use in the communication system frequency, in the absence of clear selection on the first selection criterion frequency as the second criterion takes into account the potential increase in the value of a function rates mutual interference calculated by the values of the probability of mutual interference between pre-selected base station and on the recorded values of the probability of mutual interference, and as a third criterion for selection of frequency is the frequency of occurrence of previously produced discharge frequency, and select the frequency with the lowest frequency, and in the absence of a clear selection for the third criterion carry out the selection at random from the remaining frequencies.18. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 16, characterized in that the probability of mutual interference account within a range of values lying between the recorded minimum value and maximum value.

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