The way abalak of rice cultivation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in the cultivation of rice and other grain crops grown in the conditions of irrigated agriculture. Pre-align the microrelief checks on stubble, hoe checks by ploughing and harrowing of winter tillage, produce layout surface. Before planting make a chemical means of weed control, and seeding is performed with simultaneous local application of mineral fertilizers. In the phase of growing season end of the milk - early dough stage of the crop is treated with a solution of mineral fertilizers with the addition of microdose amine salt of 2,4 D. In the early phase of tillering carry out the introduction of vegetative biomass Azolla in the amount of 3-5 kg per 1 hectare Proposed method allows to reduce the growing season and increase the productivity of rice. 8 table. The invention relates to the technology of rice cultivation and can be used for a number of crops grown in irrigated conditions, Zemledelie.Technology of rice cultivation at the present stage includes a well-defined set of operations and receptions, obukowin A. X.. Aleshin N. E. "Theory and practice of application of micronutrients in rice", Maikop, 1969, S. 313), providing pre-soaking the rice seeds in the solution of micronutrients such as Zn, Co, Cu, etc. Along with this option the make of various trace elements in the soil before sowing together with mineral fertilizers and silicon. The minerals used to make, cause druzhnost seedling and tillering of rice plants.The disadvantages of the method are the overall duration of the vegetation period, regardless of the sort that leads to loss of yield when harvesting in adverse weather conditions. The use of micronutrients does not contribute to a significant increase in rice yield.There is a method of rice cultivation, which consists in the treatment of rice plants with a chemical - Riboflavin (see, for example, and.with. 899033, A 01 N 63/00, 1982). By their chemical nature Riboflavin is a vitamin, competing with gibberellic acid for apparment flavins oxidase, is able to suppress its action that causes branching and, thereby, to strengthen the productive tillering, i.e., to increase the productivity of rice.The disadvantages of this method are the high cost of PR is astani rice.There is a method of rice cultivation, we adopted as a prototype (see, for example, and.with. 974950, A 01 B 79/02, 1982) consists in preparing the rice paddies on the ground with the preliminary alignment of the micro-relief checks on stubble; pre-sowing application of mineral fertilizers and herbicides, planting rice seeds pre-treated with substances that stimulate germination, initial Bay cheques permanent water layer; the lower layer of water after germination; the introduction of mineral fertilizers; the regulation layer on phases of the growing season of rice; the implementation of additional treatment of crops with a solution of mineral fertilizers with the addition of microdose (15 - 20 g) amine salt of 2, 4D with a solution flow rate of 50 to 200 l/ha in the phase of growing season end of the milk - early dough stage, constant water discharge at the onset of ripening grain; drainage checks, cleaning rice.The disadvantages of this method of rice cultivation are the complexity of the complex technological operations harvesting rice in the optimal phases of the growing season of rice) terms due to the weak enabling climatic conditions in autumn, the need to give priority to the cultivation of varieties with the least period vegetatively task is achieved by at the beginning of tillering of rice in check make Azolla in the form of vegetative green mass. The Azolla water fern. During the growing season of rice to its full maturation of Azolla vegetates in check, increasing their biomass almost 600 times.Example 1. Studies on the use of the fern - Azolla conducted in the field in 1995 - 1996, experimental irrigated area Unionise.As object of research was selected rice Spalchik, the most widely used in the Krasnodar region. The vegetation period of 110 - 115 days. Resistant to lodging, pyricularia and soil salinization. Short, responsive to nitrogen fertilizer.Carried out preliminary alignment of the micro-relief checks on stubble.After reaching physical maturity soil plowing has been ploughed to a depth of 12 to 14 cm and have shallow tillage to a depth of 8 - 10 cm After drying of the soil was carried out by the layout of the surface of the check to the deviation from the mean plane does not exceed 5.0 see Then produced meats cheque peripheral grooves to a depth of 0.3 - 1.2 cm, cutting bestrustees drainage to a depth of 0.4 - 0.5 m After this was carried out by secondary tillage soil herbicide ordram 5,0 kg/ha of nutrient content, with the incorporation into the soil to a depth of 0 - 5 cm 2 - 1 day produced seed at the rate of 200 seeds - 210 kg/ha together with local application of nitrogen, in the amount of 80 to 85 wt.% and phosphate - full dose of fertilizers. Sowing was carried out on 28 - 30 April. Shoots were obtained when shortened flooding regime. When the rice plants 2 to 3 leaves were made 15 to 20 wt.% nitrogen fertilizers and created a layer of water 5 to 7, seeIn the beginning of tillering rice contributed vegetative biomass Azolla in the amount of 0.4 kg per check, with an area of 1 haThis recorded the occurrence of individual phenophases of rice in the control conditions (growing by the method prototype) and in the experiment.The results are shown in table. 1 and 2.Example 2. All process operations similar to those described in example 1, but at the tillering stage of rice contributed vegetative biomass Azolla in the amount of 3 kg per 1 hectare presents experimental Results with table. 3, 4.Example 3. All process operations similar to those described in example 1, but at the tillering stage of rice contributed vegetative biomass Azolla in the amount of 4 kg per 1 hectare experimental Results are presented in table. 5, 6.Example 4. All process is between 5 kg per 1 hectare The results of the experiment are presented in table. 7, 8.As can be seen from the results of the experiments presented in examples 1 to 4, the best is example 3, in which at the tillering stage of rice contributed vegetative mass Azolla in the amount of 4 kg per 1 ha of the Proposed method in comparison with the known allows you to shorten the growing period of rice for 7 to 10 days and to increase the productivity of rice in 1.5 times. Method of rice cultivation, including a preliminary alignment of the micro-relief checks on stubble, soil checks by plowing and tilling of winter tillage, leveling checks, pre-making chemicals to control weeds and planting seeds with simultaneous local application of mineral fertilizers, processing crops in the phase of growing season end of the milk - early dough stage with a solution of mineral fertilizers with the addition of microdose amine salt of 2,4-D, characterized in that in the early phase of tillering rice carry out the introduction of vegetative biomass Azolla in the amount of 3 - 5 kg per 1 hectare
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cultivating soil by forming ridges after germination of weedage and providing subsequent cultivation procedures by breaking formerly formed ridges and forming new ridges; providing presowing soil treatment by embedding germinated weedage, stubble and other plant remains axially of ridges and simultaneously introducing microbiological humus-forming preparation; 20-40 days after introducing of humus-forming preparation (according to first version), breaking formerly formed ridges and forming new ones and simultaneously sowing late crops; according to second version, providing sowing of farm crops simultaneously with embedding of germinated weedage and introducing of humus-forming preparation. Methods allow total of active soil temperatures during presowing period to be increased owing to composting effect.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of weedage control and improved soil fertility.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, amelioration method used for creating of fertile layer on low-humus sandy soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying lime and organic fertilizer into humus-depleted soil, said organic fertilizer being introduced in the form of ground plant remains and/or other forms in an amount of up to 40% the volume of ridges by distributing said fertilizer in furrows between ridges; forming ridges in the course of presowing treatment; applying layer of colmatant providing total volume of at least 20% the volume of pores of formed fertile layer; forming ridges with following breaking of formerly created ridges; embedding organic fertilizer and simultaneously applying biologically active preparation; 30-40 days later, reapplying organic fertilizer; reforming ridges and simultaneously irrigating ground organic with biologically active preparation; sowing seeds of cultured crops.
EFFECT: reduced time for creating on humus-depleted sandy soil of fertile layer adapted for immediate agricultural application, reduced wind and water erosion and provision for forming of recreational zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing sorts of soya with different ripening time; simultaneously sowing sorts of soya of at least four different ripening time in adjacent rows, with early ripening sorts being combined with late ripening sorts; setting seeding norm for early ripening sorts of soya in the range of 600,000-650,000 pieces/hectare and for late ripening sorts of soya in the range of 400,000-450,000 pieces/hectare.
EFFECT: improved quality of seeds and reduced seed losses.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protection of wheat crops from complex of pests with reduced application of insecticides.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming entomofauna of crop agrocenosis by accumulating pests on restricted territory for creating attracting strips of spring wheat of two sowing periods with break-off time between said periods of five to seven days around winter wheat strips; providing feed stock conveyor system for complex of pests; applying insecticides only on basic winter wheat strips and attracting strips of spring wheat strips, with basic spring wheat strips being excluded from treatment process.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in protecting of sown wheat crops by accumulating of pests on restricted territory, reduced consumption of insecticides and provision for keeping grain yield and grain quality.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying alternative organic fertilizer into soil, with alternative organic fertilizer being straw used in an amount of 4.5-5.6 t/hectare and green mass of stubble green manure crop (lupine) used in an amount of 7.9-8.6 t/hectare; plowing-in said organic fertilizer into soil in the autumn.
EFFECT: increased farm crop yield owing to increased soil fertility, provision for obtaining of ecologically safe product, and reduced labor consumption.
1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, fertilizer irrigation of farm crops with sewage water or liquid fertilizer.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting furrow by means of soil cutting tool; feeding water or liquid fertilizer into furrow and covering furrow. Uniform distribution of fertilizer applied to compound intersected relief is provided by forming web of height smaller than plowing depth by 0.4-0.7 time before supplying of water or liquid fertilizer into open furrow. Apparatus has frame with plow bodies equipped with tine having share and moldboard and fixed on frame. Web forming device mounted on frame behind outer plow body is made in the form of rotor with vertical shaft of rotation and blades for moving soil from ridges of adjacent plowed strips. Apparatus has drive. Rotor drive is kinematically connected and aligned with frame carrier wheel.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of liquid fertilizer applied into soil and equalized plant mass over the entire area of irrigated soil, increased soil fertility and improved ecology control by preventing environment from contamination.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, agricultural engineering, pharmaceutical, confectionery, canned food, chemical, perfume, food-processing, tobacco industry and some special branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mowing and grinding licorice vegetative buds and accompanying plants in association of low-productivity licorice undergrowth by means of haying machines to produce cuttings; while mowing, uniformly distributing ground mass over surface of mown strip; providing marker lines and placing planting material in narrow strips at predetermined spacing, with high-quality cuttings of 4-5 years licorice rootages of 12-18 mm diameter and 18-25 cm length being used as planting material; mellowing strips and cutting inclined slits by means of tillage tool; during advancement of machine, moving planting material into inclined slits; simultaneously with planting of cuttings, providing grooves for receiving of mineral fertilizer in surface of inclined wall of slit by means of slitter tine equipped with tiered cutters made in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds; placing nitrogenous fertilizer at norm of 0.2-0.6 kg/running meter in upper tier and phosphorous fertilizer at norm of 1.3-1.8 kg/running meter in middle tier; introducing into lower layer potash fertilizer at norm of 0.8-1.6 kg/running meter for development of plants at second and third years of life; after introducing of mineral fertilizer and placing of cuttings, compacting mellowed strips above inclined slits by means of ring-lug roller sections. Nozzle of pneumatic pipeline is arranged above each cutter. Each pneumatic pipeline is individually connected with seeding unit for withdrawal from fertilizer box of nitrogenous, phosphorous or potash fertilizer. Seeding units are kinematically connected with supporting wheel. Each pneumatic pipeline of tine-cutter is connected with pressure cavity of high-pressure fan equipped with hydraulic drive.
EFFECT: increased yield of green mass and provision for applying of mineral fertilizer to different soil depth.
3 cl, 13 dwg