The method of controlling incandescent
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to electrical engineering, mainly to the management of public lighting in residential buildings. The technical result of the invention is to improve reliability of the system of public lighting and reduce energy costs. Implement a way to control incandescent lamps by continuously monitoring sensor current load on the electrical input and when the load changes among consumers with respect to the threshold switch contacts connects to the taps of the autotransformer incandescent lamp that provides low voltage power to the lamps within 3-15% or 25-60% from the nominal value. 2 Il. The method relates to electrical engineering and mainly to the management of public lighting in residential buildings.The known method include incandescent lamps in which the lamp is initially apply the voltage pulse heating of limited amplitude, and then after a period of time not exceeding twenty-fold duration values mentioned pulse at 0.5 and counts from the leading edge of this pulse serves working voltage, characterized in that the specified impul the Oia body glow with the direct inclusion of its resistance in the cold state up to half of the difference between the resistance in hot and cold States (1).This method provides a reduction of the dynamic impact on the filament at the time of filing the lamp operating voltage, which increases the service life of the lamp, but given that the operating voltage of the power supply network of houses varies widely, for example, at night when removing the maximum current load, the operating voltage in a residential home increased to 5 . . . 7%, and this dramatically, up to 50% reduces resource incandescent lamps are additional consumption, which limits the range of use of the known method (2).The technical result of the invention is to improve network reliability public lighting in residential buildings by automatically reducing the level of operating voltage is at night when the load changes on the electrical input power.The technical result is achieved in that in the method of controlling incandescent lamps in which the lamp serves voltage low amplitude constantly monitor current load on the electrical input of the dwelling house and when you change it from a specified value, depending on the time of day, served on incandescent lamps public lighting, the voltage in point is the implementation of the proposed control method bulbs.Device to implement the method contain sensor 1 control current load on the electric power input 2, power electrical consumers 3 and the transformer 4. The output of the sensor 1 is connected to the switch 5, the contacts 6 which include incandescent lamps 7 supply voltage.Device for option I is as follows.On the incandescent lamp 7 through the tap of the autotransformer 4 serves voltage within 3 ... 15% less work and at lower current loads among consumers 3 at night, which is controlled by the sensor 1 on input 2, the electrical signal from the sensor 1 is fed to the input of the switch 5 and the achievement of the signal below a preset level, the switch 4 switches the lamp 7 to another tap of the autotransformer 4 and the lamp 7 serves voltage in the range from 25 to 60% below working.Device for option II is as follows.Incandescent lamp 7 is connected by a pin 6 to the network voltage and reduced current load among consumers 3 below a predetermined threshold, the switch 5 according to the control signal from the transmitter 1 connect the lamp 7 to the tap of the autotransformer 4 for low supply voltage, while the voltage taps the first load on the electrical input of consumers in a residential house allows the control signal at night to serve low voltage power incandescent lamps public lighting in residential house, for example, lighting of staircases, which provides a significant reduction in consumption of electricity more than doubled, while the resource incandescent increases more than 10 times.Economic analysis of the proposed control method incandescent showed that in one five-storey residential building annual economic effect amounts to 800 thousand rubles The method of controlling incandescent lamps with incandescent lamp serves voltage of reduced amplitude, characterized in that the control constantly current load on the electrical input of the dwelling house and when you change it from a specified value, depending on the time of day, served on incandescent lamps public lighting voltage in the range of 3 - 15% or 25% to 60% below working.
FIELD: devices for automatic impact on electrical networks.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device incorporates voltage converter in the form of instrument transformer mounted on step-by-step regulated transformer. Instrument transformer records actual value of regulated voltage and transfers it through single electrical measurement line to electric drive; the latter is provided with means for comparing this actual value with desired one and for generating executive instruction depending on comparison results. Invention specification also includes description of adequately equipped electric drive with additional control unit that starts electric motor whenever necessary in required sense of rotation which, in its turn, actuates transformer step selector switch on step-by-step voltage regulation transformer thereby regulating supply mains control voltage.
EFFECT: reduced space requirement due to disposition of all parts directly on transformer and integration of electric drive and voltage regulator.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: application: in complex closed alternating-current mains. The device contains two power transformers, rectifier, condenser, first and second inverters, first and second control units. Also first and second measuring voltage transformers, measuring current transformer, voltage measuring unit, unit for measuring power transmitted via line, logic unit are introduced.
EFFECT: providing simultaneous regulation of transmitted power and voltage while device is simplified due to using one rectifier.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and can be used at railroad traction substation. In compliance with the proposed method, and transformer secondary phase voltage oscillations are measured at a time to determine substation input resistance. Resultant magnitude is averaged for preselected time interval. Obtained is compared with calculated magnitude of traction substation input resistance Xn in terms of parametres of the substation capacitor bank controlled and uncontrolled section resistances. At smaller than 0.9 of Xno, where Xno=Xru(Xru+2Xrc)/2(Xru+Xrc), Xru is the resistance of capacitor bank uncontrolled section and Xrc is the resistance of capacitor bank controlled section, controlled section is switched on. At exceeding 1.1 of Xno, controlled section is switched off.
EFFECT: track circuit voltage stabilisation.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with this method, frequency and voltage phase are measured at buses of first electric power system and measured magnitudes are fed to second and third inputs of inner control system of first voltage converter incorporated with DC insert. Frequency and voltage phase are measured at buses of second electric power system and measured magnitudes are fed to second and third inputs of inner control system of second voltage converter incorporated with DC insert. In case first or second section of intersystem power transmission fails, DC insert power controller is cut off. Insert rectified voltage regulator output is connected to first input of inner control system of voltage converter still maintaining communication with first or second power system. Zero signal is fed to first input of inner control system of voltage converter that lost communication with first and second power systems.
EFFECT: application of controllability of intersystem power transfer insert connecting power system operated with different AC frequencies and made up of two sections with intermediate power take-off devices and shunting circuits to maintain power supply for consumers connected to intermediate point of intersystem power transmission with simultaneous limitation of power flow via shunting circuits.
SUBSTANCE: in addition, to the device there introduced are two units of independent voltage inverters on locked thyristors shunted with opposite connected diodes, and the third single-phase transformer; at that, primary winding of the third transformer is connected to retarding phase of traction transformer, the first outputs of alternating voltage of the first and the second independent voltage inverters are connected to the first output of secondary winding of the third transformer, and the second outputs of alternating voltage are connected through secondary windings of the first and the second phase-shifting transformers to the second output of secondary winding of the third transformer, and outputs of constant voltage of the first and the second independent voltage inverters are connected to the first and to the second units of capacitor banks.
EFFECT: improving technical-and-economic indices and quick operation of the device.
SUBSTANCE: method for power connection to consumer electric line consists in connection of supply in one of points: middle of the line; lying on section between its end closest to transformer and middle; lying on section between its middle and end farthest from transformer; giving minimum difference between voltages at the ends of all outgoing sections. Lines that outgo from the point of supply connection are arranged with wire of lower section.
EFFECT: levelling voltage at consumer terminals, alignment of closest and farthest voltages.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention includes traction substation, supply feeders of which are connected to sections of contact network separated by neutral insert with two insulating gaps. High-voltage switch with drive and position sensor are added, as well as sensors of electric stock location, unit of detection of a moment when switch is changed into a different position and unit of data accumulation and transfer.
EFFECT: improved reliability of equipment as a result of reduction of transition processes as electric stock moves passing by a neutral insert, connecting sections of contact network, and improved conditions of electric stock operation when passing by the neutral insert without disconnection of current and without reduction in speed of motion, better labour conditions for locomotive team due to elimination of labour-intensive and responsible operations executed when passing by the neutral insert.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the sphere of electrical engineering. Proposed device comprises the first current sensor, the first voltage sensor, the first - third reactor units, the first and second capacitor units, besides, the first-sixth units of analog-digital converter are introduced, the first - fifth units of Fourier conversion (FCU), unit of monitoring and visualisation control (MVC unit), frequency detector, the second, third and fourth current sensors, the second voltage sensor, unit of digital step-down conversion (DSC unit), amplitude-phase detector and filtration unit.
EFFECT: provision of parametric stabilisation of AC voltage without regard to nature of load, increased coefficient of stabilisation, increased range of stabilisation by inlet voltage, reduced voltage of distortion, increased accuracy of voltage stabilisation and compensation of reactive power, elimination of effect from power source voltage frequency at stabilisation of voltage and compensation of reactive power, provision of reactive power compensation with account of phase shift between the first harmonics of voltage and current, expansion of range of functional capabiltiies by provision of possibility to set various levels of stabilised output voltages depending on individual requirements of connected loads.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to device of automatic impact on electric power networks by means of power transformer with stepped voltage control, as well as provided with automatic control system of transformation coefficient of power transformer, which involves quick-acting automatic control (QAC) and control system allowing to perform operations with fuzzy logic and to control QAC operation. Designed structure, algorithmic provision and hardware implementation of microprocessor device of QAC of load tap change device by using the controller capable of implementing the mathematical apparatus of fuzzy logic implements automatic selection of determining line in real time mode, considering categoricity of power object as to damage caused by voltage deviation, heterogeneity and difference in time of load, its distribution along feed line, and allows implementing technical result - rational control law of voltage mode also supports this rational voltage mode meeting the requirements of GOST 13109-97.
EFFECT: device allows reducing total losses of electric energy in distribution networks, providing optimum voltage mode on the whole equipment connected to power transformer.
SUBSTANCE: an AC electric network is proposed, which comprises transformers at a transmitting and a receiving sides with two three-phase linear windings with neutral and phase outlets, two rings of six groups of serially connected controlled semiconductor valves, to common points between groups of which there are zero outputs of three-phase linear windings connected in a sequence of phases alternation, as well as disconnectors and wires of two power transmission lines, besides, it is additionally equipped at each of the sides with transformers having two three-phase linear windings connected as star/delta and two power transmission lines, besides, phase outputs of each of three-phase linear windings of the transmitting side are connected via disconnectors and wires of power transmission lines with identical phase outputs of various three-phase linear windings of the receiving side.
EFFECT: elimination of network operation in semi-wave mode.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device additionally has force filter, consisting of throttle, connected serially to triac, and capacitor. Capacitor is connected to triac in parallel, and emission receiver contains serially connected receiver of radio pulses with antenna and pulse amplifier.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher quality.