The method of introduction of the clarifier and powdered clarifier in the form of particles

 

(57) Abstract:

Mixed semi-crystalline polyolefin powder clarifier, heat and stir the mixture to dissolve the clarifier in the melt resin. Dodge - acetal of sorbitol or xylitol. The invention allows to get rid of the "white spots" or bubbles in polyolefins. 2 C. and 21 C.p. f-crystals, 3 tab., 10 Il.

This invention relates to the field of processing of polyolefins and relates to a method of lightening a semicrystalline polyolefin and clarifier used in this way. According to the invention as used Dodge powder acetals xylitol or sorbitol.

The use of bleaching substances for reduction of turbidity particles of crystalline polyolefins are well known. Representatives of acetals of sorbitol and xylitol, which were used as brightening substances listed in the following U.S. patents:

- Hamada and others, U.S. patent N 4016118

Dibenzylidene-sorbite

- Kawai and others, U.S. patent N 4314039

Dialkylanilines-sorbite

- J. R. Mahaffy, U.S. patent N 4371645

Diacetate sorbitol having at least one chlorine or bromine - Deputy

Kobayashi and others, U.S. patent N 4532280

Di(methyl - or what but having at least one substituted group containing sulfur

Kbayashi and others, U.S. patent N 4954291

A mixture of diacetate sorbitol and xylitol obtained from a mixture of dimethyl or trimethyl-substituted benzaldehyde and unsubstituted benzaldehyde.

- Rekers, U.S. patent N 5049605

Bis(3,4-dialkylanilines)-sorbite, including deputies, forming a carbocyclic ring.

Additionally, the basic structure of bleaching chemicals used in the polypropylene described in the publication of the patent description Japan N 85-157213/26 (Mitsubishi Detroch K. K.) and N 88-130662/19 (Sumitomo Chem. K. K.).

Production brightening substances known from the above references from Murai and other U.S. patent N 3721682 and patent description GB N 2115405 A New Japan Chemical Comp.

I think that Dodge should take care to recrystallizations, forming a very thin mesh on the inside of the polyolefin. This crystalline grid provides the formation of active centers, which reduce the size of the spherulite formed in the polymer during cooling. Small spherulites scatter visible light is not as efficient as large, so the polyolefin with the amendment have increased transparency.

Transparent polypropylene p is as antioxidants, the acid acceptors and grease, and then ekstragiruyut mixture at a temperature of about the melting point of bleaching substances.

A more popular method of obtaining a transparent polyolefin includes pre-mixing of all or some of the additives with part of the main polymer with obtaining powder masterbatches. Uterine mixture is metered into the extruder with the addition of the basic polymer, which eliminates the need for large mixers. When the extrusion is usually formed small granules.

Alternative itself uterine mixture can be extruded and granulated. These concentrates pellets can be mixed with the polyolefin, which ekstragiruyut without additives to obtain a product having the desired concentration of bleaching substances, usually from 0.01 to 2 or 3 wt.%.

There are a number of difficulties associated with the use of sorbitol or xylitol acetylenic brightening substances in polyolefins. One of the big problems is the formation of "white spots" or bubbles in the production process of the resin. Small bubbles formed in injectioni molded products, considered to be a great defect. Therefore, several techniques have been developed to clear it.

One approach, ageneral or fatty aldehydes, the content of the sorbitol acetal transparent polyolefin. These additives reduce the number of bubbles observed in the produced batches, but do not resolve the problem. In addition, polar fatty additives leads to plaque on the surface or slowly migrate on the surface of the receiving parties and form a "wax" growths that are not removed.

The second approach used to solve bubbles containing sorbitol and xylitol acetal transparent polyolefin is melt polymer at the temperature for 3 to 10oC above the melting point of bleaching substances. Although this solution is workable, it has several significant negative aspects. Sorbitol-acetaline clarifiers are usually the melting point by 50 to 100oC higher than the polyolefin, in which they are inserted. Processing of the polyolefin at a temperature above the melting temperature of the clarifier may cause discoloration and the formation of odors in plastic. It is also difficult to control the temperature in a large production extruder, so usually at the beginning of the process turns out defective products. Sorbitol - and xylitol-acetaline brighteners tend to boiling or sublimation at a temperature of about dots is consequently.

The third approach used to remove bubbles or "fish eyes" in the containing sorbitol acetals transparent polyolefins, was described in U.S. patent N 4954291 Kobayashi and others (especially columns 1, 2, 3, 4). This method involves the use of a mixture of diacetate sorbitol formed from a mixture of benzaldehyde and di - or trimethylamine benzaldehyde. The composition has a relatively low melting point, however, can be processed at a temperature above its melting point to avoid bubbles. However, the composition has a relatively poor degree of lightening compared to diacetylene sorbitol derived from alkyl substituted benzaldehydes.

The invention largely solves the problem of "white spots" or bubbles in a transparent polyolefin. The exact mechanism of bubble formation and the role of polar fatty additives that they play to remove bubbles, not fully understood.

In addition to diazelam sorbitol and xylitol with some success as substances forming the centers of crystallization of the polyolefin, were used salts of aromatic carboxylic acids, such as sodium benzoate.

Unlike acetals, which are introduced into the mixture at temperatures above their point Se 300oC is not melted during processing and will decompose before melting. Further, it was found that sodium benzoate is not soluble and is not mixed with polyolefins. Therefore, the use of sodium benzoate as a nucleating agent depends on its dispersion in the polymer melt, which should be as large as possible: in the area from 1 to 10 microns. "Plastic Additives Handbook", Gachter, et al., editor Hauser Publishers, Munich, Germany, p.p. 671-683 (1985) and Bunsbergen; "Heterogeneous Nucleation in the Crystallization of Polyolefins (1)" Polymer 11, p.p. 253-267 (1970).

Obviously, the crystallization effect of diacetals sorbitol or xylitol appears, mainly, regardless of their physical characteristics to their processing, they need to be dispersed and recrystallized in the polyolefin.

The present invention relates to the use of sorbitol - xylitol - acetaline clarifiers, which can be introduced into the polyolefin with the product without the "white spots" or bubbles, without the use of excessive temperature processing, which can cause discoloration and appearance odor.

Used according to the invention brightening substances diacetate sorbitol and xylitol have the General formula:

< / BR>
where p = 0 or 1

m and n = 0-3 independently

R SUB>1-6-alkylsulfate and 4 - or 5-membered alkyl group forming a carbocyclic ring with adjacent carbon atoms of the unsaturated original ring.

Especially interesting substances, where p = 1 and the value of R is selected from C1-4-alkyl, chlorine, bromine, thioether and 4-membered alkyl group forming a carbocyclic ring with adjacent carbon atoms of an unsaturated source ring. The specific examples of brighteners according to the invention include: dibenzylidene-sorbitol, di(parameterbindings)sorbitol, di(artomatic-benzylidene) sorbitol, di(artetelevisione) sorbitol, bis(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol, bis(5',6',7',8'-Tetra-hydro-2-naftalin) sorbitol, bis(trimethylaniline)-xylitol and bis(methylbenzylidene)-sorbitol.

In the scope of the present invention also includes compounds obtained by mixing aldehydes, including substituted and unsubstituted benzaldehyde, such as in Kobayashi and others, U.S. patent N 4532280 and Kobayshi and other U.S. patent N 4954291.

Diacetate used in the present invention, can be obtained by various known methods. In General, these processes involve the reaction of 1 mol D-arbitor or D-xylitol with 2 mol of aldehyde in the presence of an acid catalyst. Temperature is Legalov, used in the reaction.

Examples of suitable reaction media are cyclohexane or combination of cyclohexane and methanol. Water produced during the condensation is removed by distillation. Usually mixed reaction occurs several hours after which the reaction mixture is cooled, neutralized, filtered, washed, e.g. with water or alcohol, and then dried.

The above link provides additional details of the synthesis brightening substances. Of course, if desired, a mixture of benzaldehyde and/or substituted benzaldehydes can be introduced into the reaction mixture.

Diacetate sorbitol and xylitol obtained by the above methods, may contain impurities are by-products of monoacetal and triacetate. To remove these impurities when doing diacetate the polyolefin resin is not always necessary but may be desirable to do this, as cleaning can increase the transparency of the resin.

Cleaning diacetate can be performed, for example, removing impurities three-acetals by extraction with an appropriate non-polar solvent prior to filtration. When the removal of impurities, the product can be purified so that the number of diacetyl in the composition will be 9 the t-shredded using a mechanical grinding equipment with subsequent grinding in a finger or rod mill. The milled product is usually diffuse through the sieve equipment, removing a large fraction. The size of the sieve is typically 40-80 mesh for maximum size of between 176 and 420 microns. This definition of particle size is not very precise operation. Therefore, to determine the maximum particle size usually use the size that have 97% of particles from the total number of particles or d97. Sieves finer 80 mesh is not used, as they tend to stick together or be blocked very quickly. The ratio of rooms sit in sacks and particle size of the following.

US standard ASTME 11-61: sieve 40 mesh = 420 MK, US standard ASTME 11-61: sieve 80 mesh = 176 MK.

Advances in the solution to the above problem of the "white spots" or bubble shown by the following experiments.

Example 1. A small number of industrial batch Millad 3905/dibenzylidene-sorbitol/ obtained from Milliken Chemical, Spartanburg, South Carolina, USA, with d97250 μm and the average particle size of 84 microns, was dispersible in mineral oil and placed on a hot object table of the microscope. The sample was heated from room temperature at a rate of 10oC/min Observed the formation of bubbles on a separate particles at 223oC to melting frequent the e with magnification of 1000 times. In Fig. 1 micrograph of the product indicates that the individual particles are agglomerated in a very small fibers or "primary particles". The surface of the agglomerates seems to be sintered or melted. I believe that these sintered particles catch the gas or volatile liquids that are released when the particle becomes soft before melting. If this process occurs during the manufacturing operations, there are white spots or bubbles. Moreover, suppose that trapped gases inside the sintered particles cause their isolation and therefore interfere with efficient heat transfer, which is required under the rule and the dissolution of the clarifier in the polymer melt.

Surprisingly, the analysis of other industrial clarifiers sorbitol acetals, which included production of several different industries, showed that all these substances are agglomerated in a very small fibers or "primary" particles, the surface of which seems to be sintered.

Table 1 shows the number of figures, a brightening agent, trade name and manufacturer of industrial products.

It was proposed to grind the sample brightening substances described in example 1 (dibenzyline example 1, with d97250 μm and the average particle diameter of 84 μm was placed in a fluidized bed created by the counterflow jet apparatus - model number 100 Ah, manufactured by Micron Powder System. The apparatus was equipped with a deflection control type classifier. The sample was intensively sprayed and dispersed to obtain particles, characterized by d97less than 8 μm, and an average particle diameter of less than 4 μm measured by laser light scattering. These measurements were confirmed by microscopy analysis. Figure 8 is a micrograph of the crushed product with magnification of 1000 times. By reducing the size of the volumetric packing density of the powder sample also decreased with value (0.475) to 0,142 g/cm3.

Example 3. A small amount of ultra-thin dibenzyl-sorbitol brightening substances, which are the product of example 2, was dispersible in white mineral oil and heated with velocity 101oC/min to warm the stage of the microscope. Ultrafine particle dibenzyl-sorbitol "disappeared" at 170oC without the formation of bubbles. In significant contrast to the agglomerated sintered material which must be heated to 223-228oC before it gives off gas and ZAT is found substance in the molten polymer at temperatures even below the melting point of bleaching substances. Given the viscosity of the polymer melt, it is not necessary to homogenize the distribution of brightening substances in the resin. However, the observed recrystallization brightening substances from the polymer melt after its dissolution.

In addition to reducing the size of the particles brightening substances in example 2, the substances listed in table. 1, were dispersed and scattered.

According to the results of the analysis of these crushed materials can be made of the following main conclusions: diacetyl sorbitol or colitis can be characterized as "filiform, crystalline primary particles having a length of 5-10 μm and a diameter of 0.3 to 0.7 μm. It was found that these primary particles and small agglomerates of these particles, consisting of several individual primary particles, does not show the tendency to capture gases, which leads to the formation of bubbles in a transparent polymer and insulation brightening substances during the process.

It was found necessary to apply the present invention are brightening substances in powder form, with d97< 30 μm and an average particle size less than 15 microns. Preferably, the bleaching substance had particles, karakteriserede particle size less than 6 microns.

Besides reducing the particle size of counterflow jet fluidized bed, there are other methods that can be used in the production of sorbitol-acetaline clarifiers with chopped green particles.

Spray drying in a fluidized bed is one of the possible methods. In normal commercial production using digital shredding, followed by air classification. The most complete review of shredding technology can be found in the following articles. Kukla "Understand Jour Size-Reduction Options Chemical Engineering Process, p.p. 23-25 (May 1991) and Hixon "Select An Effective Size-Reduction System", Chemical Engineering Process, p.p. 36-44 (May 1991).

After the jet spray may experience mechanical education or static adhesion of fiber-like particles that form "balls" or other vague Association. However, these associations are readily distinguishable on the analysis of particles from the sintered agglomerates formed during production by previously existing technologies for brightening substances.

The distribution of particles brightening substances described here, the size was measured using the technique of laser light scattering.

The sample powder was first dispersible in water using surface-AK is. The laser beam passes through the cell, causing scattering of light associated with the distribution of particle sizes. The scattered light is collected in the photodiode and is converted into a histogram or distribution of sizes. Fiber material, which is mechanically stuck, usually raslablyaetsya and easily dispersed by this method.

In General, the results of laser light scattering are in good agreement with the results obtained by microscopic analysis. The presence of vague associations and geometric effects may cause an error in the microscopic analysis, therefore, believe that laser methods are more accurate.

Polyolefine polymers may include aliphatic polyolefins and copolymers obtained from at least one aliphatic olefin and one or more ethylene-unsaturated co monomer. Basically comonomers, if present, are in a small amount, i.e. about 10% or less or even about 5% or less by weight of the polyolefin. Such comonomers may serve to improve the transparency of the polyolefin or be due to other properties of the polymer. Samples include acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itapira, vinyl acetate, etc.

Samples olef what Karami and copolymers of aliphatic monoolefins, containing 2-6 carbon atoms having an average molecular weight 10000-2000000, mainly 30000-300000, such as polyethylene, polyethylene linear low density, polypropylene, crystalline ethylene/propylene copolymer (random or block), poly(1-butene) and polymethylpentene.

The polyolefins of the present invention can be described as semi-crystalline, linear, regular polymers, which can optionally contain side chains that found in conventional low density polyethylene.

Other polymers which can be used fine particles of bleaching substances of the present invention are polyethylene terephthalate, glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate, polybutylene terephthalate and polyamides.

Other additives can also be used in the compositions of the present invention, if only they will not degrade the properties. Their is even advantageous to pre-mix with brightening agent. Such additives are well known to specialists in this field and include plasticizers, lubricants, catalytic converters; antioxidants, light stabilizers, dyes, and other substances that form the centers of crystallization, and so aesthetic properties, relief production and increase its stability.

The amount of brightening substances that are added to the polyolefins may vary within wide limits depending on whether or not the composition is used as a concentrate.

For use in castings take from 0.01 to 3.0 parts brightening substances per 100 parts of resin, preferably of 0.05 to 2.0 parts clarifier by 10.0 parts of resin. When the amount less than 0.01 part, the characteristics of the transparent resin can be good enough, if more than 3 parts, there is a slight improvement in the transparency of the resin.

It is possible to use concentrates 100 parts brightening substance to 100 parts of the polyolefin resin.

In industry usually used concentrates containing less than 33 part brightening substances, most preferably less than 15 parts brightening substances per 100 parts of resin.

The method according to the present invention is almost close to the industrial production of the mixture of bleaching substances and polyolefins. The term "mixture" is commonly used to describe the process of dispersion brightening substances in the polymer when the polymer is molten with necessary additives, including brightening substances, and extruded. The polymer typically is extruded a second time at the end of the process of obtaining final particles, for example by injection casting, extrusion casting-blown, injection casting, blowing, extrusion casting blowing, casting under pressure, rotational casting, profile extrusion, extrusion of sheets, thermal molding, film extrusion and film extrusion with orientation.

Regardless of how many times a mixture of resin and brightening substances were extrudible or mixed in some other way in the straightened condition, it is important to lightening substance was distributed in the polymer melt. In many cases, the dissolution will be accompanied by melting brightening substances, distributed in the polymer melt. However, the advantage of this method is that the brightening substance can be dissolved in the polymer melt, even without reaching the melting point of the brightening agent.

In industry, the mixing occurs in a single screw or twin screw extruder or mixer, Farrel. The extrusion conditions are changed depending on the polyolefin particles. Usually linear polyethylene nistory are more likely to melt or the temperature of the raw material, i.e., the temperature of the polymer, than the temperature of the barrel of the extruder. It should be noted that when using a pre-prepared brightening substances, the process temperature raise 3-6oC above the melting temperature of bleaching substances.

Unlike industrial products, which are not subjected to preliminary grinding, leaving the substance of the present invention are dissolved in the polyolefin at a temperature below 170oC. Therefore, brightening substances in this invention can be combined with the polymer at temperatures below the melting point of bleaching substance, which is a great advantage in comparison with earlier methods.

The following comparative examples illustrate the unexpected improvement that are possible in the claimed invention.

Example 4. Each of brightening substances described in table 1, was mixed with the additives and the main polymer - 4 ISF polypropylene in a paddle mixer in the following ratio: 2.5 g of a certain brightening substances, 0.8 g Irganox 1010, 0.8 g of calcium stearate, 1000 g of 4 MFS polypropylene.

The mixture was extrudible through odnogolosy single-screw extruder, in relation to the minimum temperature, necessary in order to avoid the formation of bubbles.

The initial temperature was 200oC and it increased to 5oC in each subsequent period of time interacting particles, if detected the formation of bubbles.

For the analysis of bubbles formed granules were investigated injection casting of these plates 2" 3" 0,05"if 210oC 40-ton injection-casting machine. Plates were analyzed visually for the presence of bubbles.

The experiment was repeated after the jet spray of each of the above brightening substances in ultra-thin powder before mixing them with sadamakai and resin.

The results are presented in table. 2.

Industrial materials had dimensions d97= 180-420 μm and the average particle size 28-120 μm. In all cases, the melting point of brightening substances should be raised on 3-7oC of the extruder, in order to avoid the formation of bubbles during the injection molding of the particles.

Ultra-thin clarifiers had d974-20 μm and the average particle diameter of 2 to 9 μm. In each case ultra brightening substance could be connected with polypropylene at a minimum temperature of 200

Only a few primary particles ultra brightening substances with a reduced size of the agglomerated particles. This ultra brightening substance has the ability to mix at lower temperatures, they need less heat when loading, the reaction goes faster, which is important for the extrusion.

The method according to the present invention has the advantage that it does not require the use of fatty acids and helps to avoid related problems in a transparent resin.

A significant advantage of the process at a lower temperature is no discoloration of resins, sublimation and removal of coatings and in the absence of deviations from the set value of the temperature of extrusion, which adversely affect the consistency of tar and hampered granulation.

The present invention is favorable for diacetate sorbitol and xylitol obtained with substituted benzaldehyde, which have a relatively high melting point, i.e., melting point 250oC and above, and therefore, it is very difficult to enter into the polyolefin is CLASS="ptx2">

There is, of course, many other additives and modifiers that are covered by the scope of the present invention and indicated in the claims.

The applicant has been tested at a pilot plant to confirm theory that commercially available dibenzylidene of Milled (MILLAD) 3905 from Milliken chemical under the compounding below the melting temperature of the clarifier, can give the bubbles in the finished product; and that the same dibenzylidene being milled in a jet mill before compounding below its melting point, will dissolve in the resin and will not give bubbles in the finished products.

Experiment

The additive was mixed on a bench setup with agitator belt screw blade at a nominal 12 MFR Amoco RCP. Each composition was compoundable in the melt on a single screw extruder 3,81 cm with the ratio of length/diameter 24:1. In the extrusion head used wire seal 20 mesh (850 microns) to ensure minimal filtering. The melting temperature in the extruder was maintained at 213-215oC.

The composition was evaluated on the quality of the dispersion, turbidity and color to send in Shelby plastics (Ohio) for injection molding of molded which the objects of study were 450-ton van Dorn.

Double chamber shape provided 10 "servin Saver" container with cap. In the test used, the temperature of the raw material 222oC.

In table. 3 shows the composition of the tested compositions.

Note: the Average value was calculated at least 10 products.

From the experiment we can draw the following conclusions:

1. Composition containing commercial Milled (Millad) 3905 with d97=250 units, gives the bubbles at the edges of parts molded by injection molding.

2. Compositions containing primary particles of Millad 3905 with d97=12 units, do not give bubbles at the edges of parts molded by injection molding.

3. Glycerol monostearate and oleamide have little effect, but the data of the applicant in this work are not final.

4. Agglomerates of Millad 3905 give gas bubbles during melting. These gas bubbles get into the details, molded by injection molding, because machines for casting under pressure intended for polyolefins, are single-stage, non-vented screw extruder.

1. The method of introduction of the clarifier selected from the group acetals of sorbitol or xylitol, semi-crystalline polyolefin resin, otlichalis the early group acetals of sorbitol or xylitol, the General formula

< / BR>
where p = 0 or 1;

m and n = 0 to 3, independently from each other;

R independently from each other - C1-C8-alkyl, C1-C4-alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen, C1-C6-alkylthio, C1-C6-alkylsulfate or 4-5-membered alkyl group forming a carbocyclic ring with adjacent carbon atoms of unsaturated original ring

the clarifier is injected in the form of a powder having a diameter of 97% of particles of not more than 30 μm and an average particle diameter of not more than 15 microns, heating the mixture above the melting temperature of the resin and up to at least 170oC and less than the melting point of Dodge and stirring the mixture in which the resin is in the molten state, to dissolve the clarifier in the resin.

2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the clarifier is administered in an amount of 0.1 - 15 wt.h. on 100 wt.h. the polyolefin resin.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the clarifier is administered in an amount of 0.1 - 3 wt.h. at 100.0 wt.h. the polyolefin resin.

4. The method according to PP.1, 2 or 3, characterized in that use a clarifier with a diameter of 97% of particles of not more than 20 μm and a mean particle diameter of not more than 10 μm.

5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that use, or 5, characterized in that the used Dodge specified General formula, where p = 1 and R are selected from C1-C4-alkyl, chlorine, bromine, ester group and a 4-membered alkyl group forming a carbocyclic ring with adjacent carbon atoms of an unsaturated source ring.

7. The method according to PP.1 - 5 or 6, characterized in that the mixture is heated to at least 180oC.

8. The method according to PP.1 - 6 or 7, characterized in that use a clarifier having a melting point of at least 250oC.

9. The method according to PP.1 - 7 or 8, characterized in that use a clarifier having at least one substituted benzene ring.

10. The method according to PP.1 - 8 or 9, characterized in that the used Dodge specified General formula where R is selected from C1-C4-alkyl and 4-membered alkyl group forming a carbocyclic ring with adjacent atoms unsaturated original ring.

11. The method according to PP.1 - 9 or 10, characterized in that as a clarifier using bis(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene)sorbitol.

12. The method according to PP.1 - 9 or 10, characterized in that as a clarifier use bis(5', 6', 7', 8' - tetrahydro-2-naphthalide) sorbitol.

13. --- Alicebraga copolymer of ethylene with propylene.

14. The method according to PP.1 - 12 or 13, characterized in that the mixture is heated to 180 - 230oC.

15. Powder clarifier in the form of particles, which are compounds of General formula

< / BR>
where p = 0 or 1;

m and n = 0 to 3, independently from each other;

R independently from each other - C1-C8-alkyl, C1-C4-alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen, C1-C6-alkylthio, C1-C6-alkylsulfate and 4-to 5-membered alkyl group forming a carbocyclic ring with adjacent carbon atoms of an unsaturated source ring having a diameter of 97% of particles of not more than 30 μm and an average particle diameter of not more than 15 μm.

16. The clarifier under item 15, characterized in that it has a diameter of 97% of particles of not more than 20 μm and an average particle diameter of not more than 10 μm.

17. Dodge on PP.15 and 16, characterized in that it has a diameter of 97% of particles of not more than 10 μm and the average particle diameter of not more than 6 μm.

18. Dodge on PP.15, 16 or 17, characterized in that it has a melting point of at least 250oC.

19. Dodge on PP.15 to 17 or 18, wherein in said General formula is p = 1.

20. Dodge on PP.15 - 18, or 19, characterized in that it has at least one benzene-C4-alkyl or 4-membered alkyl group forming a carbocyclic ring with adjacent atoms unsaturated original ring.

22. Dodge on PP.15 - 20 or 21, characterized in that it is a bis-(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene)-sorbitol.

23. Dodge on PP.15-20 or 21, characterized in that it is a bis-(5', 6', 7', 8' - tetrahydro-2-naphthalide)sorbitol.

 

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