Wave power station

 

(57) Abstract:

The power plant is designed to generate electricity by using the energy of waves. The device comprises a floating body with a generator and located on a horizontal shaft floats. Posted on pontoons are located transversely parallel rack with supports under the shaft. On each shaft is installed with a minimum clearance floats in the form of a hollow semi-cylinders are equipped with additional weight and bulk ledge. This next parallel shafts are connected gear. Shafts, arranged in a line on opposite sides of the pontoon with the drive mechanisms to the generator, also interconnected and have a common gear, gearbox and generator. The design of the plant allows to obtain an increase in power taken from 1 m2water. 4 C.p. f-PI, 4 Il.

The invention relates to energy, particularly for electricity generation by energy from sea waves by a vertical rise and fall of waves.

Known wave power plant, and.with. N 1373855 F 03 B 13/12 containing a floating body with a generator, Orig submerged under the water level. To increase the efficiency of each chamber is provided with an additional air turbine and a hydraulic pump connected with the float through the endless chain of transmission.

The main disadvantage of this setup is the limited capacity associated with the slow rise of the float is equal to the rise of the waves, and the fact that the chain is backed by a limited buoyancy force on the float equal to half of the volume of the float because the weight of the float is equal to 0.5 g/cm3. A large number of mechanisms and transmission devices complicates the installation and leads to significant power losses, reducing the effect of the use of the float. Known wave power (RF patent N 2049925, CL 6 F 03 B 13/12, 6 F 03 B 13/22 from 06.02.1992 g) containing a floating body with a generator, an air turbine and Anoprienko cameras in the form of submerged open end of the cups supplied inside floats G-shaped, mounted on a horizontal shaft with the possibility of unilateral rotation, with one of the projections float longer or heavier than the other, all the shafts are interconnected, which increases the gearbox is connected with the latter and the shaft of the air turbine through overrunning clutches, and the shaft turbine low efficiency and hardware complexity. This is because due to the short-term impact of waves on the compressed air in the cells cannot pass an entire compressed in the chamber air to the air turbine, while increasing the flow area of the duct and the turbine will decrease the air pressure in the chamber and, accordingly, the output power from the turbine. G-shaped float is not possible to effectively use the space in part of the increase in the buoyancy force and creates an even greater hydraulic resistance during the rotation of its tabs.

Furthermore, the design of the wave power plant using the energy of compressed air is very complicated to manufacture and to operate and requires large capital cost of the turbine manufacturer.

The wave power plant according to the patent of Russian Federation N 2049925 adopted for the prototype.

The objective of the invention is to simplify the construction and increase the power of wave power plants. This is achieved by the fact that in the wave power plant containing a floating body with a generator located on a horizontal shaft with the possibility of unilateral rotation floats, occupying in the water position of unstable equilibrium, rolling in the unbalanced state of al to a generator, the floating body is made in the form of United not less than two narrow pontoons spaced apart across the width and provided with a top transversely arranged parallel to each other flyovers along each bottom rack mounted coaxially brackets with supports under the shaft, the floats are located between all the pillars of the series with the minimum end gap precluding jamming of the floats during their relative rotation, on the output ends of the shafts mounted a gear wheel connected directly with the drive gear on the input shaft or through increasing gear, the float is made in the form of a hollow sealed half and equipped with additional cargo and located on opposite axial sides surround the protrusion in the form of additional float, and the moment created by the weight volume of the protrusion is greater (approximately 5-10%) of the moment created by the additional load, and the torque generated by buoyancy when immersed in water, one volume of the ledge more than the moment created by the weight of the volumetric projection, unbalanced effects on the float water and air flow and friction forces at the start of rotation of the float.

When ia gears and install shared gearbox and generator, and floats on the connected shafts are arranged symmetrically, the output ends of coaxially arranged shafts racks placed in one line are connected to each other and have a shared gear, gearbox, and generator, surround the protrusion floats made integral with the half by lengthening the circumference of the half, the front in the direction of rotation of the float surface volumetric projection made in the form of a narrowing of the wedge.

In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the wave power plant of Fig. 2 shows the top view of Fig. 3 shows separately the float, and Fig. 4 its surface.

This marked the angle of rotation of the float in the current position, Qabout- the buoyancy force on the float in the initial position, P is the weight of the float, hp- the shoulder from the weight force of the float, Cin- point center of mass of the water in the volume of the submerged portion of the float, Q - eject force at the current position, hin- shoulder buoyancy force, Psthe volumetric weight of the ledge, Pd- weight extra weight, YStdistance from axis to center of mass of the water in the volume of the submerged portion of the float (for a sector with an angle

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YSPdistance from axis to center of mass pop is the length of the float, R is the outer radius of the float.

Wave power plant consists of a buoyant hull, made in the form of spaced across the width from each other by not less than two narrow pontoons (Fig. 1 shows 3 pontoon 1, 2 and 3), interconnected beams 4 and 5. The pontoons 1 and 3 is made in the form of a hollow sealed tube, and the average pontoon 2 has a box-like shape to accommodate the drive mechanisms. On the pontoons installed across them and parallel to each other racks 6, supporting their ends on the pontoons. Along each of the racks 6 are installed from bottom coaxially bracket 7 with the supports under the shaft 8. Between all the pillars of the bracket 6 mounted on the shaft floats 9 with the possibility of unilateral rotation (due to the use of overrunning or hrapovic mechanisms).

The floats 9 are arranged consecutively on the shaft with minimum end gap precluding jamming of the floats during their relative rotation from temperature and power strains. On the output ends of the shafts 8 are mounted toothed wheels 10, which are in mesh directly with the gear wheels (Fig. not shown) on the input shaft of the Overdrive gears 11 or through additional Overdrive gear (suasan with the shaft of the generator 12 (reducer 11 set if necessary, it is possible to transfer to the generator without reduction gear).

The floats 9 (see Fig. 3) made in the form of sealed hollow semicylinders. When they are equipped with a volumetric projection 13 (above the axis OX), is made as a separate element or at the same time by half, as shown in Fig. 3 (volume ledge made by lengthening the circumference of the half on an angle from the axis OX) and additional education sector. On the opposite side of the inside of the float is determined by an additional load 14 so that the moment created by the weight volume of the protrusion 13, was equal to or greater than (approximately 5-10%) of the moment created by the additional load 14, and the buoyancy force on a one-dimensional projection 13 are dipped in water, must create torque, more torque created by the weight of the volumetric projection, chaotic and unbalanced effects on the float water and air flow and friction forces acting at the start of rotation of the float. Surround the protrusion 13 is initiating element that outputs a float from a state of unstable equilibrium in an unbalanced condition with accelerated rotation of the float (ball) with full immersion of the float into the water.

is Amnesty. At the same time to ensure greater uniformity of rotation of the generator, as well as minimizing the use of mechanisms of transmission (gears, gearboxes, couplings, and so on) the output ends of adjacent shafts racks in pairs or more are connected by meshing gears on the output ends of the shafts between the installation of the common gearbox, generator and Overdrive gear and floats on the linked kinematically interconnected shafts are arranged symmetrically relative to the plane passing through the middle point between the shafts. In this case, the volumetric projections floats on the same shaft will be located on the opposite side with respect to the location of the volume projections floats on the other shaft. This arrangement of floats provides the rotation shaft kinematically connected in different directions. When the number of pontoons over two to ensure greater uniformity of rotation of the generators and reduce the number of mechanisms, actuators and generators piers and shafts on adjacent pontoons come in one line. In this case, the output ends of the rack on the adjacent pontoons are connected (using the clutch) with IP the th transmission, overall, gear box and generator (as shown in Fig. 1).

To reduce the resistance of the water when submerged float in the water when he makes a rotational movement from the upper position (after tumbling) front in the direction of rotation of the float surface 15 made in the form of a narrowing of the wedge (Fig. 4). The floats 8 are mounted on the shaft with a gap and transfer the torque to the shaft through the overrunning clutch, consisting of a wedge-shaped space 16 (formed of a curved surface 17 of the hollow shaft and the cylindrical surface of the hole of the float) and spring fingers 18 installed inside the wedge-shaped space 16. Perhaps a pair of floats with the shaft using a ratchet mechanism consisting of a ratchet wheel rigidly mounted on the shaft, and a pawl mounted on the float (Fig. not shown). For reducing the length of the shaft ratchet wheel and dog it is advisable to position inside the groove of the float is made coaxial with the holes float from one or two of the ends of the float.

For guaranteed retention floats in the moment of crowding waves from pooratakse expansion of production capabilities in terms of eliminating the need for very precise manufacture of floats, it is advisable to ensure that the moment created by the weight of a volumetric element, obviously superior to the moment created by the weight of additional cargo. In this case, to keep the floats from turning in the opposite direction under the effect of this difference in points at the level of the rear surface 19 of floats 9 are installed with a slight overlap the rear surface of the float spring-loaded movable lugs 20, pivoted on a fixed rod 21 connected with overpasses. Above the movable lugs 20 secured to the rods fixed stops 22 located outside the zone of rotation of the float and movable holding lugs 20 from lifting up. Because when submerged float in the water before flooding volume ledge unbalanced torque acting in the opposite direction on the float, insignificant, and the impact strength of float bottom, the movable stop 20 is negligible.

This allows the lugs 20 small mass and volume, and use the spring with a small force of compression. Therefore, when operating the rotation of the float and its impact on movable lugs 20, already at the top, they are easy to turn, plunging into the water, and do not have much resistance float the data structures of the rotation stops. In case of equality of points generated volumetric ledge and additional weight can eliminate the use of movable stop 20 and the fixed stop 22. But it is necessary to provide a gradual increase in the right part of the float from the axis OY, for example, due to the gradual increase in the length of the float. When immersed in water, the right side of the float will operate a large buoyancy force than the left, which will provide a guaranteed rotation of the float in the direction of bulk ledge. But in this case it is impossible to ensure the maximum potential energy of the float, and its rotation will be adequate water level rise in a wave.

The floating body is equipped with stretch marks 23 with the possibility of changing their length (for example, by means of the winch). This allows you to change the position of the body relative to the direction of the waves to ensure a smoother loading shaft torque from floats, angled toward the front of the waves. There may be other ways to change the angular position of the body, for example, using air or water keel. For regulating the position of the floats relative to the water level at the Assembly plant are used jacks and strip the towers estelina water level, and adjustment of the precipitation of the body to produce by injection or pumping in the pontoons.

Possible use case for this additional pontoons by raising or lowering them into the water at a certain depth. For shelter equipment from the weather and create normal climatic conditions in the work staff provides covered space 24. A box-shaped pontoon 2 closes above the hatches (Fig. not marked). The operation of the wave power plant is as follows. In the original position, when there are no waves, all the floats 9 occupy the lowest position according to Fig. 3, however, they can touch and not to touch the water and can even be slightly submerged in the water (until the water level, which in the process freely falling from the extreme upper position of the float creates unbalanced moment, even when submerged portion of the float into the water up to this level, and float freely return to its original position, being partially flooded.

The difference in the moments M of the weight of the volume of the protrusion 13 and the additional cargo 14 presses the float 9 to a rolling stop 20, and that in turn is pressed against the fixed stop 22. If arr is I wave). When this occurs eject force Q, equal to the weight of water in the volume of the submerged float (Archimedes law).

Since the buoyancy forces acting on both sides of the axis OY equal, the resulting buoyancy force Q passes vertically through the axis of rotation of the float and does not create torque when submerged float to the axis OX.

The force of the weight of the float P also passes through the axis OX, only down and not create torque, except for the above moment M generated by the difference of the moments of the weight of the volume of the protrusion 13, and the weight of additional cargo uravnoveshivaetsia reaction Rpacksupport from the stops 20 and 21.

When submerged float above the axis OX flooded surround the protrusion 13, resulting in the additional torque that exceeds the difference M in the moments of the weight of the volume of the protrusion and the additional cargo.

As a result, the float begins to turn, jump position of unstable equilibrium and tends to make a somersault and jump out with acceleration out of the water.

The buoyancy force on the left side of the axis OY, will rapidly decrease, and the right side daystudy power, equal to the weight of the displaced water in the amount of half of the cross section of the float. When the rotation angle OF=90oeject force on the left hand side becomes 0, and since angle = 90odecreases the buoyancy force on the right side and becomes = 0, when the back surface 19 reaches the OX axis with opposite sides of the axis OY. All of this happens instantly, with acceleration, float emerges completely from the water with the acceleration. This effect is created due to the shape of the float. In the process of turning the left side of the float constantly crosses the position of unstable equilibrium and pumps a volume in the right part, compensating completely out of the water float throughout the rotation angle 90oand thus preserving the value of the buoyancy force on the right side. From mechanics we know that when the body is constantly on the force - it moves with acceleration. But such a sudden turn of the float at first prevents the force of inertia and resistance system drive shaft, gear wheels, gear box and generator, which are just beginning first slow rotation. Thanks to the simultaneous impact of several floats generates sufficient torque to rotate the shaft. First speed urusei rotate with shaft speed. However, they do not have time to completely out of the water, as the level of wave begins to fall, and floats back to its original position. The shaft continues rotating by inertia and the fact that they are other floats, and do not hinder the return of the previous floats to the original position due to the overrunning clutch or ratchet mechanism.

At a time when some floats make idle on the shaft, the other floats at this time are in an active stroke, and other floats are in the intermediate state. With increasing speed of the shaft floats increase the speed of rotation of the shafts. If this floats with every turn more and more emerges from the water, and the shaft speed approaches the speed of roll floats freely from the shaft condition. The floats already time to fully emerge from the water before the fall of the level of wave and take extreme upper position. At this point, the front surface 15 of floats acts on the movable stop 20, press it down and submerged in water. Low wave floats continue to rotate to the original position adequately decay waves.

This contributes to the difference between the moments M of the weight of the volume in the direction of its initial position. Thus due to the inertia of motion of the floats get its original position and release the movable stop 20, which is returned by spring action to its original position. At this time, the floats because of a difference of moments M perform oscillatory motion back to the starting position and abutting the movable stop 20, which interacts with a fixed stop 22 stop in the initial position. The process is repeated for each float with the periodicity of crowding waves, depending on the amplitude of the wave: the higher the wave, the greater the period.

When the rotation shaft of the toothed wheel 10, is fixed to the output end of the shafts transmit torque directly to the toothed wheel on the input shaft 11 (or through additional Overdrive gear). From the gearbox 11 torque transmitted to the generator. In each rotation of the shaft in a wave power plant there comes a time when the impact of some of the latter group of floats shaft accelerates to such an extent that its rotational speed becomes equal to the average speed of rotation of the floats in the tumble. Floats cease to act on the shaft at any instant, and the shaft starts to lose speed. Pople who slows down; this supports the rotation speed of the shaft, close to the speed of rotation of the float in a free roll.

To calculate the power of Nwithwave power is necessary to produce first calculation of torque produced by a single float. To simplify the calculations we assume that the air space within the float starts from the axis of rotation, i.e., does not take into account the presence of the hub and the bore of the float (with a very slight increase in torque from the buoyancy force will kompensiruet the fact that the calculations will not be considered torque generated by the buoyancy force acting on the volume ledge when the flooding wave).

Consider the current position of the float (Fig. 3), in which he has made a turn from the position at some angle . In this case, the submerged portion of the float - half is a sector with angle 180o- (volume projection does not take into account). The center of mass of this part of the sector will be located at the point Cinon the radius, divide the sector in half, i.e., the coal sector. From the axis OY this is the angle

The float operates more weight force P, the center of gravity Cpwhich is located on the radius of the being who is the angle . Of mechanics known formula linking the kinetic energy of rotational motion (T - Toat the corner from = 0 to work a is performed during the same rotation from 0 to(T - To)=A, where

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where is the speed of rotational motion;

M - torque;

Io- moment of inertia.

To determine the work will prepare the first equation for torque.

The equation of moment acting on the float at the current position (by turning on some angle )

Mt= Qhin- Php- Pshs+ Pdhd= MTREN.< / BR>
To simplify the moments created by the weight of volume of the protrusion and the weight of additional cargo in the calculation does not take into account, because of their smallness. Also do not take into account the moments from the forces of friction, which is less than the time from the buoyancy force. For the sector at angle 180oIs:

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where is the specific weight of water,

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Here:

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Then A work created by the action of buoyancy force Q and the weight of the float P on the angle of rotation = 0 (initial position) to a = 180o(to release the float from the water), will be

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After converting the received

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After solving the resulting

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To define the following lookup get the

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as0= 00= 0, and

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after the lookup will provide equality

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here

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Since = , the equation capacities will be

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Consider the example of calculating the power of the wave power plant made according to Fig. 1, 2, and 3: 3 of the pontoon with 20 racks and pinions. On each shaft 20 floats aluminum alloy D16T ( = 2,7) . The sizes of floats: R = 1 m l = 1 m

When the sheet thickness of 5 mm, the weight of float P = mg = 70 kg First, let's calculate the power for a single float. This will take the specific gravity of sea water is 1025 kg/m3(based on the average conditional density T= 25). Based on equation (2), we obtain

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If this

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and

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When the rate of wave generation in average of 5.5 with power float is equal to

N = 60,66:5,5 = 11 kW.

Take the final efficiency of wave power station with regard to efficiency drives and all friction forces, including water, equal to 0.6, then the wave power plant of 400 floats will be

Nwith= 11 400 0,6=2640 kW,

While wave power plant will occupy an area . Eat power with 1 m2make 2640:800=3.3 kW/m2(compare with the removal of the power in the prototype 1.39 kW or wave electrostatic damage to the module, it should be noted, when a larger wave height (above the X-axis) increases the buoyancy force and the total reaches a maximum value when the float is sunk from the original lower position to a height of 2R. In this case, the float acts eject force during rotation of the float is not 180oand on the angle 270o.

However since the turn of the float 90o(from the original position) on the float will act neuravnoveshennaja buoyancy force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced in the amount of total float (i.e., 2 times). Respectively, and generated power wave power plant will be significantly higher than shown in the calculations. Annual output W of electricity, provided that the operation of the wave power plant, for example, 2/3 of the annual Fund of time (the rest of the lull or no waves required height) and excluding waves of greater height than the height of the flooded part of the float on the volume knob (data about the time of the wave power plant it is necessary to take specific statistical data of meteorological observations for specific areas) will be 15417600 kW/h = (2/3 264024365) At the price of 1 kW/hour 100 rubles income from the plant will be equal 1541,76 milleporina settlement with number of inhabitants 15417600: (3012)= 42826 people, i.e. the whole city (not including industrial consumption).

Related to integrated energy network of the wave power plant will significantly reduce the production of electricity is carried out by burning fuel resources. Based on data from years of weather observations for coastal waves specific areas can be constructed of a wave power plant with different sizes and number of floats.

This should be carried out to unify and set the optimal range of sizes of power plants (to reduce the cost of their manufacture). Stations can be installed at different distances from the coast.

Given the simplicity of the wave power plant, the cost of creating them will be repaid within one year. So, for example, presents the wave power plant will have such consolidation cost estimate of work to manufacture (in the prices of the beginning of 1997);

3 pontoon diameter of 3M, length of 15-18 m 10 million x 3 = 30 million,

20 racks with legs under the roll - 5 million x 20 = 100 million,

20 shafts - 5.5 x 20 = 110 million,

400 floats from aluminum. alloy (total weight of 30 tons) with overrunning clutches - 0.25 x 400 = 100 million,

5 gears - h = 125 million,

5 generators - h = 150 million is tion - 150 million,

Total: 810 million.

Comparing with the annual income 1541,76 million, it is safe to say that when this costing the station will pay for capital expenditures during the year.

Thus, the proposed wave power station allows you to more efficiently convert the kinetic energy of the rising wave in the potential energy of the buoyancy force acting on the floats, through the retention of floats in the lowest position up to their full immersion in water and instant full convert this potential energy into kinematic energy, and directly into a rotary movement of the floats. Eat power with 1 m2water 2-3 times, simplifies the design of the wave power plant through the use of kinematically simple elements that do not require high precision, and the use of conventional, utilized in machinery parts and finished products (gears, shafts, and overrunning couplings, gearboxes, generators).

Huge sea allow construction of a large number of such wave power plants and to reduce the number of power plants that burn topl environment.

High payback of capital costs (within 1-2 years) makes effective use of financial resources during construction of the proposed wave power plant.

1. Wave power plant containing a floating body with a generator located on a horizontal shaft with the possibility of unilateral rotation floats, occupying when immersed in water, the position of unstable equilibrium, rolling in an unbalanced condition and accelerated rotational motion in the moment of complete immersion of the float, increasing gearing connecting the shaft to a generator, characterized in that the floating body is made in the form of United not less than two narrow pontoons spaced apart across the width and provided with a top transversely arranged parallel to each other flyovers along each bottom rack mounted coaxially brackets with supports under the shaft, the floats are located between the supports successively minimum end gap precluding jamming of the floats during their relative rotation, on the output ends of the shafts mounted a gear wheel connected directly with the drive gear on the input shaft or through increasing gear da with an opposite axial side surround ledge in the form of additional float, at this time, the generated volumetric weight of the ledge, the more (about 5 - 10%) torque created by the additional load, and the torque generated by buoyancy when immersed in water, one volume of the ledge, the more torque that is generated volumetric weight of the ledge, unbalanced effects on the float water and air flow and friction forces at the start of rotation of the float.

2. The wave power plant according to p. 1, wherein the output ends of adjacent shafts racks in pairs or more are interconnected by gear meshing with the installation of the common gearbox and generator, and floats on the connected shafts are arranged symmetrically.

3. The wave power plant according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the output ends of coaxially arranged shafts racks placed in one line are connected to each other and have a shared gear, gearbox, and generator.

4. The wave power plant according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the three-dimensional projection of floats made integral with the half by lengthening the circumference of the half.

5. The wave power plant according to PP.1 to 4, characterized in that the front on the move

 

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FIELD: wave-energy-to-electric-power conversion.

SUBSTANCE: proposed wave energy plant has supporting frame with vertical guides, float installed for vertical reciprocation that accommodates ratchet gears provided with coaxial central holes, shaft passed though these holes and fixed in supporting frame to laminar screw section whose top and bottom parts are twisted in opposition and contact ratchet gears disposed in cylindrical casing with through holes; it also has electric generator. Float is mounted for displacement along vertical guides and has inertial member disposed inside for rotation and displacement together with float; inertial member contacts inner surface of float casing through rollers. Cylindrical casing is joined with inertial member; electric generator is disposed within supporting frame and kinematically coupled through extensible joint between inertial member and drum installed for joint rotation with the latter and with gear transmission.

EFFECT: enhanced power output of wave energy plant generator.

1 cl, 1 dwg

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