Installation for the treatment of drinking water

 

(57) Abstract:

Use: the unit is designed for water purification from heavy water, impurities and dissolved substances and gases with simultaneous giving it the properties of melt water. Installation for the treatment of drinking water has two tanks that are installed one above the other, and a refrigerating unit comprising serially connected in the circulation loop, the evaporator, the compressor, the condenser and the regulatory authority, capacity communicated between a line containing a closing element, and the evaporator is placed between the vessels, while the upper part of the evaporator is made in the form of surface contact with the upper tank and the lower - body is included in the lower container. As a result of such arrangement and interconnection capacities between themselves and with the evaporator provides cooling of the contents of the upper and lower tanks with the same evaporator and, consequently, achieves compactness of the installation and its production in the form of Autonomous household device, and as an integral part of a home refrigerator. Installation allows you to get free from heavy water drinking water having the properties of melt water, p is purified ice or melt water without heating drinking water in the upper tank, and by immediate freezing of drinking water in the bottom of the vessel without prior processing at the top. This allows mode selection at the discretion of the consumer, depending on the quality of water consumed and destiny. The advantages of the proposed facility, along with its compactness, we can also include the possibility of substantial or complete automation of the workflow, greatly simplifies the process of obtaining the ice or melt water at home in case of implementation of the proposed installation will promote wider use of melt water and reduction of morbidity. 4 C. p. F.-ly, 2 Il.

The present invention relates to refrigeration, and is intended for purification of drinking water, including by freezing, with high biological value by giving it properties of melt water.

The need for purification of drinking tap water at home is called the increasing pollution of natural waters, insufficient quality of their clearance to centralized sewage treatment plants, as well as secondary pollution in water systems, many of which have defects or damage and from the point of view of production of melt water, which is the most valuable for everyday use and provide health benefits in the human body. Laboratory studies have shown that meltwater is different from ordinary primarily because of its similar structure to the molecular structure of ice. Such structure has the water associated with the cellular protoplasm of the organism. Water with an ordered structure is actively involved in bioenergetic processes of the cell. There is reason to believe that the melt water not only improves the physical resources of a living organism, but also prevents syneresis - the reduction of water content in the cells in old age. It is noticed that for 12 hours biological activity of sweetlou water is reduced by about half [see 1, pages 27-28 and 2, pages 264-272)]

A known method of obtaining melt water at home is to use a large refrigerator, through the freezer which moves all enameled pans: two in the freezer, the third thaws [see 2, page 268].

The disadvantages of this method are inefficient utilization of the volume of the freezer, the problems with storing food in case is not large enough volume morsels from the preparation of melt water in the home.

Known installation for the treatment of drinking water containing two tanks are installed one above the other, and a refrigerating unit comprising serially connected in the circulation loop, the evaporator, the compressor, the condenser and the governing body [see 3], providing meltwater.

The top capacity of such a facility (receiving tank) is connected to the water supply line in the installation, and the lower capacity (drive melt water) - in line with the diversion of water from the installation.

In addition, the installation includes the ice machine, which is a flat evaporator placed in insulated casing in the upper part of which has a horizontal partition with the formation of the gap clearance between its edges and the flat walls of the evaporator.

In the process, see installing the water from the upper tank (receiving tank) initially served in the pre-cooling heat exchanger, where its temperature is reduced to 5-6oC, and then into the cavity (stacking), formed by the inner surface of the upper part of the insulated casing and a horizontal partition. In this cavity water googledata to 1-2oC and then through the gap on the evaporator. Due to boiling of the refrigerant in the evaporator on its outer surface, is the frosting layer of ice unfrozen water flows into the lower part of the heat-insulated casing (stacking), where it is directed into the heat exchanger pre-cooling the water supplied to the upper part of the heat-insulated casing, and then discharged into the sewer.

After reaching the thickness of the ice layer from 2 to 10 mm (in the upper part of the evaporator ice thinner bottom thicker), slot gap between the horizontal wall and the outer flat surface of the evaporator is blocked by ice, that is grounds for termination of the water in the upper part of the insulated casing and turn off the cooling unit.

Due to the natural heat leakage through the walls of the insulated housing, and through a perforation made in the Central part of the casing, the ice is beginning to melt, washing with brine intergranular cavities and getting rid of micro inclusions salts. The first portion of meltwater components in the case of clean tap water for approximately 5-10% of the mass nevrogennogo ice discharged into the Sewerage system, and then transmitted to the lower storage tank, tal the stew, but also contains, compared to the source water, a smaller amount of heavy water (D2O) if the share bicrystalline water will not exceed 10% of the total weight of water, passed through a ice machine.

The main shortcoming of the above installation for purification of drinking water is relatively large share nezaprashivaemoy water is drained into the sewer. So, to achieve a significant reduction of the concentration of heavy water in samarajiva on the evaporator of the ice from the total number passing through the ice machine water must be turned into the ice of not more than 10 percent of the source water. When a larger proportion of the produced ice content of heavy water in it will get closer to the composition of the source water. Taking into account the need for additional discharge into the drains of the first portions of melt water, freezing water components of 5-10% by weight nevrogennogo ice, the total loss of drinking water will be from 90,5 to 91,0%. This means that to obtain one liter of potable water bucket of tap water to drain into the sewer. Given the high cost of tap water, which may increase with the introduction of more advanced technologies for purification centralized vodavi to clean drinking water is extremely wasteful and disadvantageous for economic reasons.

Another factor leading to an additional decrease in profitability given installation are loss of part of cold, cumulative in unfrozen water in the ice machine associated with neorickettsia in the heat exchanger for the transmission of cold from the unfrozen water is drained into the sewer to the water supplied to the ice machine. These losses will be greater, the greater the amount of unfrozen water will be discharged into the sewer.

Serious AWS installation are:

- the complexity of the installation associated with the presence of a special heat exchanger and a large number of communications, locking and regulating elements;

the relatively large dimensions. For example, to obtain 2 liters of potable water required length of the evaporator with a width of 20 cm must be at least 100 cm;

a significant duration of the working cycle the melt water in connection with the implementation of melting ice due to the natural heat gains and heat gains through a perforation in the center of the insulated casing;

- large quantities of exhaust unfrozen water require installation connection to the sewer that is not su is another shortcoming of the above setup is the lack of functionality degassing of the water and giving it properties of melt water without the use of the processes of freezing, that may be required for very fast giving the water structure of ice, which does not require additional purification, for example, using a spring or the Baikal water.

The present invention is to eliminate the above disadvantages, improving the quality of drinking water, the simplification and cheapening of receiving melt water of high purity in the home.

This object is achieved in that the apparatus for purification of drinking water containing two tanks are installed one above the other, and a refrigerating unit comprising serially connected in the circulation loop, the evaporator, the compressor, the condenser and the regulatory authority, capacity communicated between a line containing a closing element, and the evaporator is placed between the vessels, while the upper part of the evaporator is made in the form of surface contact with the upper tank and the bottom in the form of a body included in the lower container.

Owing to such arrangement and interconnection capacities between themselves and with the evaporator allows cooling of the upper and lower containers, which are the processes of cleaning and freezing of water, using a common evaporator that Obmennik, coils and some other elements, and on the other hand provides the actual junction of the upper and lower tanks to each other, leading to greater compactness of the installation (all working volumes are located directly behind each other).

Application of high-performance thermal insulation to external walls and the outer surface of the evaporator in the absence of perforated sections (proposed installation does not require them) allows you to create a well-insulated space of small volume with a relatively small external surface, which in turn reduces the loss of cold in the environment and increase efficiency.

The freezing of water in the proposed installation is carried out on the lower part of the evaporator, a member of the lower container. In contrast, known from [3], in which the freezing of water is produced from a moving fluid, in the proposed apparatus the water freezes out of the static fluid filling the lower container. In the process of cleaning water molecules crystallize in the evaporator, and harmful and unwanted substances are concentrated in the unfrozen water. After freezing the main part of the water found in n the her tank is discharged to the sewer.

Since drained the remains represent only a few percent of the total weight of the water received in the lower capacity, loss of water in the proposed apparatus, in comparison with the installation, known from [3], are negligible, which is the factor of increase of its efficiency.

As for the quality of cleaning, it depends on the speed of numerazione ice and the lower the speed, the purer ice [see 4, page 49]. The proposed setup allows for freezing of the water at any speed, while in the plant, known from [3], small freezing rate can lead to even more significant loss of water. This can be explained by the fact that the decrease in the surface temperature of the evaporator at a constant gap gap for water will increase the time numerazione on the evaporator desired amount of ice and, accordingly, the duration of the filing of the original water with a constant flow rate. Reduction of water consumption by lowering the surface temperature of the evaporator by reducing the gap clearance between the wall and the flat evaporator is limited, first, technological factors, and secondly, the possibility of clogging of the slits of ice and microti about -20oC that failure reduce water losses by reducing its consumption means achieving a reduction of water loss by increasing the speed of its numerazione. As already indicated with reference to [4], this means lower quality water purification.

The possibility of freezing the water in the proposed installation at any rate excludes the impact of the above factors and provides higher quality water treatment, in comparison with the known installation.

At the initial stage of operation, characterized by the fullness of the upper water tank and absence of water in the bottom of the vessel, the supply of liquid refrigerant to the evaporator provides cooling down, the bottom of the vessel and the cooling water in the upper tank (in principle, the evaporator may have regulatory authority, directing the initial phase of the refrigerant to the upper part of the evaporator and then to the bottom). After freezing on the walls of the upper capacity of a thin layer of ice with a high content of heavy water, freezing at a temperature of +3,8oC, unfrozen water from the upper tank by informing the line by opening the shut-off element is poured in the bottom for cooling circuit with pomoshyu in her water. However, a better solution is incomplete freezing of the water in which a small residual, saturated, harmful and unwanted substances through the drain hole are removed in the sewage system.

Get to the bottom of the vessel, the ice can be left there until complete melting due to the natural heat gains, for example, at night so by morning it was ready fresh melt water, which is then drained, and the installation is placed into the ready state to the preparation of a new portion of melt water.

At the same time the refrigeration unit of the proposed facility for the treatment of drinking water may be equipped with a throttle with a variable throat section or bypass line with a shut-off element, connecting the input of the inductor with its output, which allows you to disable throttling (if adjustable throttle - by increasing its bore, the presence of the bypass line by opening the shut-off element) and use refrigerant circuit to supply to the evaporator of the refrigerating agent with positive temperature. Flow in the evaporator warm refrigerant after numerazione on the bottom of the ice leads to podivanou ice adjacent to the surface will evaporate krasuetsa, and the bottom of the tank with a piece of ice, lost adhesion evaporator, detached from the line indicating the top of the tank, and is removed from the installation by moving down and to the side (e.g., itself), for transferring ice from the tank into a clean bowl and implementation of its thawing out of the setup. Then lower the tank back to the place and after connecting to the line, indicating its top capacity, throttle switches in the position of the minimum opening (if any bypass line is closed to shut-off element) and the install goes into the ready state to the preparation of the next portion of the ice or melt water. This mode improves the performance of the installation as compared with the unit, providing the melting of ice due to the natural heat gains without removing it from the installation.

In principle, the flow of warm refrigerant in the evaporator after the separation of a piece of ice from its bottom end can take up to complete melting of the ice, which creates a certain convenience in case you need to quickly get meltwater.

Flow in the evaporator warm refrigerant simultaneously with the heating of the lower part of the evaporator leads to obogrevateli layer of ice, enriched with heavy water, and then removed the drain.

A small amount of liquid, Radosavljevi in the bottom of the vessel and the resulting melt film of ice at the top of the tank, in the proposed setup allows to do without connecting it to the sewer, as pour out the remaining water for some time can accumulate in specially designed for this purpose, a small tank, periodically operatyvumo manually. This extends the potential application installation as it makes possible its use in areas not serviced by a sewer.

Another advantage of this setup is that the application of the principle of "above freezing", which provides accumulation nevynashivanii remaining water in the bottom part of the lower capacity is achieved ease of removing residual water from the plant and the almost complete automation of the process of obtaining melt water.

The run line, indicating the upper and lower tanks, removable, is designed to facilitate removal of the containers from the unit for cleaning and sanitizing, as well as to ensure, as has been shown above, t is the set filter in line water overflow from the top of the tank at the bottom is designed to remove fine openwork plates frozen heavy water, formed in the volume of cooling water [see 2, pp. 270-271]. Hold on the filter with small crystals of ice heavy water after thawing of the upper tank liquefy and flow into the sewer. This results in an additional improvement of the quality of water purification. The possibility of achieving a similar effect is confirmed by the materials of a patent [5].

Equipping the upper capacity of the proposed facility heater installed in its lower part, is intended to achieve the possibility of degassing of the water. Thanks to the heater the process of obtaining the ice can be made in the following sequence:

- top container filled with water;

- turns on the heater, and the temperature of the water in the upper tank is brought up to 94-96oC;

- turn off the heater, throttle refrigeration unit is placed into the position of maximum disclosure (if any bypass line is opened erected in her closing element) includes the compressor, and is fed into the evaporator refrigerant temperature? close to ambient temperature;

- due to the circulation of refrigerant with ambient temperature through the evaporator, proizvodid the position of the minimal disclosure (or blocked bypass line), as a result, the evaporator begins to receive liquid refrigerant with a negative temperature;

- due to the circulation through the evaporator liquid refrigerant with a low temperature at the top of the tank, the water is cooled prior to the formation on the inner walls of the upper capacity of a thin layer of ice, and the lower capacity zoologically;

- unfrozen water from the upper tank overflows at the bottom, in which she casamariuccia and then converted into melt water in accordance with the above technologies.

Along with the described process of obtaining meltwater offer installation produces the same biological properties of water in two ways:

- filling the bottom of the vessel with water and immediate freezing in the same capacity without pre-treatment water in the upper reservoir;

- processing of water in the upper tank, including heated to 94-96oC, fast cooling and overflow into the lower container, which also achieved by obtaining drinking water with the structure of melt water [see 2, pp. 270-271].

Thus, in the proposed setup allows purification of drinking water making it SEM) or a combination of all three methods at the same time.

The inclusion of the proposed installation in a household refrigerator is achieved by direct use of one of the parallel evaporators refrigeration unit household multi-chamber refrigerator as evaporator installation for purification of drinking water. Thus to avoid interference of operation of evaporators each other in front of their entrances are shut-off elements. As a result, in case you need to lower temperatures, for example, in the low temperature chamber of the refrigerator, the supply of refrigerant to the evaporator such a camera can be done by opening a gate at the entrance to her the evaporator, and the supply of the cooling agent in the installation for the treatment of drinking water, closing the gate at the entrance to the evaporator of this installation. After reaching in the low-temperature chamber the required level of cold flow of the cooling agent corresponding switching valve is re-directed in the installation for the treatment of drinking water (it is obvious that the priority in maintaining a low temperature chambers, where products are stored, compared with cleaning the water should be higher).

To explain the essence of the proposed t is one of the variants of the Autonomous execution of the proposed facility for the treatment of drinking water. In Fig. 2 presents the scheme of inclusion of this unit in the refrigeration unit is a household refrigerator.

Presented on Fig. 1 the apparatus consists of a compressor 1 with the actuator, a condenser 2, an adjustable throttle 3, the evaporator 4, is consistently included in the circulation loop formed by the line 5. On the upper surface of the evaporator 4 installed capacity 6 with the cover 7, to which is attached the pipe 8 water supply from the water. In the cover 7 is made a hole of small diameter to ensure the passage of air during the filling of the tank 6 water, and when it is emptying. In the pipe 8 includes a valve 9 and a filter 10, which provides protection against falling in the installation of mechanical particles and other contaminants. In principle, instead of the filter 10 can be installed in any of the mass-produced simple installations for the treatment of drinking water, such as domestic "Spring" that will make water treatment more complex and more complete. Also in the unit consists of:

- teploelektronagrevatel element 11 mounted in the lower part of the vessel 6;

- capacity 12, mounted on the bottom surface of the evaporator 4, is made in the form of a Central body, WMO is saysaysay through line 16, containing valve 17 through a passage made in the evaporator 4, with the inner volume of the vessel 12;

line 18 issue of clean water containing valve 19 is connected by means of line 20 through the valve 21 to the drain line 15.

The operation of such installation is possible in several modes and is as follows.

In the mode of purification, using all the possibilities of the installation, tap water through the filter 10 and the open valve 9 is supplied into the container 6 and fills it. After filling the container 6, the valve 9 closes and turns on teploelektronagrevatel element 11 to heat the water that is in the tank 6, to 94-96oC, decontamination and destruction of a number of bacteria and microorganisms present in water. Teploelektronagrevatel element 11 is turned off, the inductor 3 is placed into the position of maximum disclosure, which is included in the operation of the compressor 1 and line 5, after installed it the compressor 1, condenser 2, the reactor 3 and the evaporator 4 begins to circulate refrigerant. In the absence of clamping line 5 in the area of the throttle 3, the refrigerant passing through the orifice 3, will not change its pressure and thus will act in Ispra environment. The result is heated to a temperature of 94-96oC the water will be cooled, giving heat through the bottom of the container 6 cooling agent circulating through the evaporator 4, which by means of condenser 2 will be dissipated in the environment. After a decrease in water temperature in the tank 6, for example, to the value, at 15-20 degrees higher than the ambient temperature, throttle 3 when operating the compressor 1 is switched to the position of the minimum opening providing flow to the evaporator 4 liquid refrigerant with negative temperature. This will not only accelerate the cooling of the water in the tank 6, but will lead to the freezing of her heavy water, part of which is in the form of a thin layer of ice together with ordinary water will be deposited on the vessel wall 6, and the part will go into the microcrystals formed in the volume of cooling water. Upon reaching such a state of water in the upper tank 6 when closed, the valve 14 opens the valve 17 and the cold water from the tank 6 through the drain line 15, and the auxiliary line 16 is poured into cooled tank 12. Heavy water, Primorska to the vessel wall 6, of course will remain in the tank 6, and the microcrystals of heavy water, in a volume of liquid purified from heavy water drinking water which by the continued circulation through the evaporator 4 of the cooling agent will gradually vymorazhivanija on the Central body of the evaporator 4, is placed in the vessel 12.

When a piece of ice will occupy the main part of the tank 12, which may be determined, for example, a timer on the basis of experimental data, opens the valve 21 and the remaining water from the tank 12 containing harmful organic impurities, heavy metals, nitrates, nitrites, salts, etc. should be sent by the lines 18 and 20 when closed, the valve 19 to the drain line 15, which may be connected to the sewer or any drain capacitance. After draining the remaining water from the tank 12, the valve 21 is closed and the throttle 3 is translated to the maximum opening, which feeds into the evaporator 4, as has been shown above, the cooling agent with a temperature close to ambient temperature.

Circulation through the evaporator 4 warm refrigerant will podivanou layer of ice adjacent to the surface of the Central body of the evaporator 4 and the separation piece of ice from the evaporator. Next, the operation of the compressor 1, and accordingly, the circulation of the hot refrigerant through the evaporator 4 can be continued for aprotocol, what you may need, for example, in the case when the ice is prepared for the night, and the melt water will be used in the morning. In such cases, the melt of pure water is consumed from line 18, by opening the valve 19.

Another method of obtaining the melt water from the separated from the main body of the evaporator 4 pieces of ice may be separated from the container 12 line 18, made for example in the form of a quick-detachable rubber hose, and removing the containers 12 from the unit by its offset down and to the side (e.g., itself), then the contents of the tank 12 moves in clean containers for further melting of the ice, and the tank 12 is returned to the installation (connecting line 18), which enters the ready state to prepare a new piece of ice.

Flow into the evaporator 4 warm refrigerant simultaneously with a separate piece of ice from the main body of the evaporator 4 leads to thawing of the vessel wall 6 and the melting pending on them a thin layer of ice with a high content of heavy water. Obtained as a result of this melting liquid by opening the valve 14 from the tank 6 through line 15 is discharged into drainage and passing through the filter 13, ensures the melting of the detainees on it microcrystalline complete removal of heavy water in the tank 6 can apply a small amount of tap water for rinsing and washing section of the drain line, used for the overflow of water from the tank 6 into the container 12.

The second mode of operation, which may be used is shown in Fig. 1 installation, consists in filling the container 6 with water, heated to 94-96oC and then cooled down to numerazione on the vessel walls 6 of a thin layer of ice in accordance with the above-described technology. Next opens the valve 17 and the water from the tank 6 is poured into the container 12, with chilled heavy water remains on the vessel wall 6, and the ice crystals of heavy water are trapped on the filter 13. Acting in the capacity of 12 drinking water is not only degassed and purified from heavy water, but also structured in the same way as meltwater [see 2, pages 270 - 271]. If the water is filling the tank 6, is clean enough and for some reason its additional cleaning by the method of freezing is not required, then the water collected in the tank 12 after the overflow from the tank 6 may be directly used for drinking by opening valve 19 and its delivery from the tank 12 through line 18.

Optionally, the first and second modes can be effected without degassing of water, i.e. without the inclusion of the heater 11 and without heating in the education and giving it properties of melt water, which may be required if you use enough clean water, such as a key, or if necessary develop ice cold compresses or other purposes. For its implementation involves only the lower container 12, which after disconnecting line 18 must be removed from the installation, fill water to an acceptable level and to put back into the installation. Then depending on the destination of the resulting ice can be programmed the unit to complete the freezing of water or with partial discharge residue on line 18 through the open valve 19. The implementation of such freezing is performed by transferring the inductor 3 in the position of the minimum opening and activation of the compressor 1, leading to the circulation of the refrigerant through the cooling unit and the cooling of the evaporator 4 to subzero temperatures.

Presented on Fig. 2 installing a whole includes the above-described installation, denote the same elements which in Fig. 2 fully consistent with the notation adopted in Fig. 1. The only difference lies in the fact that in the installation shown in Fig. 1 orifice 3 is made adjustable (variable degree of disclosure), in vrna tube), applying warm refrigerant in the evaporator 4 instead of the throttle in the position of maximum disclosure, applied in the circuit of Fig. 1, is achieved by opening valve 22 installed in the bypass line 23.

In addition, in the installation shown in Fig. 2, enters the circulation loop formed by the compressor 1, condenser 2, the reactor 3 and the evaporator 24, 25, consistently included in line 26.

Also in this setting is enabled, the valves 27 and 28 that are designed to eliminate interference of the operation of the circuits formed by the lines 5 and 26.

The installation of water treatment is included in the household refrigerator, after closing the valve 28 and opening valve 27 is in the same modes as in the installation of Fig. 1 (with the above differences in terms of increasing the flow area of the circulation line in the area of location of the choke).

The operation of the refrigeration circuit containing a low-temperature evaporator 24 installed in the low temperature chamber of the refrigerator, and high-temperature evaporator 25 installed in the high temperature chamber is carried out after the closure of the valves 22, 27 and the valve opening 28 on the temperature chamber to the required temperature.

The only difference in the installation of drinking water treatment, included in a household refrigerator, standalone is the desirability of equipping it with automation equipment, providing priority to the operation of the refrigeration chambers before conducting the purification of drinking water.

In the presented embodiments of the proposed facility are the nodes and elements (compressor, condenser, reactors, evaporators, and so on) with known principles and is widely applied in practice by design, and therefore the ability of the proposed installation is not in doubt.

The application of the proposed installation for the treatment of drinking water due to the higher efficiency achieved by reducing losses and cold tap water, and also due to the possibility of almost complete automation will greatly simplify and reduce the cost of obtaining pure melt water in the domestic environment that will promote wider use of melt water, reduce morbidity, reduce the consumption of drugs, reduction of lost work time associated with absenteeism disease, and some other is the number of soft water", M.: Stroiizdat, 1994.

2. Andreev Y. A. the Three pillars of health. - M.: Physical culture and sport, 1991.

3. Patent USSR N 1808077, 1993, F 25 D 11/00.

4. Systemonly B. , Sofer M Water and ice ocean. Article in the journal "Science and life", N 8, 1980.

5. A. S. USSR N 1692945, 1991, C 02 F 1/22.

1. Installation for the treatment of drinking water containing two tanks are installed one above the other, and a refrigerating unit comprising serially connected in the circulation loop, the evaporator, the compressor, the condenser and the regulatory body, characterized in that capacity communicated between a line containing a closing element, and the evaporator is placed between the vessels, while the upper part of the evaporator is made in the form of surface contact with the upper tank and the bottom in the form of a body included in the lower container.

2. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the line indicating the upper and lower tanks are removable.

3. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the line indicating the top and bottom of the vessel, the filter is installed.

4. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the upper tank is provided with a heater.

5. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the cooling unit is made in view of the of sprites installation.

 

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