The salt derivatives of caprolactam as modifiers of clay
(57) Abstract:Salt used when obtaining the modified layered silicate in the production of paints, coating of enamel, plaster, household paints, ceramic industry for obtaining anhydrous molding compounds, as active fillers in polymers and rubbers, for lubricating and cooling fluids, drilling fluids oil-based. It is proposed to use salt caprolactam derivatives of General formula
< / BR>where n = 1oC5;
X-anion of a mineral acid (Cl-NO-3,HSO-4)
as modifiers of clay. Achieved the expansion of raw materials to receipt of organogels and improvement of their hydrophobic properties. table 1. The invention relates to the production of modified layered silicates and can be used in the manufacture of paints, coating of enamel, plaster, household paints, ceramic industry for obtaining anhydrous molding compounds, as active fillers in polymers and rubbers, for lubricating and cooling fluids, drilling fluids oil-based.As modifiers that improve the oleophilic Svistunova as a modifier of the clay (ed.mon. USSR N 757497, class C 04 B 33/04, 1980) salts of the General formula
< / BR>where R is a hydrocarbon radical with the number of carbon atoms of 5 to 50;
n is 1 to 5;
X is the anion of an acid,
which are saltlike interaction products polyisobutylene anhydride with polyethylenepolyamine.The drawbacks of such modifiers clays are their high cost, scarcity of raw materials, the complexity of synthesis and low hydrophobic properties of clays based on them.The invention is aimed at expanding the resource base to produce organogen, reducing their costs, improving their hydrophobic properties, recycling industrial waste, used as a modifier of the clay.This is achieved by using as a modifier of the clay products of acid waste treatment production of caprolactam, and it still bottoms from the distillation of the caprolactam (CODC), the General formula
< / BR>where n = 1 to 5;
X is the anion of a mineral acid
as modifiers of clay.COCK are a mixture of oligomers of caprolactam with a molecular mass of 200 - 800.E. The average composition of the polymer, wt.%:
Caprolactam - 10 - 15
Oligomer - 85 - 90
Under normal conditions the/SUP>C, color buff.When interacting COCK with mineral acid (H2SO4, HCl, HNO3they become sustainable homogeneous dense mediobrunneus mass, capable of a long time not to crystallize, with density 1325 -1357 kg/m3and the electrical conductivity (1,5 - 3,2)10-31/OSM.When the processing of clay these modifiers is obtained a modified clay which exhibits hydrophobic properties: clay goes into a diesel oil after stirring in a mixture of oil - water, the amount of wetting on the surface of this clay is 0,61<cos <-0,57; the swelling properties of the clay in a mixture of toluene (90%) - methanol (10%) above the known similar (see table).The mechanism of interaction of modified CODC with the surface of the clay can be represented as follows.Molecules COCK adsorption forces of interaction involved in the interlayer space of layered silicates, such as clays, for example, montmorillonite group. Fixies on the surface of clay particles (clay plates), they prevent the adsorption of water molecules, and displace it from the interlayer space. As a result of these processes, the clay loses its inherent is a basis of sustainable organspende.Upon contact of the treated clay modified COCK with diesel oil is the Association of hydrocarbon chains and dramatically increases the swelling properties of the clay. Filtration analysis showed that the filtration rate of suspensions with the modified clay is increased three times in comparison with similar (see table). A high degree of water loss has a significant positive value to create compositions bystrovytsia ceramics for the production of sanitary products, pottery, ceramics radio.Filtration analysis was performed using a Buchner funnel under vacuum (1 kg/cm2), on the basis of these data determined the degree of water loss (see table).Thus, the resulting chemical structure which is a modification of known chemical compounds.The absence in the patent and scientific literature on this and related fields of technology the same or similar to the technical nature of the solution makes the invention satisfies the criterion of "novelty". The study of other known technical solutions in this field of technology features that distinguish the claimed invention from the prototype is matelski level."Example 1. In a three-neck flask equipped with stirrer, reflux condenser, dropping funnel and thermometer, was loaded 100 century. including COCK warmed up to melt temperature and was added dropwise with stirring for 0.5 hours 73 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid, and then the temperature was raised to 110oC and led the process, maintaining a pressure of 600 - 620 mm RT.article The process ends when obtaining a homogeneous dense mediabase mass.Example 2. For modification used Veselovsky clay (sanitary products). In a flask equipped with stirrer, thermometer and reflux condenser, was placed 40 century. including the product obtained in example 1, and under stirring and heated to 100oC was made, for example, 80 century, including clay (because the amount of clay does not affect the objective and results), was stirred for one hour at t = 100oC, after which the clay was filtered off, washed on filter with the precipitate with water. The precipitate was dried at 105oC (to constant weight).Hydrophobic properties of the samples of clays characterized by the following indicators: the swelling properties in organic solvents, the amount of wetting (COS ) water surface obtained clay, the degree of water loss (filter).As can be seen from the table, clay modified with the proposed modifier, its properties are not inferior to foreign analogue - Benton 18oC.Because the modifier is obtained from the solid waste production of caprolactam, the cost is significantly lower than purchased abroad. Production modifier on the basis of mineral acids is much simpler and does not require scarce, expensive components, and clay, obtained after processing, has a high degree of hydrophobicity -0,61 < COS < -0,57 that corresponds to the purpose of the invention.The proposed modifier allows you to expand the raw material base, to abandon the fat of the raw materials to get cheap domestic product with hydrophobic properties, is not inferior to the best foreign analogues. Salt caprolactam derivatives of General formula
< / BR>where n = 1 to 5;
X-anion of a mineral acid (Cl-NO-3, HSO-4)
as modifiers of clay.
NH - OC6H13where R is H, CH3with insect - and aerorepublica activity
NH - OR1where R=C3H7when R1=C2H5-C4H9with insectrepellent activity
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabrication of activated bentonites for drilling muds and other applications wherein use of activated bentonite is envisaged. Process according to invention comprises preliminarily crushing bentonite clay followed by jointly grinding clay fraction 0.071-0.08 mm with sodium-containing activator, in particular rhomboidal soda crystal hydrate Na2CO3·H2O or naturally occurring thermonatrite mineral, said activator being measured out for 0.5-1.0 h in quantities of 1.5-2.0% of the weight of clay and said soda crystal hydrate being prepared by dehydration of soda ash first in autoclave at 60-70°C and then in air over a period of at least 48 h.
EFFECT: enhanced bentonite activation efficiency and improved quality and activity of clay powder.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the technology of silicates and relates to ceramic mixtures, which can be used for making floor tiles. The ceramic mixture consists of the following percentage mass ratios of the components: clay - 49-55%; pearlite - 5-7%; bentonite - 15-20%; magnesite - 17-20%; alumina - 5-7%.
EFFECT: increased wear-resistance of the tiles.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the technology of silicates and relates to ceramic mixtures for production of electrical products. The ceramic mixture consists of the following percentage mass ratios of the components: alumina - 23.0-27.0%; kaolin - 13.0-17.0%; portsherd - 5.0-7.0%; pearlite - 3.0-5.0%; spodumene - 8.0-10.0%.
EFFECT: increased strength of the product made from the ceramic mixture.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to ceramic mixtures and can be used for making ceramic products, for example, face tiles. The ceramic mixture consists of the following components in the given percentage mass ratios: kaolin 46-50; clay 16-20; wastes from marble production 6-10; stoneware 13-17; dolomite 3-4; wastes from enriching apatite ore 5-7; calcium borate 1-2.
EFFECT: increased durability of the ceramic products.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the sphere of production of glass ceramics used for external and internal wall decoration. According to the method for producing glass ceramics, which includes preparing and dispensing broken glass and argil, preparing a mixture thereof, forming base coat, applying decorative layer and baking out, the base coat is formed of, at least, two mixture layers containing (in mass, %): broken glass bolted through the grate № 063, 60-90; argil bolted through the grain № 1.25, 10-40. In every next layer, the content of broken glass exceeds that in the previous layer by 10 %. Broken glass of similar type bolted through the grain № 1.25 is applied as a decorative layer.
EFFECT: improved homogeneity of base coat and glass ceramics decorative layer.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the composition of ceramic bodies, which are used in the production of facing plates. The ceramic body is composed of, mass %: kaolin 48.0-56.0; bentonite 10.0-14.0; loess 6.0-8.0; potsherd 8.0-12.0; phosphorite 6.0-8.0; perlite 6.0-8.0; quartz 4.0-6.0.
EFFECT: strengthening the hot plate.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to ceramic mixtures and can be used in making electrical, construction and decorative household products. The ceramic mixture contains the following components in mass.%: low-melting clay 20-25, high-melting clay 20-25, clay wastes from treating zircon-ilmenite ores 30-40; spodumene 10-15; pearlite 5-10.
EFFECT: increased bending strength.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industry of building materials, namely, to composition of ceramic mass, which can be used in manufacturing facing tile. Ceramic mass consists of, mass % : kaolin 68-70; bentonite 4-6; loess 4-6; ceramic tile 15-18; alumocalcium slime 4-6; dolomite 1-2.
EFFECT: increase of strength of products, made from ceramic mass.
SUBSTANCE: ceramic mass contains, in mass %: clay 17.0-25.0; kaolin 20.0-25.0; arkose 23.0-25.0; perlite 10.0-15.0; potsherd 10.0-15.0; calcium borate 1.0-2.0; apatite ore benefication waste 5.0-7.0.
EFFECT: increase in products durability.
FIELD: technological processes; chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for preparation of mud fluids, adsorbents and carriers, for catalysts on the basis of clays, for purification of oil products, oils, juices, and also in other areas of gel powder application. Method of gel powders preparation from bentonitic, palygorskite or kaolin clay includes preparation of clay raw materials until preset humidity and size, preliminary grinding, after which raw materials are averaged out by size of not more than 15 mm. Then drying is carried out in horizontally installed cylindrical drying drum in rotation mode and direct-flow motion of coolant flow. Drying is performed in coolant flow, which arrives with velocity of not more than 800 m3/hr, and temperature at the inlet and outlet of drying drum accordingly 140-150°C and 60-70°C with volume of raw materials supply of not more than 4-6 t/hr. Drying drum is used with length that provides temperature drop of 2.8-3.0°C/m by length. Prepared product with humidity of at least 9-10% is subjected to crushing till grain size of not more than 5 mm, powder is sifted with grain size of not more than 2.6 mm and subjected to disintegration at high-speed disintegrator with its averaging till thinness of finished product grind by means of additional grinding, and residue after sifting is subjected to additional three-stage crushing to obtain thinness of finished product grind. Process line is also suggested for method implementation.
EFFECT: increase of process efficiency and production of gel powders with high quality.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemistry of lactams' derivatives.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with obtaining N-(2-chloroalkyl)- and N-alkyl-aromatic derivatives of lactams of the following general formula: , where R=H, Cl, R'=(CH2)3, (CH2)5 which could be modifiers of unsaturated carbon-chain caoutchoucs and rubber mixtures based upon them. The suggested method for obtaining the mentioned N-substituted lactams deals with combining N-chlorolactams and allyl benzene, moreover, as N-lactams one should apply either N-chlorobutyrolactam or N-chlorocaprolactam. The process should be carried out at molar ratio of N-chlorolactam to allyl benzene being equal to 1-1.15:1, at availability of a catalyzer as mono-tertiary-butylperoxy-α-methylmethoxyethoxyethyl ether of ethylene glycol taken at the quantity of 0.4-4.0% weight, in the medium of inert solvent, for example, chlorobenzene at 100-125° C for about 15-20 min. The innovation enables to shorten terms of reaction by 20-30 times, simplify the way for obtaining target products and widen the assortment of the obtained compounds, as well.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.